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But, according to the New York "Ameri national affairs will not settle it. The probcan" (Dem.), “ California is right, legally lem is there and bids fair to stick until just right, constitutionally right, morally right, one thing is done—the placing of restrictions ethnologically right, right for her own best upon Japanese immigration and Japanese interests, right for the best interests of the occupation of land and Japanese commercial whole country, including New York, and developments.” The “ Blade" continues right for the best interests of all the citizens It is a matter of great importance that the of this country, including the citizens of New friendly relations with Japan shall not be strained York—even the class of congenital toadies
to the breaking point. But it is far more impor:
tant that the Pacific coast of America shall and tories. California is within her State's
remain a country in which a white man can rights, guaranteed by the Constitution of the make a living, can be on terms of intimacy with United States, when she decides that indi- his neighbors, and can maintain the standards viduals who have not been naturalized may
of living and morality which he thinks proper. not hold land within her confines.” Moreover,
So that if Japan's dignity is going to be
injured, and if she must find some other land on " California is acting to her own best advan which to quarter her surplus population, she tage in making such a law, because the Jap- might as well suffer these hurts and inconanese would not make good citizens and do veniences now as upon some other day. not make good residents. They are a race It is time for the whole Nation to decide, which this Nation cannot and should not exclaims the Detroit "Journal" (Rep.) and assimilate. They would inflict upon us the other pro-California papers," whether another and greater race problem than we the interests of Japanese capital, or the wordhave yet dealt with, and we already have ing of a carelessly drawn treaty, are more race problems which are difficult enough to important than the interests of the Caucasian solve.” The “ American," which is univer
race on this continent.” This newspaper sally recognized as typical of the sensational continues in an anti-Japanese strain. press, then details as follows:
In contrast to such anti-Japanese comments The Japanese in the numbers in which they
are to be found such editorial expressions of are invading California are not only objection appreciation of the Japanese people as the able, they are dangerous. They begin by occu- following from the Sioux Falls (S. Dak.) pying a small portion of a district and making " Press," which, however, recognizes the themselves there so obnoxious by their personal right of California to first consideration : attitude and Oriental peculiarities that the Caucasian residents of that district soon become The Japanese, a sensitive people, resent any willing to sell their properties and leave the discrimination against them. They believe, section. The Japanese then buy up these de
since they joined in with the Western nations preciated properties at bargain prices and bring by the adoption in 1889 of a constitution, that in more Japanese to extend the ill effects of they are entitled to some consideration. Their their colonization.
victory over plodding China, the old China, in The Japanese are never on good terms with the war of 1894-95 gave them a world prestige, their Caucasian neighbors. They never employ and when, ten years later, they triumphed over a Caucasian when they can employ a Japanese. Russia the Japanese won a position abreast of They live encysted in their Orientalism, as a for the most modern of nations. They feel that eign growth within the American body politic,
they should be entitled to make their way in an ever-increasing danger to the well-being of any part of the world they choose to live in. our social and political system. These Japanese
Most interesting of all comment is that of are not, and never will be, and never want to be, Americans. Worse than that, they are
the California press. For instance, the Sacraactively and essentially antagonistic to Ameri.
mento “Bee" (Prog.) declares, as do many can ideas and to the welfare of the American
California papers :
" As a matter of fact, the Nation.
alien land bills before the Legislature have They are Japanese citizens. More than that, they are Japanese sol diers, and when their num
no more application to the citizens of Japan bers become sufficient they may at any time than to those of any other nation. They become a Japanese army directed definitely, conflict with no Japanese treaty right or oblipositively, and powerfully against the Govern- gation, and would not have the effect of ment and the people of this country.
