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11. Doesn't the world look like a wreck?
Yes, but 'tis the wreck of a bursting seed.

-UNIDENTIFIED.
12. For hope is but the dream of those who wake.-
MATTHEW PRIOR.
13. Is ever happiness content,

Though joy be given its fullest scope?
Beyond every accomplishnient
Must be another Hope.

- JAMES T. WHITE. 14. For night is night, since God is God,

And night the day must win,
To doubt would be disloyalty,
To falter would be sin.

-TENNYSON. 15. The "hopes that lost in some far distant scene May be the true life, and this the dream.

-ADELAIDE A. PROCTOR. 16. God's in his heaven; all's well with the world. -ROBERT BROWNING.

17. Before men, even as behind, God is, and all is well.—WHITTIER.

18. For to travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive, and the true success is to labor.—UNIDENTIFIED. 19. Behind the cloud the starlight lurks;

Through showers the sunbeams fall;
For God, who loveth all His works,
Hath left His hopes with all.

—WHITTIER. 20. To overcome the present with a heart that looks beyond, is triumph.—LOWELL.

21. The voyage of the Mayflower was not across .the Atlantic, but across the centuries; not three months long, but still in progress.-UNIDENTIFIED.

22. Have hope! Though clouds environ round,

And gladness hides her face in scorn,
Put thou the shadow from thy brow;
No night but hath its morn.

-SCHILLER. 23. All that we have willed, or hoped, or dreamed

of good, shall exist, Not its semblance, but itself; no beauty, nor

good, nor power, Whose voice has gone forth, but each survives

for the melodist, When eternity confirms the conception of an

hour. The high that proved too high, the heroic for

earth too hard, The passion that left the ground to lose itself

in the sky, Are music sent up to God by the lover and

the bard; Enough that he heard it once; we shall hear it by and by.

-ROBERT BROWNING. 24.

To let the new life in, we know

Desire must ope the portal;
Perhaps the longing to be so,
Helps make the soul immortal.

-J. R. LOWELL. 25. Be your own palace, the world is your jail.J. R. LOWELL.

26. Where there is no hope, there can be no endeavor. -SAMUEL JOHNSON.

27. The Golden Age is not behind, but before us. -ST. SIMON.

XXXI. PATRIOTISM.

INTRODUCTION:

shown in Robinson Crusoe. Men seek the comIt is related that a native of one of the Asiatic panionship of their fellows, and like to dwell in Islands, carried away with the splendors of Paris, communities, where for their own preservation when he beheld a banana tree in the “Garden they require to have some one in authority. For of Plants," bathed it with tears, and seemed for convenience, in international intercourse the a moment to be transported to his own land. authority is lodged in one person, the President. The Ethiopian imagines that God made his sands Because the government is necessary for our and deserts, while only angels were employed in welfare, it is needful that all should be faithful forming the rest of the world. The Maltese, to the government and devoted to its welfare. isolated on a rock, distinguish their island by the Develop the word Patriotism. appellation of "The Flower of the World.” The Norwegians, proud of their rugged mountains,

DEFINITION: inscribe upon their rix-dollars, "Spirit, Loyalty,

Patriotism is love and devotion to one's country, Valor, and whatever is honorable, let the world

which prompts obedience and loyalty to its govern

ment. learn among the rocks of Norway.” The Esquimaux are no less attached to their frigid land,

INTERPRETATION: esteeming the luxuries of blubber oil for food, I. In addition to the duties to ourselves and and an ice cabin for habitation, above all the to our comrades, we owe duties to everybody refinements of other countries. Develop that about us, for the general welfare of the community this feeling is love of country. Out of this love ruled by the State. The duty of serving the whole for one's country comes a desire to serve one's community-this regard for the State-is called country:

patriotism. The hardships of living entirely by oneself are 2. The word patriotism comes from the Greek

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root, meaning, coming from our forefathers. Our cutting his name in public places. He simply patriotism grows out of our sense of gratitude to hands down his name as a vain, conceited person, the founders and preservers of the nation for what worthy of the blame of the entire community. they have done for us. From this naturally springs 9. The transgression of these duties may seem the desire to perpetuate the results and benefits trivial, if viewed singly, but if all neglect them, of their labors.

