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TRAIN CAPTURED FROM THE INSURGENTS AT BATTLE OF CALOOCAN.
and shows our photograph wagon going to the front.
THE REINFORCEMENT OF DEWEY.
HE news of the battle of Manila Bay came to the American
people like a thunder clap out of a clear sky. Few of our people knew that there was in the United States service an officer named George Dewey, and many, and possibly the majority, had no idea where Manila was situated, or that there had been a Spanish fleet there. The first that was known of any of these things was that a Commodore Dewey had destroyed the fleet, was holding the bay, and had called for soldiers to occupy the city. Certainly he should have
them. Whoever Commodore Dewey might be and wherever Manila might be could be determined later, but if there were an American like that afloat and calling for soldiers he should have what he wanted, and have it quick. On such distant service of indefinite duration it might possibly seem best to send regiments of the regular army, but regular troops were very scarce at that time, and the volunteer regiments then forming were anxious to go. San Francisco was the natural point of departure from the United States to the Philippines, but at the outbreak of the war the entire Pacific Coast had been almost denuded of regular troops, which had been hurried to Cuba, and the few volunteer regiments which formed the quota of the Pacific States were not yet in readiness. One regiment—the Fourteenth Infantry-remained on the coast, whose colonel, Thomas N. Anderson, was ordered to San Francisco, made brigadier-general of volunteers, and put in charge of the preliminary arrangements, pending the selection of the officer to command the expedition. Assignments of volunteer regiments, mostly from the Western States, were rapidly made, and such regular troops as were available were concentrated at San Francisco. The transportation and commissary service was organized as rapidly as possible, and every exertion made to get help to the victorious Commo dore-already made Admiral—at the earliest possible moment.
THE STRENGTH OF THE REINFORCEMENT DETERMINED.
At first a force of 5000 men was contemplated. This was very soon increased to 10,000, and when the command in the Philippines was offered to Major-General Wesley Merritt, second in command in the United States Army, his estimate of the number required was 20,000 men, of whom a large portion should be regulars. This number was finally agreed upon to comprise the expedition, of which number 471 officers and 10,432 enlisted men actually reached Manila before the capture of the city on August 13, 1899. At the end of this chapter will be found a complete statement of the forces despatched to the Philippines up to June 30, 1899, with dates of sailing and arrival.
GENERAL MERRITT ASSIGNED TO THE COMMAND. On May 20th, Major-General Elwell S. Otis, U. S. V., assumed command at San Francisco of “A11 United States troops now assembled and upon arrival of such troops as are to be assembled at this point for contemplated expeditionary purposes.” On May 21st, General T. N. Anderson, U. S. V., was assigned to the command of the First Expedition to the Philippine Islands. On May 29th, a locality in the “Bay District Track” was designated by order as · Camp Merritt.” On May 30th, Major-General Wesley Merritt, U. S. A.
assumed command of the expeditionary forces at San Francisco, and on the same day assigned General Otis to the command of Camp Merritt as an independent division for administrative purposes.
June 2d, General Otis assumed command of this division and put in force a strict camp discipline. On June 23d, General Merritt assumed command of the Eighth Army Corps, composed of forces comprising the Philippine Expedition, and on June 29th, General Otis assumed command at San Francisco of “All the
Philippine Islands' Expeditionary Forces in this locality, and, upon arrival, of all troops directed to the port for further expeditionary purposes.” On July 11th, Brigadier-General N. P. Miller, U.S. V., assumed command of all troops at Camp Merritt and the Presidio, including the so-called “Expeditionary Forces,” General Otis relinquishing command to serve in the Philippines.
LOADING HORSES OX TRANSPORT
DEPARTURE OF THE FIRST EXPEDITION.
Prior to the arrival of General Merritt at San Francisco in command, as noted, the First Philippine Expedition had sailed for the islands with General Anderson in command. General Anderson in speaking of conditions then, said: “I was ordered to Manila, when things were very unsettled, with a few regiments. I was hurried away with no explicit instructions. “Do the best you can’ were the orders I received."
