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command of Major-General Merritt, on July 25th. The fourth expedition, under Major-General Otis, reached Manila on August 21st, a few days after the fall of the city.
DIFFICULTIES OF RAPID MOBILIZATION.
To people not familiar with military operations the despatching of an army to the Philippines may seem a simple matter. There were plenty of men to go, and officers, more or less inexperienced, in superabundance. Apparently in the popular mind, there was nothing to hinder their going—but there were many things.
There were no modern guns, no smokeless powder, no suitable clothing, no commissary stores, no hospital equipment, and no ships. The organization of the supply and transport service took far more time than the organization of the troops, but while waiting for these essentials of warfare to be provided there was time for drill. A newly organized regiment is but one remove from a mob, and to unnecessarily lead such a force against a disciplined enemy is to invite disaster. Fortunately most of the volunteer regiments were largely composed of National Guardsmen, and had had valuable training, but real war is very different from a militia encampment in time of peace, and there was a large number of recruits who had received no training at all. The organization of the staff services seemed slow to the people, but in reality it was rapid, and such delay as there was was turned to good purpose in training the officers and men for service in the field. It is desirable that the public be better informed as to
LINED UP FOR DINNER. the details of the various services upon whose effective administration the success of campaigns so largely depends, and it is convenient, in connection with the movement of an army to the Philippines, to give some account of the transport service which accomplished it.
The energies of the government, at the beginning of the war, were directed toward the preparation for the invasion of Cuba, and in pursuit of this plan, officers and men were taken from all sections and mobilized at points accessible to the Eastern seaboard. When finally attention was given to the situation in the Philippines, it was found that a base must be established on the Pacific Coast, and San Francisco was made the place. From the fact that supplies had been diverted eastward to furnish and equip the army for Cuba, the difficulty of the work of furnishing and equipping this new army was largely augmented. To house, clothe and feed the troops was not the only factor. The men had to be disciplined and drilled, and then arose the problem of transportation. In this it was not only to secure suitable transports, but to determine how best to feed and furnish, not only for the long voyage, but for the needs of the new and untried climate.
THE TROOPS IN SAN FRANCISCO. Soon after the troops began to arrive from the different States at San Francisco, tbi: question of climate effects became serious. Men heretofore strong and vigorous were attacked with divers' ailments, mostly of a pulmonary nature, and
soon fatalities were alarmingly frequent. From May 23d to September 2d, inclusive, there were ninetyone deaths in the military hospitals in the city.
The first camp was located in the western outskirts of
the city, on a sandy piece of ROLL CALL.
ground, and fearing that the locality might contribute to the mortality, a new camp was established at the Presidio. Here, by choosing the locality least exposed to the ocean winds, and with every precaution of sanitation, the death rate decreased. With improved sanitary conditions came restored health, so that the army sent to the Philippines was in excellent condition. It should be borne in mind that, at this time, the government owned no transports on the Pacific Coast and they must be obtained, either by charter or purchase, and in every instance refitted and made suitable for transporting the troops. Already commerce on the Pacific had received such an impetus that ships were difficult to get, and for some time could only be had after threatened seizure by the government.
SUPPLY AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM ORGANIZED.
After much effort transportation was secured for the first expedition, and in time, by dint of great energy and perseverance, an excellent transport system was perfected. It grew with the requirements, and met emergencies. A table will be found at the end of this chapter which includes the transport service performed by this department, from the time of departure from San Francisco of the first expedition to June, 1899, showing the number of officers and men and organizations carried. Something of the magnitude of the supplies carried in connection with this transportation may be inferred when it is stated that, outside of clothing and other essential supplies, including tents, camp
SHIPFING HORSES TO MANILA. equipage and medical supplies, there accompanied each man in the expedition 400 rounds of ammunition and four months' rations, and as their stay prolonged beyond this time, their future supplies were to be subsequently added. The public eye seldom looks beyond the glamour of the battle-field to find merit in military life, but the exigencies of the staff services require equal ability and devotion, while yielding none of the glory, so dear to the soldier's heart. Up to the present tiine about 53,000 troops with their supplies have been forwarded to the Philippines and preparation is now well in hand to forward soon, and as required, about 30,000 more, besides the return of the volunteer troops from the islands.
THE TRANSPORT SYSTEM.
This work has been and now is under the direct supervision and management of Colonel Oscar F. Long, Quartermaster of the department. As indicative of the ability with which it has been managed, it should be mentioned that at no time has there been a lack of supplies in the Philippines for the troops, and these have been commended both for quantity and quality. Not a life has been lost
attributable to defects in the Quartermaster's Department and, with 3500 horses forwarded, the loss is less than that which occurred in their transit from the place of purchase to the place of shipment. It will not exceed two per cent. The business done exceeds five times the whole of the five great commercial lines from the city. Stevedoring costs about 15 cents a ton. Private firms pay from 23 to 30 cents for the same kind of service. It is thought that about $15,000,000 have been expended for supplies in the transport service at the port of San Francisco, and the total number of men employed in the various departments, including manufacturing, approximates 11,000. The expense is about 40 per cent of what it costs private companies. But one ship has had an accident worthy of noteand this occurred in a fog on the coast of Japan.
In the English transport system, each man is allowed a minimum of 70 cubic feet of air in his berth and a maximum of 77 cubic feet. In the system which Colonel Long supervises, every man is allowed a minimum of 80 cubic feet and
a maximum of 100 cubic feet. Take the Scandia as further illustration. In the Russian service she carried 2400 men. In our service she carries 1100. Colonel Long has had four commissioned assistants in this work, his staff being Captains N. P. Bachelder, John L. Barneson, C. G. Lyman and J. H. Humphreys.
