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COPYRIGHT 1899 BY

THE HICKS-JUDD COMPANY

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

PREFACE.

W HEN the idea of compiling an historical account of the operations of the American forces

in the Philippine Islands was conceived, the war clouds had nearly all disappeared from

the horizon, and all that remained were those caused by the prospect of trouble with the insurgents, which, however, were not supposed to be serious. It was expected that the volunteer regiments would be speedily replaced by regulars, who would only be needed for policing the islands.

It was intended, therefore, to give in this book an accurate description of the campaign, from Dewey's great victory to the return of the volunteers, and, in addition, a brief description of the islands. It was also proposed to publish special editions of the book for each of the volunteer regiments, which would contain, in addition to the foregoing, a detailed account of the experience of the regiments from date of mustering into service as volunteers to their return to the United States. In order to obtain this information, it was found necessary to go to Manila, and consequently on December 24, 1898, MR. KARI, IRVING Faust, to whom is due the credit of having conceived and carried into execution this work, sailed from San Francisco on the steamer Gaelic, bound for Manila via Hongkong, with plans and prospectus for compiling such a book.

Arriving at Manila on February 2, 1899, it soon became apparent that the plans must be changed. Dark foreboding clouds were hanging over the city, and for more than a month there had been ominous rumors of an outbreak of hostilities Two days later the expected happened, and the real campaign of the Eighth Army Corps commenced in dead earnest.

It at once became evident that there would be great deeds to be recorded on many fields, involving time and labor far exceeding that which had been anticipated and provided for. Mr. Faust at once set about organizing a competent staff of writers who would follow up the troops and be eye-witnesses to whatever happened. The data thus collected must be collated, condensed and arranged. Fortunately the volunteer regiments furnished abundant material for doing this most important work.

The commanding officer of each regiment was visited with the object of securing his cooperation in compiling an accurate account of the operations of his regiment. A man was found in each of these regiments competent to write the story, and the official records of the regiments were placed at his disposal. From first to last we enjoyed the hearty and effective co-operation of all the division, brigade, and regimental commanders, who placed at our command all facilities, records and information so far as military regulations would permit.

We were fortunate in securing the services of MR. PETER MACQUEEN, the Boston clergyman and journalist, who had come fresh from the battles about Santiago, where he had become associated in a non-official way with the famous “ Rough Riders,” among whom his conduct had been such as to win the distinction of being one of the two civilians to be decorated with the medal of the regiment, and formally adopted as one of its members. He had also rendered, during the Cuban campaign, important services to the government which were recognized when he came to Manila, by letters from the Secretary of War, which gave him ready access, for the purpose of obtaining information, to all commanding and other officers in the government service. Mr. MacQueen at once entered heartily into the spirit of the enterprise, and from the time of his joining the staff assumed the direct charge of the collection of official data from general, division and brigade headquarters.

As it was intended that the book should be profusely illustrated, photographers were employed to go with the different expeditions, and the many pictures secured of troops in action speak more plainly than words the danger and difficulties under which they were taken. The old Spanish galleries of Manila were ransacked for views of the interior of Luzon and beyond the lines occupied by our troops. A canvass was also made of the members of the different

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regiments who had cameras in the field, and some very fine views of troops in action were obtained in this way. The views which appear in this book are those selected from more than fifteen hundred photographs collected by our staff.

Maps of all the battlefields and movements of the expeditions are shown in the book. The maps were made by Mr. P. E. Lamar, C. E., the official map-maker of the Second Division, Eight Army Corps, who personally accompanied each expedition with a company of surveyors, and the maps made by him have been endorsed as officially correct by the commanding generals. These maps have been copyrighted by Mr. Lamar, who has published a large map, 64x16 inches, and permission has been secured at considerable expense to use the map in sections in this book,

We desire to acknowledge our great obligations to Adiniral Dewey and Lieutenant-Commander Colvocoresses of the Olympia, Major-Generals Lawton, MacArthur and Anderson and Brigadier-Generals King, Ovenshine, Hale, Wheaton, H. G. Otis, Hall, Funston, Summers and Smith for facilities, suggestions, and such information as military regulations permitted them to give. This history will be found accurate, so far as earnest zeal and industry on the part of those best informed can make it so. The narrative in the first chapter, describing the naval battle of Manila Bay, was written by Lieutenant-Commander G. P. Colvocoresses of the Olympia, an old schoolmate of Admiral Dewey. The other chapters were prepared in the office. from data collected as above stated in the field and from official records. While this method prevents a certain uniformity of expression and literary finish which would appear in the work of one writer, the fact that many thousands of the book have been sold in advance of publication makes it imperative to complete the work at the earliest possible date, consistent with accuracy, and it would be the work of at least two years for one person to digest the immense quantity of original data which we have collected, and prepare a narrative therefrom.