denying to Japanese any right or privilege The exchange of cablegrams between the which Americans have in Japan.” On the State Department at Washington and the other hand, not all California papers are Foreign Office at Tokyo will not settle the anti-Japanese. The San Francisco “ Evening Japanese question of California, remarks the Post” (Ind.) says: “California has worried Toledo " Blade" (Prog.). "Lecturing the peo- along without these laws for fifty years, and ple of the Pacific Coast for interfering in inter no great injury has resulted." The San
Francisco “ Chronicle ? (Ind.) comments: there is a law that denies the Japanese the “ To enact such a law is to make every com- privilege' to own or lease and occupy houses, mercial nation on earth a virulent enemy of manufactories, warehouses, and shops,' or California, with most effective powers of * to lease land for residential and commercial retaliation, which human nature assures us purposes,' it is unconstitutional.” would be put to immediate use. If California As South Carolina was the first State to insists on boycotting aliens, its people may secede from the Union, this Nationalistic expect with perfect confidence a return boy- view expressed by the Columbia “ State" cott which will make us squirm."
(Dem.) is noteworthy: The San Francisco “Argonaut" (Ind.)
A State that is denied by the Federal Constipoints out the futility of the alien land law, tution the right to make war, and that has not which it says is not needed in any case, as the power to defend itself from conquest and there is no general movement of Japanese to subjugation if attacked, is assuming the right to acquire land in America. To show how
enact legislation insulting to foreign countries
and against the policy and protest of the United easily such laws are evaded, it points to the States Government and that might eventuate failure of the Mexican prohibition of the in war. And when the Governor and Legislaforeign ownership of land within ten miles of ture of California claim the right to enact such the international boundary. The " Argonaut" legislation on the ground that California is a
sovereign State, the absence of frankness and reasons as follows:
logic is startling, because, did they not rely In cases of this kind there is always the easy upon the power of the United States to defend plan of having some dummy carry the title; and
their State from any reprisal their course might there are forty other devices entirely within the incite, such action would not be considered for law which come to the same thing ... Some a moment. years ago our neighboring State of Oregon had a No State has the right, and no State should law prohibiting aliens from owning lands, with have the power, to assume an attitude toward the effect that formal title in all instances of alien another country that interferes with the foreign ownership was held by an attorney or some policy of the United States Government, or other person especially chosen under an easy that could involve the United States in war. arrangement of guarantees. It matters little whether the law be passed or rejected, since in
“Six years ago," says the Hon. Charles any event whoever wants to acquire our lands J. Bonaparte, writing to the Baltimore “ Eveand has the money to pay for them is not likely ning Sun” (Ind. Dem.), “when the San to be estopped. At the same time it would in Francisco School Board attempted to exclude futile, to be sure, but none the less an exhibition Japanese children from those public schools of an inhospitable spirit.
attended by white children, the writer, then The Los Angeles “ Times” (Ind. Rep.) p, oceedings to protect the former in their
Attorney-General, instituted appropriate legal extends its greetings to “the amazing State Legislature at Sacramento," and begs its
rights under the treaty then in force. It members to adjourn and go home at once
became unnecessary to prosecute these suits without “involving the Nation in a war with
to final decree, for some of the leading city Japan and making California an object of and State officials, having come to the Naderision from Bangor to New Orleans.
tional Capital at the invitation of President
Roosevelt, were led by the representations Unhappily there is no power anywhere," says
there made to them to advise the modification this newspaper, " to prorogue the Legislature,
of the School Board's orders in such manner and all the Times 'can do is to give utterance
Mr. to the appeal of all good citizens of whatever
as to remove the cause of offense." politics : * Adjourn, gentlemen, if you have
Bonaparte adds: any regard for the welfare of the State.'" This precedent may or may not commend President Wilson's message to “ the people
itself to President Wilson; we are entitled to
ask that he attain satisfactory results by whatand legislative authorities of California" is, ever methods he may deem the most approprideclares the New York "Sun" (Ind.), in no ate; but, however this may be, it would be a sense an interference with their prerogative source of profound regret to those anxious to
see our relations what these should be with the to make laws governing the owning and leas
great young island Empire, now become our ing of land by aliens; it is an appeal, such as Western neighbor, and it might be à cause of may properly be made by the President at grave danger to our country's peace and prosthis time, not to involve the United States Gov- perity if such questions were held of negligible ernment in an unnecessary and dangerous
moment or determined by considerations of
temporary partisan advantage or by quibbles as controversy about the privileges accorded to to States' rights. To thus deal with them would the Japanese in the treaty of 1911. "Wherever be, in every sense of the term, playing with fire.
