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where, as summer advances, spiders embroider with silken lace all the grasses, rocks, and old woodwork of the farm. Such busybodies as these may attract little notice ; but no one can overlook or fail to enjoy the lepidoptera. Everywhere you go butterflies dance before your steps, or rise and dip and curvette in the bright air about your head, while at night the moths flock to your lighted windows, equally delicate but less gay of hue, as befits beings whose life is mainly passed in darkness. “Summer,” remarks Scudder, “ with blazing sun and diversified blossoms, brings us the hot-looking coppers, and all that dappled band of fritillaries and angle-wings, blocked in red and black above, and often variegated by odd dashes and spots of burnished silver, or by peacock-eyes beneath. How they crowd about the thistles, spreading thistle-blossoms, or on the many-flowered umbels of the milkweed, and fan themselves with content at their sweet lot.”
But, as has been said, it is the quiet stream or shaded pond which especially attracts the rambler now; and what beauty arises from the dark mud of many a weedy pool! Rosy lilies, the dancing snowflakes of the water-ranunculus, golden buttercups setting off the rich violetpurple of the water-hyacinth, and, alongshore, prince of all the pondside, the scarlet spikes of the cardinal-fower. Here and there over the smooth surface dart and glide the skater-beetles, and over all zigzag innumerable dragon-fies, throwing metallic reflections, blue, green, and bronze, from their burnished armor and gauzy wings.
There are a thousand things to be studied in the cool water, but most conspicuous are the nests of the sunfishes, the commonest example of which is the mottled, orange-finned pumpkin-seed. They are most brilliant of hue and at their best now; and all are near the shore of their pond, depositing their eggs in saucer-shaped nests of sand and pebbles, or guarding them with jealous care.
The black bass do the same ; and one may sometimes find a dozen of their nests side by side, over each of which is poised a vigilant male, steadily fanning away with golden wings the moving sand or falling sediment lest it defile the eggs, and darting out to frighten into flight some predatory or too inquisitive fish or other swimmer which threatens the beloved home. Later, when the fry have hatched, the watchful parents keep them together in their inexperience, guide the flock into sheltered places among the weeds, and guard them as a collie does his sheep against the many wolves of the water.
Equally assiduous and watchful are the ugly little bullheads, whose refuges are holes in the bank into which they drive their young when danger threatens, and place themselves at the door, looking out with staring eyes and menacing barbels like a grim ogre at the gateway of a magic castle. In the same quiet waters the yellow perch are leaving black dots of eggs hanging upon the weeds and submerged sticks in long glutinous strings like silver ribbons. Now, too, many marine fishes are spawning
among the rocks or eel-grass of northern
Snakes and turtles are hiding their leath-
BY WALDEMAR KAEMPFFERT
WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY VINCENT LYNCH
L!!OST every important European teeth of the inevitable eddies and maelstroms city has its Old Town and its New of air, which, could we but see them, would
Town, each expressing the cultural seem fearfully like the torrents that boil and ideas of its period in the character of its archi- rage in the Whirlpool Rapids of Niagara, and tecture and its streets. In their time the even the man who has never ridden on the width of a saddle horse, of a Sedan chair, and atmosphere, and who has only a vague notion of a coach have determined the width of the of the inces.sant vigilance and the acrobatic thoroughfares of the Old Town, and the traf- skill required to keep a machine on an even fic in the thoroughfares in turn determined keel, will realize that muncipalities must adapt the sizes of shops, inns, and other quasi-pub- themselves to the limitations of the aerolic buildings. So, too, the width of the tram- plane, if we are to fly from the heart of one car has resulted in giving us the broader city to that of another. Even were it possible avenues of the New Town, and the increased to utilize the broadest avenues, the hurricane carrying capacity of the tram-car has, in turn, set up by a propeller that whirls around at a so increased the width of streets that buildings speed of twelve hundred revolutions a minute, were designed with accommodations far more so that it seems like a solid glittering disk, ample than those of the corresponding struc- would be intolerable. You ask, Why not tures of the Old Town. If evolution in trans- turn to the lawns of our public parks ? Beportation is thus accompanied by a corre- cause the few green open spaces provided sponding evolution in municipalities, what for a population of a million or more, even if may we expect when aircraft have been so they could be encroached upon without enfar perfected that air journeys may be under countering stubborn resistance, would be taken as safely as automobile tours and rail- neither numerous nor large enough to meet way excursions ?