Special editions containing about one hundred pages additional matter giving a complete history of the regiment from date of muster-in to muster-out are published for sale in States which sent volunteer regiments to the Philippine Islands. Each of these editions contain the name, rank, postoffice address, and occupation of every man in the regiment; a list of killed and wounded ; all deaths, with date and cause; all discharges, promotions, etc. A certificate from the commanding officer of the regiment verifies the history as officially correct. Cuts of each company, the field and staff officers, band and hospital corps are shown. Many of these company pictures were taken in view of tlie enemy, while the regiment was entrenched, and in several cases the company was fired upon while being photographed.

THE HICKS-JUDD PUBLISHING COMPANY.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

33

.............

.......

.........

55

CHAPTER

PAGE.

I. The AMERICAN FLEET AT MANILA........

........ 1

The Battle of Manila Bay, 3; A Spanish Version of the Battle, 8; Disputed

Points, 10; The Actions of the German Fleet, 13; Impressions of Admiral

Dewey, 15.

II. EVENTS LEADING TO THE WAR WITH SPAIN......

17

The Cuban Atrocities, 17 ; Senator Proctor's Report, 18; The Destruction

of the Maine, 21 ; Report of the Court of Inquiry, 22; The President's

Message, 25; Further Official Acts, 27; Congress Recognizes the Indepen-

dence of Cuba, 29; War Declared Between the l'nited States and

Spain, 30.

III. * AFTER THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY...........

American Policy Undetermined, 33; Conditions Under Spanish Rule, 34;.

Society of the Katipunan, 35 ; Rebellion of 1896, 35 ; Aguinaldo Appears,

36; Changes in the Governor Generalship, 37 ; The “ Pact of Peace,” 38;

Money Paid by the Spanish to the Insurgents, 39; The Tragedy of the

Calle de Camba, 41; Allocution by the Archbishop of Madrid, 42;

Aguinaldo Meets the American Consul-General, 12; The Terms of an

Alleged Agreement, H; Proclamation of the Philippine Junta, 46;

Constitution Proclaimed by Aguinaldo, 19; Aguinaldo's Message to his

People, 52.

IV. THE REINFORCEMENT OF DEWEY ........

The Strength of the Reinforcement Determined, 55; General Merritt

Assigned to Command, 56; Departure of First Expedition, 50; The Capture

of Guam, 57; Naval Reinforcements, 58 ; More Reinforcements Arrive,

58; Difficulties of Rapid Mobilization, 59 ; The Troops in San Fran-

cisco, 60; Supply and Transportation System Organized, 60; The

Transport System, 61; Cost of Transport Service and Charters, 62 ;

Troops Sent to Manila, 63-70.

V. THE CAPTURE OF MANILA.......

............. 71.

The Fortifications of Manila, 71 ; The Spanish Dungeons, 72 ; The Gates,

Forts and Barricades, 72; The Spanish Block-houses, 73 ; Construction

of Spanish Trenches, 74 ; The Filipino Insurgents, 75 ; Filipinos not

to Share in the Attack, 76; Camp Dewey Established, 76 ; Position of

the American Troops, 77; Embarrassments of the American Com-

manders, 78; Misconduct of German Amiral, 78; Rumored Coming of

Camara's Fleet, 79; The Plan of Attack, 81 ; Organization of the

American Forces, 82 ; The Nature of the Ground, 82; Difficulties in

Landing Troops, 81; The Health of the Command, 84; Aguinaldo

Addresses the Powers, 85; Growing Antagonism between the Amer-

icans and Filipinos, 85 ; Work of Troops before Fall of Manila, 86 ;

Arrangements with Aguinaldo, 87; Americans Occupy Filipino
Trenches, 88; The Battle in the Rain, 89; Good Conduct of the
Volunteers, 93 ; The Americans Ready to Attack Manila, 94; The Fleet
Takes Position, 95; Efforts to Induce Surrender 95 ; Alleged Arrange-

ment for a Sham Battle, 96 ; The Fleet Begins the Attack, 96 ; General

Merritt Orders an Attack, 97; The Alleged Peaceful Program Miscarries,

98; The Fall of the City, 100 ; Articles of Capitulation, 101.

