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what most professional politicians-being two weeks ago by a friend of Mr. Morgan's. human--want. The more technical, involved, This friend is Robert Bacon, formerly one of mysterious the process of choosing so-called Mr. Morgan's partners, and later Secretary
representatives” can be made, the more of State and Ambassador to France. Mr. surely will the professional in politics have an Bacon said in his tribute to Mr. Morgan : advantage over the amateur.
“I should say that he was more actuated by Reformers sometimes Aay the ordinary spontaneous inherent qualities, by optimism, citizens” for the neglect of their civic by a faith so basic that it was unconscious or duties, and declare that, if these ordinary sub-conscious; but underlying all this he was citizens took as much pains with public a man of very real and deep religious convicaffairs as the boss and his henchmen, they tions. He rarely spoke of religion, but no could rescue the public business from its one who knew him intimately could fail to despoilers. Exactly, if
Exactly, if-. But that “ if” is realize what an ever-present force it was in a begging of the whole question. The ordi- his character.” The impression that the nary citizen can become as skilled as the declaration of faith in Mr. Morgan's will has boss only the price which the boss pays- made upon men of affairs has been so well the abandonment of private business in order expressed by Mr. Theodore H. Price, the to make public business his vocation. The editor of “ Cotton and Finance,” in a recent more complicated the machinery, the more editorial in his excellent weekly, that we renecessary it is for the man who runs it to be print it here as a comment worth the attena skilled mechanic. So long as the process tion of every active man of affairs : of selecting the representatives of the people " Immaterial rather than material influis kept involved and complicated, so long ences must occupy the first place in any conwill that process be left in charge of the few sideration of that portion of the world's hiswho can afford to become professional poli- tory which has been in the making during the ticians.
For those that believe (and who There are thus only two ways of securing does not?) that things which are seen are improvement in public business. One is by temporal, but things which are not seen are improving the breed of professional poli- eternal,' there is profound significance in two ticians- that is the method of benevolent facts chronicled by the newspapers within a despotism. The other is by simplifying the day or two. process of selecting representatives, through • One is that the new Chinese Governdirect elections, direct primaries, and the ment has officially appealed to all the Chrisshort ballot, so that the ordinary citizens can tian Missions in China to set aside Sunday, take their part—that is the method of free April 27, as a day of prayer that China may government.
be guided to a wise solution of her problems.
The other is the opening declaration in
the will of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, which MR. MORGAN'S RELIGIOUS
reads : FAITH
“I commit my soul into the hands of my The declaration of his religious faith with
Saviour, in full confidence that, having redeemed
it and washed it in His most precious blood, which Mr. Morgan began his will has made a He will present it faultless before my Heavenly wide and profound impression by its sim- Father, and I entreat my children to maintain plicity, directness, and forcefulness of ex
and defend at all hazards, and at any cost of
personal sacrifice, the blessed doctrine of the pression.
complete atonement for sin through the blood No one has ever accused Mr. Morgan of of Jesus Christ, once offered, and through that indulging in formal and perfunctory language.
alone. His declaration of faith has not excited, as “ Those who think that an allusion to such far as we have seen, any theological or philo- subjects is irrelevant in a paper professing to sophical discussion, although it has excited un- limit itself to the discussion of mundane ecousual comment. It has been accepted every- nomics are poor students of the world's hiswhere as a perfectly natural expression of a tory. The science of economics is, in the deep-seated conviction on the part of a man last analysis, a consideration of the influences who all through his life was accustomed to which promote or lessen society's material express freely bis deep-seated convictions in
Of such influences none are more temporal matters. It is an interesting con- important or profound than those which are firmation of a statement made in these pages idealistic or religious.”
would emphasize particularly is that we live ECAUSE I probably lack the "eye in a world of sensations and that the closest of faith," certain statements in Dr. we can ever become acquainted with our
Abbott's article on Rudolf Eucken in environment and the only experience we The Outlook for March 1 seem to me to be can ever have is through the sense organs. obscure and in a measure to lead to hazy Experience in the last analysis must be in thinking. In the hope of clearing up my terms of sensations. own thoughts, as well as those of other read Our experience also depends on the order ers, I feel impelled to ask one or two ques- in which the stimuli are received. I rememtions.