society and civilization will fall back into barbarism. 3. There has probably never been a country Civilization is the result of each giving up some for which so much hardship and suffering have individual right for the betterment of all. It is been endured in bringing about the present con- the business of everybody to see to it that he at dition of liberty, culture, and personal welfare. least performs his duty. Think of the thousands who have toiled, suffered, 1o. One can show patriotism by showing reand died for it! We have a country we can love, spect for what represents his country. the counbecause there have been patriots who loved their try's flag, the country's ruler. This faithful country better than they loved themselves. No service is called loyalty. Besides the chief ruler nation has had such splendid heroes, and they of the State there are other authorities under are more in number than we can name.

him to whom we owe loyalty; among these are 4. The young people cannot realize the heroism magistrates, who represent the laws made by the shown in the Civil War which put an end to slavery community. Children can understand this by and preserved the union of our-states. Mothers thinking of the government of a school. Besides sent their sons to the war, young men gave up the head teacher there are assistant teachers and their dearest things in life; and both sides --South instructors, and pupils owe loyalty to all. as well as North—made awful sacrifices for love 11. There is, of course, something higher than of country. Memorial Day has been set aside patriotism, and that is the love of humanity at to keep always green in our memory the sacrifices large. We should never allow our love for our made for love of country.

own countrymen to shut out the larger love for our 5. But patriotism is more than merely loving

fellow men. The world is larger than any country one's country and being proud of it. It is being in it. Nor must we think that patriotism consists willing to do something for it. The safety of our only in dying for our country; it just as much country is not in law or legislation, but in men and consists in living for it. Goethe says: "In peace women who serve the commonwealth.

patriotism consists in every man sweeping before 6. Patriotism is doing constantly the duties his own door, minding his own business, learndeveloping upon us, to preserve the heritage be- ing his own lesson, that it may be well with him queathed to us. We owe it to the State to be in his own home.” good citizens, 'o study its welfare, to vote intelli- 12. That child who does not contribute his gently for its best interests. There are

share of service and cheerfulness in the school is men who are so lacking in patriotism that they lacking in duty, and lacking in patriotism. It make use of politics to enrich themselves out of is not simply saluting the ilag. It is not simply the public money. They buy and sell votes. having respect for the teacher. It is devotion to They stir up party animosity and class prejudice the highest welfare of the school. This is accomsimply to advance their own selfish interests. plished by earnestly striving to learn the allotted All the private virtues, honesty, and industry are lessons, by giving attention to the little duties of helps toward bettering the country, and every school life, by yielding cheerful obedience to the man and woman serves his or her country who rules, and making sunshine in the school room. strives to make men better in the every-day walk There was placed on the tombstone of a little girl of life.

this epitaph: “One of whom her playmates said, 7. The patriotism we need is that which shows 'It was easier to be good when she was with us.'" itself in daily fidelity to private duty and public There is no higher patriotism to God, than makright.

ing it easier for others to be good. 8. And such rights and duties begin even in 13. The welfare of the State should be a sufficient childhood, which, as manhood is reached, develop reason and incentive for the practice of every into citzenship. Such small duties forbid leaving virtue, for the end of character is the benefiting banana peels, paper and litter in the school yard, of one's fellow men. The State has a right to in public parks or streets. They prohibit the demand that we subordinate all actions to her breaking of shrubbery, fences, railings to guard interests, and that we perfect our character that public or private property, the writing or carving we may add to her usefulness. of letters on seats, walls, and public places. Such ELUCIDATION AND TRAINING: property does not belong to one person, but to

1. Loyalty_implies respect for all constituted all and is paid for by taxation of all. No person authorities. Teach how judges, magistrates, and thus becomes famous, but simply infamous, by other officers of the state represent the authority of

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our

the state, and that therefore fidelity to one must imply must be buyers as well as sellers, and that by offending fidelity to the other. Show that respect for authority other nations we injure our commercial intercourse may demand personal service, and that loyalty has with them, and so decrease our own prosperity. Point its reward in the compensating privileges we enjoy; out that our political and social policy has many security of person and property; the protection of the errors which require correcting, and no doubt will national flag abroad; consular establishments in foreign be corrected when the time serves. In the meantime, parts. Illustration of foregoing privileges: individuals may have indicated to them such duties immunity from violence is apparent.

as shall lead to a diminution of these defects. 2. Disloyalty to a worthy ruler has ever been regarded Recapitulate, to further inculcate a love of country as contemptible. Illustrate by King Leonidas, who and the duty of loyalty. To convey to the children an with three hundred Spartans in the pass of Thermopylæ idea of popular feeling on this subject, mention the resisted the overwhelming army of the Persian monarch, severity of the punishment usually awarded to traitors; Xerxes, until he and his brave subjects all fell except the many monuments of grateful recognition raised the one man who fled to Sparta, where his disloyalty to the memory of patriots. Illustrate by Miltiades' was treated with marked contempt till he made amends reward for his victory over Darius, King of Persia, at at the battle of Plataea.

