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discretion, but the payment of the said sum will have to be subject to the conditions proposed by the representative of the government, H. E. the General-in-Chief of this army. These conditions were agreed to be as follows, viz:
1. For the rebels in arms a draft for the sum of $100,000 will be handed to Señor Paterno, payable in Hongkong, as well as two cheques for $200,000 each, payable only on the condition of the agreement being fulfilled on the other part.
2. For the families of those who were not rebels in arms, or engaged in rebellion, but who likewise suffered the evils of war, the balance of the sum offered shall be paid in three installments, the last to be paid six months after the date on which the Te Deum shall be sung, assuming the peace to become an accomplished fact. Peace shall be held to be effectively concluded if, during the interval of these installment periods, no party of armed rebels, with recognized leader, shall exist, and if no secret society shall have been discovered as existing here or abroad with the proved object of conspiracy by those who benefit by these payments. The representative of the rebels, Don Pedro Al. ejandro Paterno, and the representative of the government, the Captain-General Don Fernando Primo de Rivera, agree to the above con
ENTRANCE TO FORT SAN FILIPA. ditions, in witness whereof each representative now signs four copies of the same tenor and effect, one being for the government, another for the archives of the Captain-Generalcy, and one copy each for the said representatives. *Done in Manila on the 15th of December, 1897.
Fernando Primo de Rivera,
Pedro A. Paterno.
MONEY PAID BY THE SPANISH TO THE INSURGENTS. Pursuant to this agreement certain sums were paid by the Spanish to the rebels. Aguinaldo and his party embarked for Hongkong on December 27, 1897, escorted by Spanish officers, and counseling submission to Spanish authority. The rebels delivered up their arms, the Spanish government sent home 7000 of its troops, and there was an interval of peace.
It is claimed on one hand, and has generally been believed in America, that in this transaction Aguinaldo and his leaders were bribed by the Spanish
*The original of the above document was read in public session of Congress in Madrid, on the 16th of June, 1898, by the Deputy Señor Muro.
government to desert their cause, and that as matters turned out they were guilty of the double infamy of accepting a bribe and refusing to “stay bought.”
On the other hand it is insisted by the friends of Aguinaldo that the money paid by the Spaniards was in no sense a personal matter, but constituted a trust fund, to be employed as circumstances might determine; if the pledges alleged to have been made by the Spanish in connection with the payment were kept, the money was to be distributed among those who had suffered loss by the rebellion; if otherwise it was to be used in a renewal of the revolutionary movement.
What the real intent was cannot now be known. There can be little doubt that the Spanish authorities believed that whatever the ostensible purpose for which the money was paid, it would in the end be retained by Auginaldo and his leaders, who would thereby be discredited and incapable of further mischief. Whether this would have been the case can now never be known, as the advent of the Americans made a complete change in the situation, opening as it did to the imagination of Aguinaldo, possibilities of which he could not have dreamed.
It is interesting to note in this connection what
General Francis V. NATIVE THEATER.
Greene, of the United States Army in the Philippines, thought of the bribery phase of the affair and of Aguinaldo. In his official report to the Secretary of War, dated August 30, 1898, he says:
“ Aguinaldo and his associates went to Hongkong and Singapore. A portion of the money, $400,000, was deposited in banks at Hongkong, and a lawsuit soon arose between Aguinaldo and one of his subordinate chiefs named Artacho, which is interesting on account of the very honorable position taken by Aguinaldo. Artacho sued for a division of the money among the insurgents according to rank. Aguinaldo claimed that the money was a trust fund, and was to remain on deposit until it was seen whether the Spaniards would carry out their promised reforms, and if they failed to do so, it was to be used to defray the expenses of a new insurrection. The suit was settled out of court by paying Artacho $5000. No steps have been taken to introduce the reforms. More than 2000 insurgents who had been deported to Fernando Po and other places are still in confinement, and Aguinaldo is now using the money to carry on the operations of the present insurrection."
General Whittier's statement shows that Aguinaldo even refused to take money for his personal expenses when asked to return to Manila by the American Consul at Singapore, Spencer Pratt, who offered him A SOLDIER HAS VARIED EXPERIENCES. money for that purpose. Did the Spanish government keep its pact? It is known before General Rivera left Manila in April, 1898, the chiefs in Hongkong had been paid $300,000. What further pacification they have received is not clear.
THE TRAGEDY OF THE CALLE DE CAMBA. It now became apparent that the government, believing that the rebellion was conquered, the forces scattered, the fortifications surrendered, and the rebels without arms, thought it could treat with impunity the rights of the people in utter disregard of its promises and pledges. The public mind was soon again in a ferment, and the agitation was becoming tense. At this time, March 25th, occurred what is known as the ". Tragedy of the Calle de Camba.” A large number of Viscayan sailors were assembled in one of the outskirts of Manila, and in a little carnival, were vehemently discussing the national wrongs. A passer-by informed the police; the civil guard attacked the place, and, without warning, shot down seventy of the Viscayans. Within nine days from this time an army of insurgents in Cebu, in the Viscayan group, 5000 strong, organized and took the city, except the fort, Government House, college and the foreigners' houses; the government places were kept in a state of siege. Reinforcements came from Manila and the rebels were driven from the city. At Labangan another great battle was fought, in which the rebel loss was reported at 1000.