ber well my work in the chemical laboratory Can we really draw a hard and fast line in which a mixture of various chemical combetween the visible and invisible worlds in pounds was subjected to a series of reagents which we live ? According to the above which when used in the proper order allowed article the visible world is appreciated by the the various elements in the mixture to be senses, the invisible by experience. What, I determined in a characteristic way. If the ask in all earnestness, makes up experience reagents were used in a different order, difbesides sensations and the memories of those ferent results would be obtained and the conthat have passed ? According to the Century stituent elements could not be recognized in Dictionary, experience is the state of having the same way. The original mixture to be acquired knowledge ; the sum of practical analyzed may represent my mind, each rewisdom taught by all the events of life ; agent a sensation, the array of precipitates knowledge gained by external and internal separated by the reagents my experience. perceptions; a fixed mental impression. It My experience, then, depends upon the action seems to me that sense organs are involved of certain sensations in a certain order on my entirely even in “internal perception," which mind ; alter any one of the factors, mind, senI can conceive only as the vague sensations sation, or sequence, and the experience will that originate within the body, producing be altered. the uneasiness of illness as well as the To quote from the article once more : exuberance of abounding health. Though “ The invisible world of joy and sorrow, love difficult to locate and to refer to definite and hate, conscience and greed, contentment sense organs, they are none the less real and disappointment, hope and despair, selfsensations which leave their impress on us. gratulation and remorse” is distinct from the
As I try to analyze experience I find sev world of sensation. When I think of coneral factors which begin with sensation and tentment, my memory goes back to an old which involve their memory and their se friend of mine at a city mission who embodquenca. Every stimulus of a sense organ ied most perfectly my ideas of contentment. leaves its impress on the memory if it reaches He praised God for the very scraps of meat the brain and is converted into a sensation, which a hotel gave him from the plates of its and, in leaving an impress, colors, as it were, guests and which he carried home for his future sensations. For example, the tepid invalid wife to make stew of. He knew conwater seems unbearably hot on the hands of tentment, and I envy him for it, and I would the boy who has just been playing in the snow, be the last one to undervalue contentment but the same water may apparently be very simply because it can be referred to sensation. cold after washing his hands in hot water. But, as I have thought about this old fellow, Should the hands never be immersed in who had been a prize-fighter in his youth, tepid water except after the application of had spent many months in prison for a variety snow, our experience with reference to water of offenses, and had “got religion," and at would be wholly unlike our experience if it the time I knew him was a respectable and were applied only after hot water. What I happy old man of seventy, I have become
more and more impressed with the idea that the sense organs. We know sight only by sensations of a certain kind were at the bot- seeing, quite as much as we know life only tom of his contentment, and that contentment by living. or any other state of being cannot be sepa Do I know love myself ? Yes, both subrated from sensations. He would not have jective and objective love ; but I am not at all been contented in his younger days with the certain that love is not a product of sensations food I used to see him carrying home, I and memories of impressions stored up from know from what he told me time and again the past. I know a father's love for his infant of his early life. He had had an experience, a child. I see my little one's utter helplessgroup of sensations which had reacted upon ness and dependence, her responsive smile his mind to produce a state which we call con to my ministrations and play. I recall the tentment. He had seen and heard words pictures of my own infancy in the words of accompanied by other sensory impressions at my parents ; I recall the descriptions of and a certain time in his life and with a certain allusions to paternal love in spoken and force that affected him as I have never been written word. I recall the results of a lack affected. He reacted to these stimuli in a of love ; so I love my child. Were I devoid fashion we describe as “ being converted." of sight and hearing and touch and memory, The conviction came to him through the I cannot conceive a love for my child. Possound of words and memories of past sensa sibly the deceased parent continues to love tions that the quality of his food and in fact the child. I don't know. I do know that of all material things were utterly valueless in the evidences of love cease with breathing, comparison with the mental picture he had and that, whether I want to believe love to be stored in his mind of a Redeemer, and the eternal or not, the fact remains that we have memory that he must be obedient to the de no evidence of love apart from life. sires of Christ. Far be it from me to deny the Beloit, Wisconsin.
B. W. KUNKEL. reality of the invisible world and the precious conceptions of the Christian religion ; all I
THE REPLY would emphasize is that sensations, either My correspondent has put here very clearly objective or subjective, are the background of his view of human life. I will endeavor to all experience, so that we cannot make the put my view with equal clearness and with hard and fast line between the material and equal brevity. I put it largely in quotations the invisible world.
from others, in order that my readers may Joy, contentment, love, all the ways of look know that this view is not peculiar to myself ; ing at life, seem to me to be referable to sen it is entertained by a large number of careful sations, in spite of the fact that they abound students, of life, and has been from the days even in a blind and deaf Helen Keller, of Plato to the present day. who lacks the most important avenues of The contrast between the two views is very approach to the material world.