A REVIEW OF THE FACTS
VOR the people of India “How to con Finally, India is drained of food by exportation
trol famine" is not an academic ques to England. “ India, even in the worst famine
tion, any more than “How to control years, has exported grain to a value of over sixty floods” is an academic question to the citi- million dollars." “ It is an irony of ironies zens of stricken Dayton. In its issue of that people should starve in India while January 11 The Outlook published an article there is plenty in the land. . . . The people on “ India's Chronic Famine," written by of India are realizing the hopeless economic Basanta Koomar Roy, extension lecturer of derangement of their life which expresses the University of Wisconsin. He spoke, of itself in ghastly mortality from famine, plague, course, for himself and not for The Outlook. and malaria, and, as they are bound to eleThe article was published as an interesting vate the economic status of their country, contribution to the discussion of a question they are demanding more political power. ... of very vital importance and as a representa At any cost, chronic but avoidable' famines tive protest from a member of that nation of India must be stopped." most intimately concerned in the solution of this difficult problem.
HAVE INDIAN FAMINES INCREASED ?
To these sweeping charges made by ProTHE CHARGES AGAINST ENGLAND fessor Roy have come in several replies. Briefly summarized, Professor Roy's argu- Readers question both his conclusions and the ment was as follows: From the eleventh data upon which these conclusions are based. century to the nineteenth century England, Mr. Walter Phelps Hall, writing from New Scotland, and Wales had one hundred and York, makes a convincing attack upon Proseven famines. During the nineteenth cen fessor Roy's description of conditions in tury there were only two scarcities of food. India and upon the historical comparison From the eleventh century to the beginning which he draws between England and India. of English rule, in 1745, India had but " To some extent,” he says, “ Professor eighteen famines. During the latter half Roy's contentions are founded on insufficient of the eighteenth century India had seven data and to some extent illogically deduced famines. During the nineteenth century from such facts as are given. there were thirty-one famines, that destroyed " As a matter of fact, as Mr. Morison over thirty-two million lives. This terrible assures us in his · Economic Transition in death-list was not caused by overpopulation, India,' there is not a tittle of evidence' to Professor Roy says, because India, as a support the assertion that famines are more whole, ranks but ninth in density of popula- frequent under the British régime. From the tion per square mile. It was not caused by earliest recorded history of India to the presan excessive birth-rate, for here India ranks ent, we may trace a constant and repeated but tenth. It was not caused by failure of tale of drought, famine, and disaster. rainfall, because India has the heaviest rain “ It is quite possible that a greater numfall in the world. Famine, believes Professor ber of famines are recorded in Great Britain Roy, " is a gift of the British to India. ..." before the eighteenth century than in India. * The trouble,” he says, “is that water is Almost inevitably must this be so, inasmuch no longer stored as the Hindus used to store as the history of India, in complete contrait, because ... the British Government in distinction to that of England, can never be India pays more attention to strategic rail- known save in its broadest outlines. But to ways and the efficiency of the army ... infer on that account that Great Britain has than to irrigation. ..." Famine exists be suffered six times as severely as India is a cause " Indian farmers are rack-rented and reductio ad absurdum. On the other hand, the last penny is squeezed out of them, even it is logical to assume that famines have been in a fat year.” An “impoverishing land tax more prevalent in India than in England, is a principal item of India's revenue. The since facilities for the transportation of grain British Government must have this revenue in the former country were of the poorest, to keep up her expensive system of govern- but, in the latter, provided to no inconsiderment in the poorest country in the world. ..." able extent by the sea.