In Luzon Island rebellion was again rife. In the provinces adjoining and north of Manila the looting and killing was like that of savages. A Spanish force of about 1000 men, under General Monet, was sent against the rebels; but still the violence and destruction was not abated. General Basilio Augustin now succeeded Rivera in command in the Philippines.
Upon the breaking out of war with this country the Spanish policy towards the natives was at once changed, and every effort made to attach them to the Spanish cause. Relying upon their attachment to the Catholic church, the strongest appeals were made to them by the church authorities. The following "allocution," issued by the archbishop of Madrid, may serve as an example of these documents which were strongly reinforced by the resident prelates and the press. It was sought to convince the Filipinos that a Protestant army was coming to devastate their homes and destroy their religious liberty.
ALLOCUTION BY THE ARCHBISHOP OF MADRID
“VERY BELOVED SONS:
The cursed hunger for gold and the unquenchable thirst for power have combined to tarnish that flag which the great Queen Isabella raised, by the hand of Columbus, in the West Indies. With justice trodden under foot, the voice of the Pope unheeded, and the interventions of the nations despised with arrogance, every road to the counsels of peace has been barred, and the horrors of war have become a necessity. Let heaven be witness that we are not the authors of this disaster, and let the responsibility before God be on that vain people whose dogma seems to be that money is the god of the world. . . . . There, ploughing the seas, go our soldiers and our sailors. Have no fear, let no one weep, unless, indeed, it be for fear of arriving too late for the fray. Go, braves, to fight with the blessing of the Fatherland. With you goes all Spain, from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, from Irun to Tarifa. With what envy do we contemplate you weighing anchor to leave our shores! Oh! why does juvenility, or decrepitude, or duty deprive us of the joy of taking part in your enterprise? But no! with you goes our Spanish heart. . . . . May the Immaculate Virgin, whose scapulary hangs around your necks and whose blessed image floats on your flags, protect you under her mantle in the moment of danger, deliver you from all evil, and shower blessings upon you! May Saint James, patron of Spain, and the martyr Nicodemus and Saint Telmo and Saint Raymond and the King Saint Ferdinand, go before you and ever march in the vanguard wherever you may go and make you invulnerable to the bullets of the enemy, so that you may return victorious to tread once more this noble soil and kiss the cheek of the weeping mother who bore you! . . . . We, who cannot go to take part in the battles, will hold and brandish the arms of prayer, like Moses, who prayed on the mountain whilst Joshua slew his ferocious enemies in the valley. . . . . God has triumph in His hand and will give it to whom He pleases. He gave it to Spain in Covadonga, in Las Navas, in El Salado, in the river of Seville, on the plain of Granada, and in a thousand battles which overflow the pages of history. Oh, Lord, give it us now! Let the nations see that against the right of might there is the might of right!
To all beloved sons, from our heart we have pleasure in sending you our pastoral benediction, in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Amen. Given in our palace in Madrid on the 23d of April, 1898. Jose MA,
Archbishop of Madrid-Alcalá."
AGUINALDO MEETS THE AMERICAN CONSUL-GENERAL.
At Hongkong, in the meantime, there had been established by Aguinaldo and his self-exiled followers, a junta known as the “Philippine Patriotic League.” In view of the alleged Spanish violation of the pact, it was seeking foreign help and recognition with the intent to again attack Spanish rule in the Philippines. The breaking out of the American war seemed to open a new prospect for the attainment of Philippine independence. Aguinaldo at once sought to open communication with the American representatives at Hongkong, who were of course ready to forward any enterprise directed against Spain. The manner in which this meeting was brought about, with a summary of the agreement alleged to have been made, is given as follows by John Foreman, F. R. G. S., an English author then in Hongkong:
“The Filipinos were now anxious to co-operate with the Americans in compelling the Spaniards to evacuate the archipelago. The American Consul in Hongkong, Mr. Wildman, accepted the honorary post of treasurer of the Patriotic League Fund. Emilio Aguinaldo and suite went to Singapore, where they found Mr. Howard W. Bray, an Englishman and old personal friend of mine, who had resided some years in the islands. Aguinaldo MAN WHO DIDN'T PAY RENT. and his party were obliged to travel incognito, because secret paid agents were on his track to endeavor to fetter his movements, and in
illegally employed to investigate the private acts of a Filipino. The editor of the Singapore Free Press and Mr. Bray had become acquainted. The editor introduced Mr. Bray to
the American Consul-General, Mr. Spencer Pratt, MAGELLAN'S MONUMENT.
and Mr. Bray presented Emilio Aguinaldo to the Consul-General. The midnight meeting of the above-named four persons took place at The Mansion,' River Valley Road, Singapore, on the 24th day of April, the day following the outbreak of American-Spanish hostilities. The original idea in making Aguinaldo and the Consul-General known to each other was to utilize Aguinaldo's services and prestige with the armed natives to control them and prevent reprisals when the American forces should appear before Manila. It was hoped that, in this way, the lives of many Spaniards in the islands would be spared. The result of this Singapore meeting was that a draft agreement between Consul-General Pratt and Emilio