CHAPTER

PAGE

VI. FROM THE CAPTURE OF MANILA TO REVOLT OF THE FILIPINOS...........

03

Proclamation of General Merritt, 103; Filipinos in Control of the Country,

105; Complications with the Filipinos, 105; General Merritt Consults

Amiral Dewey, 107; The President Gives Instructions, 108 ; General
Merritt Reports on Aguinaldo, 108 ; Otis Succeeds Merritt, 109; The Fili-
pinos Ordered to Remove, 109; The Filipinos Evacuate, 110; The Mili-
tary Government, 111; The Filipinos Object to Cleanliness, 111; News
of the Coming Peace, 112; The Filipinos Accumulate Arms, 113 ; Sanitary
Regulations Enforced, 113; The Spanish Prison-Houses Opened, 11+; The
Fiscal Admi istration, 114; A Commission Appointed, 115 ; The Treaty
of Peace Signed, 115; The President Declares the United States Sovereign
in the Philippines, 117; Aguinaldo Replies to the President, 118; Military

Government in the Philippines, 120.

VII. THE REVOLT OF THE FILIPINOS ........

.......... 125

The Military Situation, 125 ; The Disposition of our Troops, 126; A Period

of Suspense, 127 ; Otis' Brigade of MacArthur's Division, 129; Hale's Bri-

gade of MacArthur's Division, 131; Operations South of Pasig River,

135; The Troops of the Provost Guard, 139; Operation of the Fleet, 140;

The Filipinos Plan a Massacre, 143; The Attempt to Loot Manila, 144 ;

Great Destruction of Property by Fire, 145 ; The Attempted Massacre

Fails, 145 ; The Insurrectos Ask a Conference, 147; Renewed Attacks on

the Water-Works, 147 ; Wheaton's Flying Colunin, 148 ; Reorganization

of Army Corps, 151; The Philippine Commission, 152.

VIII. The MARCH ON MALOLOS.............

Position of Opposing Armies, 155 ; Reorganization of MacArthur's Division,

156; The Nature of the Country, 156; No General Engagement, 157 ;

Operations of Hale's Brigade, 158; Operations of Otis' Brigade, 165 ;

Operations of Wheaton's Brigade, 169; The Gilmore Incident, 173.

IX. MACARTHUR'S MARCH ON SAN FERNANDO .................. .

.......... 175

Wheaton's Operations Along the Railroad, 175 ; Hale's Operations from

Malolos to Calumpit, 177 ; Operations of Wheaton's Brigade to Calumpit,

184; Hale's Brigade from Calumpit to San Fernando, 187; Operations of

Wheaton's Brigade, Calumpit to San Fernando, 192; General Funston

Succeeds General Wheaton, 193; Hall's Move on Morong, 194.

X. LAWTON'S LAKE EXPEDITION..

.........

............... 197

Object of the Expedition, 197 ; Detail for the Expedition, 198; The Com-

mand Begins the Move, 200; The Expedition Landed, 201 ; The Loss on

Both Sides, 202 ; The Work of the Gunboats, 202 ; Movements After the

Fight, 202; Heroism of the Wounded, 204 ; Return to Manila, 206.

XI. LAWTON'S NORTHERN EXPEDITION.........

Organization of the Command, 207; Purposes of the Expedition, 207 ;

Novaliches Occupied, 208 ; The Column Reaches San Jose, 210 ; Partial

Burning of Angat, 211; General Lawton Reports Progress, 212; Com-

munications Disturbed, 213 ; Gallant Behavior of Wm. H. Young, 214;

The Command Occupies San Rafael, 214 ; Young's Scouts Organized, 215;

San Rafael Captured Again, 215; The Column Reaches Baliuag, 216 ;

Natives Fed from Captured Stores ; 217; Maasim Occupied, 218; Large

Amounts of Stores Captured, 218 ; A Mythical Insurgent Army, 220 ; A

Civil Government Established at Baliuag, 220; A Concerted Movement

Planned, 222 ; Remarkable Gallantry of Young's Scouts, 223; Chief

Scout Young Mortally Wounded, 225; San Miguel Occupied, 225; Lieu-

tenant Thornton Succeeds Chief Scout Young, 227 ; Scout Harrington

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