To be clearly put by Herbert Spencer in the following sure, the number of sensations she receives sentences: “Unlike the ordinary consciousness, a day is less than that of a normal individual the religious cousciousness is concerned with with all the sense organs functional, but still that which lies beyond the sphere of sense. the sensations she does receive are probably A brute thinks only of things which can be more vivid than those we normal individuals touched, seen, tasted, heard, etc., and the ordinarily receive ; and because of her ex like is true of the young child, the untaught traordinary memory her recollections of past deaf mute, and the lowest savage. But the sensations is unquestionably more perfect developing man has thoughts about existthan ours, so that the total experience of ences which he regards as usually intangible, Helen Keller is undoubtedly richer than yours inaudible, invisible; and yet which he regards or mine.
as operative upon him." What is meant by “ We know the material I agree with the opinion of the developing world by examining it, we know life only by man. I believe that there are existences living "? We know the material world only which are intangible, inaudible, invisible, and through the activity of our sense organs, but yet which are operative upon us. This view it would seem to me that we know life only I share with an overwhelming majority of by recalling sensations we have received in the plain people, of all races and all condithe past.
Life is activity of a very special tions, of all religions and all epochs-peaskind, and activity I appreciate only through ants and kings, poets and practical workers,
6. The cor
philosophers and statesmen, men and women. of Professor James's philosophy, but a report That it is the general view of developing man which evidently implies Professor Boutroux's does not prove it to be true. But I am so approval : "The productions of genius are much of a democrat that I have more faith like revelations of a world other than our own. in the general experience of mankind than I In a general way man's aspirations are dishave in the refined theories of a limited num- proportionate to his actual condition. These ber of special students.
facts are explained if we admit that, on the Says Tennyson,
side of his being which transcends his con“Speak to Him, thou, for He hears, scious self, man is related to another world
And Spirit with Spirit can meet." than that which comes within the reach of his I agree with Tennyson. I believe that I can senses-to beings whom for this reason we speak to One who is unseen and unheard, may call spiritual.” but not unknown. And I believe that He The article which my correspondent critican and does speak to me; that we talk with cises was based on Professor Eucken and one another; that He inspires my fainting was little more than an attempt to interpret heart with courage and my troubled heart his philosophy in terms of onr common exwith peace; that He guides me with His periences. That he believes with Tennyson counsel in perplexity and comforts me with that “Spirit with Spirit can meet" underlies his His presence in sorrow.
whole philosophy. For example : “ Spiritual Says Forbes Robinson : “ When I get life is definitely raised above human existence. quite quiet, and my mind is sane, and my Man does not originate spiritual life, but he conscience at rest, when I almost stop think is capable of attaining to participation in it.” ing and listen, I am quite sure that a Per ** Man appears great in his relationship to sonal Being comes to me, and as he comes spiritual life, but small as an isolated indibrings some of his own life to flow into my vidual ; his life becomes an incessant search life.” Of that I also am quite sure. I do after his own being, and in this sense alone not believe that this experience of communion can it give rise to true history." with an invisible Person is explained by the ner-stone of all philosophical thought and the statement that * we know life only by recall axiom of axioms is the fact of a worlding sensations we have received in the past." embracing spiritual life.”