“Let us,” continues Mr. Hall, “analyze, cussed later, famines have all but disappeared however, Mr. Roy's statistics. His exact from the Indian peninsula. words are :
“But, to be more specific, take four of "In the first quarter of the nineteenth cen
Mr. Roy's eighteen famines, as described by tury there were five famines with 1,000,000 the authority on which he relies : deaths; in the second quarter, 500,000 deaths ; “1886-7. Central Provinces. Earthworks prein the third quarter, six famines with 5,000,000 pared, but late autumn rains secured the ripendeaths; and in the last quarter, eighteen famines
ing of the winter crops. with 26,000,000 deaths.
1890. Kumaon and Garwhal. Comparatively " What justification is there for this esti
small help required.
1891-2. Bombay Deccan. Only slight relief mate? An immediate glance at the second granted. quarter shows that Mr. Roy has for that 1891-2. Ajumere-Merwara. Relief work of period neglected to give any number of various kinds and help to weavers granted. famines. Mr. Digby, however, from whom Here are four cases out of the eighteen his information is obtained, says that there where it is evident that only local scarcity were two-less than one-half the number for existed, and if we include two others, one in the preceding quarter, and deaths also less by Bengal and one in the Northwest Provinces, half. Here at the start is a curious admis- we have two famines where, according to the sion from one who would saddle upon the writer's own statement, there were no deaths ; British Government the responsibility of thereby proving that either they were not Indian famines. Throughout the nineteenth famines or that an efficient Government precentury the sphere of British influence was vented all loss of life. constantly growing, yet he who would attack " So much for the famines; now for the that influence as the main cause of famine is mortality of twenty-six millions. This estiforced to concede, by his own figures, that mate is derived in large measure, self-confessfamines lessened during the very period in edly, from what the increase in population which that influence increased.
would have been had earlier census ratios “ But it must be conceded that our knowl been maintained. The fact that other causes edge of famine conditions throughout the than famine could have influenced this growth first half of the nineteenth century is largely does not seem to have dawned upon the guesswork. There was then no census, no author of Prosperous British India.' Famine bureau of vital statistics, no famine com has not been noticeable of late in Great mission, indeed no direct assumption of Britain or France, yet in both countries the governmental responsibility by Great Britain rate of increase is lower. Furthermore, in until after 1857. Famines undoubtedly India the taking of the census in earlier decthere were, but no scientific data exist to
ades was very incomplete, and as the census determine their number and intensity.” became more and more thorough, huge in
creases took place apparently in population, AVALYZING THE FIGURES
but in reality in the enumeration of people “ Turn now," continues Mr. Hall, “ to Mr. hitherto uncounted. That process has stopped Roy's figures for the last quarter of the century. now, and the last census consequently did not Eghteen famines heascribes to this period; the maintain the usual ratio. But the author was total number of deaths therefrom, twenty-six blind to this fact, and whenever the official million. Of the eighteen, · Prosperous British statistics of death were not sufficiently high India,' the source of Mr. Roy's information, for his purpose, they were jacked up offhand. mentions only tw) that were widespread, and Suppose, however, that we take these figures these were far from covering all India. The at their face value. Twenty-six million deaths other famines, so called, were more truly local resulting from famine in the last quarter of scarcities, bringing inevitably in their train the century means for India less than onedistress and want. Whenever a crop failure half of one per cent a year-a large death is noted in India, it is termed in customary rate, be it granted; but, in view of the horrible parlance a famine, improperly so from our diseases and suffering which any diminishing connotation of the word. Famine, as defined of the standard of living in a poverty-stricken by the Oxford Dictionary, is “an extreme country entails, hardly as frightful as the and general scarcity of food.” In this literal figures would seem to imply.” sense, owing to the wisely directed activity of Furthermore, it may be somewhat parathe British Government, which shall be dis- doxically stated that England is responsible