Marathon (B.C. 490), which consisted of a grand 3. Perfect obedience to authority does not prevent painting of the action by the artist Polygnotus. This open and honorable criticism of its character. Care- picture, the only reward custom allowed, was preserved fully point out the benefits to be derived from criticism for ages on the walls of Stoa in Athens. when it is both open and honorable, as in congressional 7. Teach that patriotism should rejoice not so much debate. Compare this with the secret meetings of in the glories of our past victories, as in the preëminence Nihilists and Anarchists, and the dishonorable and we possess, in our freedom of speech, liberty of concriminal tactics employed by them. Contrast true science, and freedom of the press, emancipation of patriots with empty demagogues; and when the slaves; broadcast charity when a national calamity latter resort to force, as their folly generally inclines in some foreign land calls it forth, as fires at Chicago, them to do, the futility of their rash efforts may be earthquake in San Francisco, persecution of Jews in illustrated. Expose the folly of moderate men who Russia, etc. have been led on to identify themselves with violence. 8. The personal application of the foregoing is

4. Patriotism is a quality of our human nature pride in one's school and loyalty to it. Show the common to the natives of every land. State that this duty of local patriotism; how to serve one's town or affection for the soil regards the land as a foster parent; village. bear out this statement by speaking of the German use of 10. Explain the value of local institutions; what the word “Fatherland”; give etymology of patriotism. our forefathers have earned, e.g., liberty, social and Illustrate the universality of the sentiment by reference political institutions; how each may serve his country to Hereward the Saxon, the patriot of England, who and posterity; the vote, its nature and responsibilities; withstood the Normans (1070); Robert the Bruce, local government; the nation and its government; the patriot of Scotland, who withstood the English society as an organism, its development through (1306); William Tell

, the patriot of Switzerland, who family, tribe and nation; universal brotherhood. withstood the Austrians (1307); Joan of Arc, the According to grade let the children enumerate the patriot of France, who withstood the English (1429); highest offices of authority in state, city, school. Older George Washington, the patriot of America, who children might describe the various governments of withstood the British (1775).

the world. 5. Patriotism applies generally to the nation or 11. Practice. Let each one raise the flag of our State; sometimes locally to a district, which goes to country in his heart, and salute it daily as the emblem prove that patriotism is only a matter of sentiment. of the world's hope and inspiration; and renew a When Louis XIV asked Colbert how it was that, promise to be true to himself, to his highest ideal, and ruling so great a territory as France, he had been to his conscience. unable to conquer “Little" Holland, the minister

EXAMPLES: replied, “Because, sire, the greatness of a country

George Washington, does not depend on the extent of its territory, but on

Alexander Hamilton, the character of its people.” It may be proved that

James Otis, men as frequently show affection for the town of

Francis Marion, their adoption as for their native town. 6. Patriotism prompts a kindly feeling towards

John Hancock,

Samuel Adams, fellow-countrymen. Admit that, as a rule, the peas

Patrick Henry, antry have been the boldest defenders of the soil.

Abraham Lincoln, The following anecdote will illustrate the point: An

Henry Lee, old man visited the army to see his two sons, and

Daniel Webster, found them both wounded. Sitting between the

Henry Clay, maimed soldiers, he was asked if he regretted the

Charles Carroll, sacrifice. “No!” he exclaimed earnestly; “if I had

Robert G. Shaw, twenty sons, I would give them all to save the country.”