The sub-joined table in a condensed form shows :
First—The cost of the transport service on this coast since the war began to July 1, 1899 ; second, the cost of charters; and third, the time not in transit.
COST OF TRANSPORT SERVICE.
Total cost of transport service ..........
600,000 200,000 150.000
75,000 60 000 88,268 50,000
40,000 443,550 $5,930,218
COST OF CHARTERS.
NAME OF VESSEL DATE OF CHARTER
DURATION OF CHARTER
COST City of Peking ....May 1, 1898, to Sept. 1... $1,500 per day, 123 days..............
............. $184,000 City of Sidney.... May 10 to August 30..... 1,500 per day, 112 days. ....
112,000 Australia ........... May 10 to August 29. .... 20,000 per month, 35 months .
72,000 Colon ............. May 27 to Sept. 7 ........ ... 750 per day, 104 days
78,000 China .......... May 27 to Sept. 22....... 1,500 per day, 119 days..
178,500 Zealandia ...... ... May 27............. 20,000 per month, 13 months.
260,000 Senator ........... June 8.............. 100 per day, 390 days,
390,000 Morgan City...... June 7 to Nov. 3. ........ 660 per day, 150 days..
99,000 Morgan City...... January, 1899...
550 estimated, 180 days.
90,000 City of Para (just rechartered) .... June 7 to Nov. 26.
1,000 per day, 172 days ......
172,000 Indiana ........... June 7, 1898............. 25,000 per month, 13 months.......... 325,000 Ohio .............. June 7, 1898............ 25,000 per month, 13 months.
325,000 Valencia .......... June 19. ..........
650 per day, 380 days..
247,000 Newport .........
1,000 per day, 379 days. ...
379,000 Peru ...............June 25 to Nov. 2........ 1,000 per day, 131 days. ....
131,000 City of Pueblo.... June 23 to June 2, 1899.. 900 per day, 345 days
310,500 Penisylvania ..... July 7..
25,000 per month, 12 months
300,000 Rio de Janeiro .... July 7 to October 22..... 1,000 per day, 108 days.
108,000 St. Paul........... July 19 to Nov. 1. ....... 1,000 per day, 105 days. .....
105,000 St. Paul............ Nov. 6 to June 12, 1899.. 700 per day, 219 days.....
153,300 Tacoma (sailing).. July 11, 1898, to July 3,
200 per day, 358 days. ......
71,600 Centenniai ....... February, 1899......... 500 per day, 150 clays....
75,000 Cleveland......... March, 1899, to June 24.. 300 per day, 116 days.....
34,800 Portland .......... March to May, 1899..... 300 per day, 74 days.......
22,200 Total cost of charters.......
City of Sidney.. May 25 June 30
May 25 June 30
June 15 July 17 China
June 15 July 16
June 15 July 17 Zealandia ...
Oct. 30 | Nov. 28
June 25 July 17 Senator ......
Oct. 17 Nov. 21 Morgan City. June 27 July 31
" Jan. 26 Mar. 2 City of Para ... June 27 July 31 Indiana ........ June 27 July 31 Ohio ...........
June 27 July 31 Valencia ....... June 25 July 31 Newport........ June 29 May 25 Peru ........
July 15 Aug. 21 City of Puebla.. July 15 Aug. 21 Pennsylvania . . July 19 Aug. 24 Rio de Janeiro.. July 27 Aug. 24 St. Paul ........ July 29 Aug. 31
1,000" 25,000“ 25,000
1.000 “ day
47,520 87,000 25,000 29,166 22,100 50,000 46,000 27,000 16,666 28,000 27,000
$738,951 It should be said in explanation of the last table that any delay in San Francisco was caused by the transports being refitted, refurnished and repaired, and often a little delay in waiting for cargo or the arrival of troops. Similar conditions may be considered as existing in Manila.
The following is a statement of the troops despatched to the Philippines up to September 15, 1899, with date of sailing and arrival:
FIRST EXPEDITION– 158 Officers and 2386 Men. Australia left San Francisco May 25, 1898, and arrived at Manila June 30, 1898, carrying the following officers and men: Brigadier-General Thomas M. Anderson, U. S. V.; Elmer W. Clark, 2d Lieut., 14th Inf., Aid-cle-Camp; Henry P. McCain, 1st Lieut., 14th Inf., AdjutantGeneral; Samuel R. Jones, U. S. V., Chief Quartermaster; Sydney A. Cloman, 1st Lieut., 15th Inf., Chief Commissary; Harlan E. McVay, Capt., Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A., Commissary Sergeant; 1st and 2 Battalions and Company C, 2d Oregon, 38 officers and 732 men, making a total of 44 officers and 733 men.
City of Sidney left San Francisco May 25, 1898, and arrived at Manila June 30, 1898, carrying the following officers and men: Companies F, I, and M, 3d Battalion, 2d Oregon Inf., L'. S. V.; detachment of Batteries A and D, California Volunteer Heavy Artillery ; band and Companies A, C, D, E and F, 14th Inf.; Hospital Corps; Commissary Sergeant, making a total of 22 officers and 674 men.
City of Peking left San Francisco May 25, 1898, and arrived at Manila June 30, 1898, carrying the following officers and men: 1st Regiment California Volunteer Inf, and Commissary Sergeant, making a total of 49 officers and 979 men.
SECOND EXPEDITION—158 Officers and 3404 Men. China left San Francisco June 15, 1898, and arrived at Manila July 17, 1898, carrying the following officers and men: Brigadier-General F. V. Greene, U. S. V.; W. G. Bates, Capt., Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. V., Adjutant-General; Frank S. Bourns, Maj., Chief Surgeon,