* Hear and thy soul shall live," cries Isaiah. The italics are Eucken's. I repeat them I believe that there is a divine voice which because to me the sentence gives the true we can hear and which brings to the soul that clue to the interpretation of life. listens for it newness of life, even though the I believe that I am a spiritual being, temsoul knows not whence nor how that life comes. porarily dwelling in a material body, living in
God breathed into men the breath of his a world of spiritual beings, who are also temown life, says the Hebrew poet in his por. porarily dwelling in material bodies. If my trayal of man's creation. The poet in this correspondent asks me, What is spirit? I reply, statement interprets a perpetually renewed I do not know ; I only know its experiences : process of divine life-giving. God is always love and hate, joy and sorrow, hope and breathing into man the breath of his despair, aspiration and endeavor, and above own divine life, illuminating, inspiring, en all power to see an unseen ideal and freedom couraging, strengthening, comforting, truly to form the resolve and devote my life to the creating This life of God in the soul of endeavor to realize that ideal for myself and for man is the common experience of devout my fellow-men. These spiritual forces are not souls-pagan, Jewish, and Christian. It is characteristic of the material universe ; they broader and more human than any creed; it are not analogous to the material forces, such is deeper and more vital than any opinion. as light, heat, and electricity. The senses do Philosophy has not given this experience and not create this spiritual life. They are instruphilosophy cannot take it away. But though ments through which the material world and philosophy has not given it and philosophy its forces can act upon the spirit ; they are cannot take it away, philosophy confirms it. instruments through which the spirit can act
My correspondent's letter came to me just on the material world and its forces. But as I was reading the volume of the French the spirit is superior to these material forces, philosopher, Emile Boutroux, on “Science masters them, uses them. and Religion." From the last page I quote If my friend affirms that the invisible the following sentences-a report, it is true, Spirit which holds communion with men does
so by producing an impression on the brain nite Spirit do our bidding and fulfill our will. and through the brain on the soul of man, I It is an endeavor to ascertain the will of this reply, Possibly. I can neither affirm nor Infinite Spirit and fulfill his purpose. Hisdeny his hypothesis. But it seems to me a tory is what Hegel has called it, “ the carrying pure hypothesis, and does nothing to affect out of God's plan.” To work with this Infinite my conviction that I am more than the sum Spirit and have some small share in His of all my bodily organs and my life is some design, to co-operate with Him in completing thing more than the sum of all their sensa the creation which He has begun and which tions.
will not be completed until the world and its And I believe that the fountain and source forces, including the body and all its organs, of this spiritual life is the Infinite Spirit, in whom have become the perfectly obedient servant we live and move and have our being. He is of the purified and perfect spirit which dwells interpreted to us, not by nature and its forces, within the body, is my ambition. but by the spirit of man and his aspirations.
LYMAN ABBOTT. Prayer is not an endeavor to make this Infi Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York.
THE JAPANESE IN CALIFORNIA
A POLL OF THE PRESS
WHAT the question in California is not the Japanese population among us is not
local but National and international increasing, or likely to increase,” affirms the
in character is shown by the press San Francisco “ Chronicle” (Ind.), and adds : comments in all parts of the country.
“The number now here is not large enough As to existing land conditions the cur to seriously affect any interest. There is no rent report of John P. McLaughlin, Labor doubt of the existence of all necessary legal Commissioner of California, "himself vio power in the Nation to deal with the Japanese lently anti-Japanese,” according to the New question as it sees fit. It will be best for us York“ World" (Dem.), indicates, as reported not to invoke the exercise of that power. We in that paper, that the Japanese own 12,726 are not suffering in any way which justifies acres of land, an increase since 1909 of 1,935 the risk.” The Pasadena “ News” (Rep.) acres. A different estimate made by Dr. concludes : Teusler is referred to on another page. Chinese exclusion has not benefited CaliforThere are about 12,000,000 acres of agricul nia. If we permitted a limited influx of the tural land in the State. In Mr. McLaughlin's
race our horticultural interests would not have report it is said that Japanese lease 17,596
to depend so completely on..the Japanese, and
our housekeeping burdens would be immeasuracres, a decrease since 1909 of 2,698 acres. ably lightened. Drat this racial prejudice, this The Oakland “ Tribune” (Rep.) says : “ The narrow, bigoted point of view, anyway! landholdings of the Japanese in this State The treaty of 1911 with. Japan says that [California]areinconsiderable. George Shima the Japanese may “own or lease or occupy is the only large Japanese landowner in Cali- houses, manufactories, and warehouses and fornia, and the only offense he has committed shops," and may “ lease land for residential is making potatoes more abundant and and commercial purposes.” In return, in cheaper."
deference to American wishes, the Japanese As to existing conditions of population the Government agreed to restrict the emigration New York “ World” adds that " the anti of Japanese laborers to the United States. Japanese agitators always speak of the hordes “ Japan has kept faith," avers the New York of Japanese who are pouring into the State.” “Globe” (Rep.). “Since 1908 the entry of According, however, to the report of the Japanese at San Francisco has almost ceased, Commissioner of Immigration for 1911 and and there has been an actual diminution of his bulletin for March, 1912, as stated in the number of Japanese. As Japan has kept the World," the number of Japanese in faith, so must this country. Faith is not kept California decreased 4,933 during the two when new legislation, practically discriminatyears and nine months preceding the last- ing against the Japanese as the proposed mentioned date. Thus, "as a matter of fact, California legislation would do, is enacted."