Barbara Frietchie. Indicate that patriotism does not consist in singing

APPLICATION: songs and flying flags, but in a willingness to do service for the country. Inveigh against aggression. There is one whose name by common consent stands To show the fallacy of hostile policy, teach that there for honor, courage, wisdom, and patriotism; and that

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is George Washington. The reason why he is so greatly honored by all nations and peoples is this: At the end of the Revolutionary War he was at the head of a victorious army, and the object of enthusiastic love of the whole people. He was urged to make himself a king or emperor; but unlike Napoleon Bonaparte in France, under similar conditions, he refused a crown, because he was true to the principles of liberty for which he fought. He would not sacrifice the position won, to his personal gain or gratification. It was a marvel to the civilized world, when he quietly laid down all this power; it had never seen such an exhibition of devotion to principle and honor and truth. He twice allowed himself to be chosen president, and then he became a private citizen.

To appreciate Lincoln's real greatness as a patriot, his life must be looked at from its crude beginning, not in its sublime ending. He began as country politician who was ambitious for personal advancement; yet again and again, first in small matters, and then in great ones, he consistently put principle first, and self second. Something of the early crudeness was visible in his external appearance always; but within, he became ever more gentle, pure, tender, and heroic to the end. Becoming president only enabled him to show on a large scale the traits by which his whole life had been governed. One of the best interpretations of Lincoln's character is in Lowell's Commemoration Ode, stanza 6, which is universally accepted as the finest eulogy of Lincoln in literature. See Gettysburg Address. Samuel Adams is called the “father of the American Revolution.”

George Bancroft said of Henry Clay, “that which will commend him most to posterity is his love of the Union, his patriotism, his love of country.” He was the great peacemaker. Note his article on the Compromise of 1850, when he said, “I would rather be right than president.” Daniel Webster was a devoted supporter of the Union, even though some of his actions offended the Abolitionists. Robert G. Shaw was selected for the subject, which should typify patriotic devotion. Horace Porter said, “It is a priceless blessing to the Republic that the era of the Civil War did not breed a Marius and a Sulla, a Cæsar and a Pompey, or a Charles I and a Cromwell, but that the power to which the destinies of the country were entrusted were wielded by a Lincoln and a Grant." The Declaration of Independence as first published was signed only with the name of John Hancock, which caused a price to be put upon his head. Patrick Henry thought Americans ought not to pay stamp taxes; what he said about it is memorable in American history. LITERATURE:

FOR OLDER CHILDREN Read “Ode Recited at the Harvard Commemoration," by James Russell Lowell; “O Beautiful, My Country,” by F. L. Hosmer; “O Captain, My Captain,” by Walt Whitman; “Stand By the Flag,” by S. N. Wilder; “Never or Now,” and “Old Ironsides,” by Oliver W. Holmes; “The Flag Goes By," by H. H. Bennett; "The Ship of State," by Henry W. Longfellow; “My Country," by James Montgomery; "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," and "The Flag," by Julia Ward Howe; "Warren's Address," by

John Pierpont; "The Star-Spangled Banner," by Francis Scott Key; “What Constitutes a State," by Sir William Jones; “My_Maryland,” by James R. Randall; “Wounded to Death," by J. W. Watson; “The Call of the Bugles,” by Richard Hovey; “Song of Marion's Men,” by Bryant; Lincoln's Address at Gettysburg; “Barbara Frietchie," by Whittier; “The Spy,” by Fennimore Cooper; Psalm CXXII. INSPIRATION:

1. America has furnished to the world the character of Washington; and if our American institutions had done nothing else, that alone would have entitled them to the respect of mankind.-DANIEL WEBSTER. 2. Then none was for a party;

Then all were for the state;
Then great men helped the poor,
And the poor men loved the great.

-MACAULEY. 3. Breathes there the man with soul so dead Who never to himself hath said,

This is my own, my native land!
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
As home his footsteps he hath turned

From wandering on a foreign strand?
If such there breathe, go mark him well;
For him no minstrel raptures swell;
High though his titles, proud his name,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim,
Despite the titles, power, and pelf,
The wretch, concentred all in self,
Living, shall forfeit fair renown,
And, doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust from whence he sprung,
Unwept, unhonored, and unsung.

-SIR WALTER SCOTT.
What pity is it
That we can die bui once to save our country?

--ADDISON. 5. He doeth well that serveth the common good rather than his own will.—THOMAS À KEMPIS.

6. The highest political watchword is service. A. H. CLOUGH. 7.

And how can man die better

Than facing fearful odds,
For the ashes of his fathers
And the temples of his gods?

-MACAULAY. 8. Humble fathers who are training their children in essential manliness, in self-reliance, in independence, making them ashamed to beg, and proud to rely on their own

resources—they are patriots. They of every name who make men larger, are working for liberty, and they who are demoralizing men are working for bondage and despotism.-HENRY WARD BEECHER.