The cruiser Charleston had preceded this expedition to Honolulu from which place it was to convoy the expedition to Manila. At Honolulu the expedition disembarked, where it was received with much enthusiasm by all classes, and most hospitably entertained. The expedition left Honolulu in good condition on the 15th, under convoy of the Charleston, Captain Glass being in command of the cruiser. On this date, while at sea, according to instructions, Captain Glass opened his sealed orders, and at once signaled General Anderson, then on board the Australia: “My instructions require me to capture the Spanish forts and vessels at the Island of Guam, en route to Manila. The transports will accompany this ship as only two or three days' delay will occur. This may be made public.
GLASS." THE CAPTURE OF GUAM.
Guam was reached June 20th, after an uneventful voyage. Soon after the battle the press of the country was filled with tales of the heroism of the capture of Guam, but it should be said no one in the command thought of it especially as an exploit. This may be said it was not known exactly in what the fortification consisted, the condition of the force, or the strength of the Spanish military occupation; and such precaution was taken as would be observed had they been of a formidable nature. In Guam there were two forts, St. Iago and Santa Cruz, and the ruins of an old fort called San Luis. The fort St. Iago was also at the time an old, unoccupied fort. The Charleston left the convoy so as to be unexposed to shells from the fort, and proceeded to the attack. She passed the old fort St. Iago in silence and moved up against fort Santa Cruz to shell the fort. There was no response and it was unoccupied. In all, the Charleston discharged thirteen shells at the fort, seven shells from the starboard three pound battery, and three from the port battery. The “battle” lasted four and a half minutes. By this time the Spanish settlement 'was aroused, and the captain of the port came aboard the Charleston and said he had recognized the salute but could not answer as he had no battery, but would try in the future to have one so salutations could be answered.
Authorities in Guam had no knowledge that a declaration of war had been made. Upon being apprised of this, they parleyed for delay, but were notified that they were prisoners of war; that the Governor and garrison must surrender and become prisoners. The garrison consisted of 108 men, 54 Spanish regulars and the balance natives (Chamorros.) The garrison surrendered its arms, the Chamorros being allowed to remain on the Island of Guam, which condition they gladly accepted. The regulars
CAMP EQUIPAGE. were, with the Governor and staff, taken aboard ship. After the necessary preparation the expedition set sail for Manila. There are a dozen and perhaps more of the Mariana or Ladrone Islands, Guam being the largest. The capital of the group is Agana. These islands were given the name Ladrone by the Spaniards because of the thieving propensities of the natives. In 1668, the name of Mariana was given them in honor of Maria Ana of Austria, the widow of Philip IV of Spain. The population of the group is estimated at 27,000; that of Guam 12,000; and Agana 4000. The soil is very productive and well adapted to the culture of all tropical plants. The harbor of San Luis d'Apra could easily be made a fine coaling station, being nearly in direct line between Honolulu and Manila, at which place the expedition arrived on June 30, 1898, and the reinforcement of Dewey had begun.
NAVAL REINFORCEMENTS. It is proper to state in this place that while, as had been demonstrated, the Admiral had a naval force quite sufficient to take care of any Spanish ships then in eastern waters, there was no heavy armed battle-ship in his fleet, and there was always a possibility of the despatch of heavy armed vessels from Spain by way of the Suez Canal, which later grew into a strong probability when Admiral Camara's fleet sailed for the east. It was also not impossible that complications might arise
with European powers having interests in the Philippines, and whose naval forces on the Asiatic station were far in excess of Dewey's. It was, therefore,
highly importWAITING FOR TENTS.
ant that his fleet should be promptly strengthened. The cruiser Charleston, as already stated, accompanied the first expedition, and the monitors Monterey and Monadnock, although intended for coast defense and not for long voyages, were made ready as soon as possible and despatched from San Francisco, the Monterey arriving safely at Manila on August 4th, and the Monadnock later. They would have been a few days too late to meet Camara's fleet had it continued its voyage from Suez and met no mishap, and it is said to have been Dewey's intention, had the Spanish fleet continued its course, to leave Manila Bay and cruise until his reinforcements were met, after which he would have returned for another battle for the possession of the bay. The necessity of this was prevented by Adıniral Camara's return to Spain. Upon the arrival of the monitors Admiral Dewey was equipped for any emergency, and the subsequent changes in his fleet did not affect the course of events, and do not fall within the scope of this narrative.
MORE REINFORCEMENTS ARRIVE. The troops of the second expedition, under command of Brigadier-General F. V. Greene, reached Manila on July 17th, and those of the third expedition, in