for the death of these millions by famine, is in no way similar. In England half of solely because she has protected this surplus the people live in large towns; in India only population from being killed in war. The 10 per cent live in large towns. Large areas “Pax Britannica,” the first general peace lie waste in India ; but there are also large India has ever known, has brought not only districts of two to three million inhabitants quiet but population. Professor Roy has seen with a density of 1,000 persons to the square fit to ignore this side of the question entirely. mile, of whom 90 per cent subsist on agri
culture. The whole population of India is A REPLY FROM A SCOTCHMAN OF THE 315 millions, and of this population threeINDIAN CIVIL SERVICE
quarters live on agriculture. There is hardly From Scotland comes an answer to Pro an acre of cultivated land for each person, fessor Roy's statement that neither lack of This dependence of a vast population on rainfall nor excess of population is the pri- agriculture and the occasional failure of the mary cause of Indian famines. Mr. William periodic rains are the dominant facts to be C. Macpherson, for thirty-three years a mem- kept in mind. ber of the Indian Civil Service, not only con " In Britain, it has been pointed out, agritradicts Professor Roy on this part, but fur culture is only one of the six or seven great ther attests his belief in the value of those industries ; in India it is beyond comparison strategic railways which Professor Roy so the chief industry. If the rains do not fall heartily condemns. There are two ways of in India at the right season, scarcity or failsolving the famine problem, he believes : ure of harvest in the unirrigated lands is increased production and improved distribu inevitable, and want of employment and distion.
tress, which may deepen into famine, are also * The causes of the recurring famines in inevitable. The landless laborers, for whom India," says Mr. Macpherson, " are undoubt. there is no work in plowing, weeding, and edly to be found, since wars ceased, firstly in harvesting, are the first to suffer, and their the precariousness of the rainfall, and sec sufferings are the most severe. The critic ondly in the density of the population and of Indian administration rightly goes on to their dependence chiefly upon agriculture. urge that irrigation should be extended, more
“When Professor Basanta Koomar Roy canals should be made, and more water informs us that India has the heaviest rain should be stored from the rainfall for disfall in the world and that, in the country as a tribution over the fields. This argument is whole, rain never fails, it must also be remem- entirely accepted by the Indian Government bered that India has an area of 134 million in so far as reasonable schemes are proposed square miles; that is, it is fifteen times the involving reasonable expenditure. The ultiarea of Great Britain and Ireland, or half mate test which has been applied to such the area of the United States of America. schemes is not whether they would yield Rainfall at Cherrapunji in Assam and on the water rates sufficient to give interest on the Western Ghats of the Bombay Presidency is capital expenditure, not even whether such of no use to Behar and the Northwest Prov- rates would pay annual working expenses, inces and to the parched districts of Rajpu but whether the schemes would afford such tana, Sind, or the Deccan. In 1899, the last protection to tracts benefited, such insurance year of great famine, the rainfall of Sind was of crops, and such saving of famine expendiun ler one one-hundredth of an inch, and cf ture as would justify the undertaking. Local Rajputana and the Punjab it was under 272 conditions do not everywhere allow of irrigainches.
tion, and there are large areas in Bengal and “When again, Professor Roy compares the Assam, where the rainfall is abundant, which density of the population of India with that do not require irrigation, but drainage and of European countries, and when, finding embankment against floods." that the total figures give 211 to the square mile for India, 405 to England and Wales,
WHAT ENGLAND HAS DONE FOR IRRIGATION and 589 to Belgium, he argues that it is Mr. Macpherson adds: “Mr. Roy writes that quite evident that over-population is not the 'the trouble is that water is no longer stored real cause of famine in India, it must be as the Hindus used to store it,' but he omits answered that such a comparison is altogether to mention that, with few exceptions, the misleading, unless it be also borne in mind existing system of large irrigation works has that the distribution of the peoples compared been entirely constructed by the British Gov