9. Whatever strengthens our local attachments is favorable both to individual and national character. Our home, our birth-place, our native land—think for a while what the virtues are which arise out of the feelings connected with these words, and if you have any intellectual eyes you will then perceive the connection between topography and patriotism. Show me a man who cares no more for one place than

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another, and I will show you in that same person one who loves nothing but himself.—ROBERT SOUTHEY.

10. “Go, stranger, and tell at home that here we died in obedience to the laws.”—INSCRIPTION ON THE MONUMENT AT THERMOPYLÆ.

11. He serves me most who serves his country best. -ALEXANDER POPE. 12. Without a sign, his sword the brave man draws, And asks no omen but his country's cause.

-ALEXANDER POPE. 13. Strike—for your altars and your fires, Strike-for the green groves of your sires, God and your native land.

-Fitz-GREENE HALLECK. 14. The safety of a kingdom is not in its arms, nor its treasures, but in its friends.-SALLUST.

15. They love their land because it is their own, and scorn to give aught other reason why.FitzGREENE HALLECK.

16. The Spartan embodies his religion in his country, and gives up his life to its demand.—UNIDENTIFIED. 17. Oh, never shall the land forget

How gushed the life-blood of her brave

Gushed warm with hope and courage yet,
Upon the soil they fought to save.

-WILLIAM C. BRYANT. 18. For O, my country, touched by thee

The gray leaves gather back their gold;
Thy thought set all my pulses free;

My heart refuses to be old;
The love is all that I can see.

Not to thy natal day belong
Time's prudent doubt or ages wrong,

But gifts of gratitude and song;
Unsummoned crowd the thankful words,

As sap in springtime floods the trees,
Foreboding the return of birds,

For all that thou hast been to me.

Many in sad faith sought for her,
Many with crossed hands sighed for her;
But these, our brothers, fought for her,
At life's dear peril wrought for her,
So loved her that they died for her,

Tasting the raptured fleetness
Of her divine completeness.

-JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL.

XXXII. CHARACTER.

INTRODUCTION:

of a nation. Character is human nature in its These various traits of character which have best form, and its possession should be the highest been heretofore considered illustrate the prin

object of life. It commands a far greater power ciples of morality which underlie all right living. and influence than even educaticn or wealth.

A principle is the starting point in thought The examples of men of character never die, but, or life. With the science of geometry the first like their memories, are immortal. principles are called axioms; and to prove its 3. "A man must be one of two things. either propositions true, one endeavors to trace back a reed shaken by the wind, or a wind to shake his reasoning to one or more axioms which no the reeds.” Though we may know what is right one disputes. Principle, in morals, is the starting and wrong, we do not always do the right. There point in our lives. The test of the morality of is something more required than knowledge. every act or speech is to ask the question, “Is it This is will—a willingness to do this, and not right?" "Is it kind?" "Is it fair?" "Is it to do that, when temptacion struggles against the true?” The answer to these questions will show voice of the inward monitor. But to have charwhat is proper to do. To remember and practice acter, one must have a perfectly educated will. this rule is one of the best means of perfecting 4. Lavater says, “Actions, words, looks, steps, character.

form the alphabet by which you may spell char

acter.” And James A. Garfield says, “Every DEFINITION:

character is the joint product of nature and nurCharacter is the quality of mind expressed by

ture.” “Whether your life shall be successful outward behavior.

or not,” says Smiles, “is a question which must INTERPRETATION:

be answered by yourself alone. It cannot be I. Character is what a man is, not what reputa- done by proxy. Temperance, frugality, honesty, tion considers him. Character is one's intrinsic and economy, accompanied by strong determinavalue, not his value in the market of public opinion. tion and perserverance, will bring you to the goal It is not learning—it is worth.

of success and prosperity. Nothing else will

. 2. Character is the crown and glory of life. But man does not live by bread alone, but by It dignifies every station, exalts every position in faith, by admiration, by sympathy. 'Tis very society, and commands the confidence and re- shallow to say that cotton or iron, or silver and spect of mankind. Character constitutes real gold, are kings of the world; there are rulers that aristocracy, for it gives the only true heraldry will at any moment make these forgotten. Fear to men. It is the throne and crown and scepter will. Love will. Character will."

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