the requirements of hundreds of aviators waiting for an opportunity to vault into the
air, or, wheeling in wide circles, ready to WILL AFFECT THE FUTURE CITY
snatch the first chance to alight. An aeroplane is like any soaring bird of If streets cannot be used because the prey in this : It cannot leap into the air aviator may be buffeted by treacherous curstraight from the ground. A cage com- rents against stone walls, and if park lawns pletely open at the top will serve to confine are too few, obviously only the roof is left. a vulture. Before he can fly he must be in Housetops, then, must be adapted to the motion. In other words, he must run along needs of aerial navigation. That end will be the ground at constantly increasing speed achieved far more easily than may be supuntil the pressure of the air beneath his posed. wings becomes great enough to support him. He is in no better position than a boy's kite,
STARTING AND ALIGHTING ROOFS FOR which can be raised on a calm day only by much assiduous running against the breeze. In the first place, the chasms that separate
Consider the aeroplane as a motor-driven buildings on the opposite sides of streets and kite, in which the pull or the thrust of a yards will be bridged by gratings, which will cut screw takes the place of the string, or con- off but little light and air ; and, in the second sider it as a mechanical vulture, and it be- place, the chimney-pots and ventilating-pipes comes apparent that it cannot leap straight that now adorn housetops, designed before up into the air, that it must first be propelled the aeroplane arrived, will be surmounted by along the ground at automobile speed. Add wooden platforms, each carried on a light to the necessity of acquiring rapid preliminary steel framework. New buildings will be motion not only the disadvantage of size-- constructed to meet the special requirements most flying
machines have a spread of about of the aviator. In the metropolis of the thirty to forty feet—but also the enormous future, therefore, those quarters in which difficulty of rising above tall buildings in the structures are of approximately equal height
HOW THE LIMITATIONS OF THE AEROPLANE
will be covered by single roofs, each perhaps century, when Aying-machines are still novela square mile in area and more.
ties, he was mistaken for the pilot of an Equally simple of solution is the problem ordinary school aeroplane returning from a of housing the thousands of Aying-machines short outing. En route he had made two landthat will throng the air. Some of the many ings. No one had noticed them.
Nor was floored automobile garages of the present his course through the air more narrowly city could be employed for the storing of observed, simply because he was hidden by flying-machines. If a military machine of clouds. When the atmosphere becomes in our own day can be taken apart and packed truth a highway, and the whirring of an aeroin a motor van in less than ten minutes, no plane's propellers as common as the chugging Temarkable prophetic gift is required to fore- of an automobile motor, will it be possible to see a machine which, when collapsed, will prevent the smuggling of jewels, laces, and occupy less room than a seven-passenger silks, and those smaller, easily carried articles touring car of 1913, and which can be lifted of luxury, now subject to an import tax by to the roof by an elevator of the type now to many countries? Or will it be possible, by be found in every city garage.
policing the atmosphere above the border
line, to prevent violation of the customs FLORIDA BECOMES A WINTER CONEY ISLAND laws ?
FOR THE CITY OF NEW YORK
The railway created the modern suburb—
POLICING THE AIR made it a residential part of the city on the Policing of some kind will surely be necesoutskirts of which it is built. Similarly, the sary above European fortifications, now jealflying-machine will bring the city and country ously guarded from the eyes of the military measurably nearer each other. Let us not spy. It is not likely that the long line of forget that even in our own time, with ma- fortresses on either side of the boundary that chines that will seem childishly crude a cen- separates France from Germany may be sailed tury hence, speeds of more than one hundred over without calling forth a warning signal miles an hour have been attained. It is not from a sentinel wheeling with clock-like regutoo daring to predict that farm-houses will larity over that region, which a hostile eye become suburban cottages ; that the scattered may not study. population of rural districts will become direct Over cities, too, the aerial sentry or policecustomers of the city merchant; that the man will be found. A thousand aeroplanes lecturer, the virtuoso, the lawyer, the banker, fying to the opera must be kept in line and will all be able to increase their clientele. each allowed to alight upon the roof of the Because of its great speed and its radius of auditorium in its proper turn. In giant ciraction, the future aeroplane will be able to cles you can imagine them soaring in a huge cover the distance between New York and Aock. Signals will be made by a policeman Chicago in a few hours. It is not incon- in a swift monoplane (on his arm he wears ceivable that a man may breakfast in New the orange wings of the aerial traffic squad), York or London and dine the same evening and one by one the machines of the boxin St. Louis or Rome. The inhabitants of holders will separate from the great spinning towns far inland will spend their summer cluster and glide down. A liveried attendant holidays at the seashore. Florida will become will assist the passengers as they clamber a kind of winter Coney Island for New out. York.
So every hotel, office building, and dryWhen the age of the aeroplane and the goods store must see to it that its roof is air-ship really comes, new political problems utilized in an orderly way by the flocks of will arise. What, for example, will become aerial taxicabs and private machines. If a of our present tariff laws ? Can we prevent faulty motor compels an immediate descent, smuggling in a machine that travels in three an emergency signal will be given ; by day, a dimensions ? When Selmet flew from London rocket that leaves a trail of black smoke; to Paris, some months ago, he entered the by night, a flash of light conspicuous in French capital above the clouds and saw only color. a sea of mist with no sign of a spire or roof. How can the man in the air pick out the When he landed at Issy-les-Moulineaux, on roof for which he is bound ?
A dozen ways the outskirts of the city, he had to explain at of disentangling roof from roof immediately length who he was. Even in this twentieth
suggest themselves. Colors and numbers will probably be employed in some dis- ing central station will operators be found, tinctive way, and perhaps painted geo- for automatic instruments will send out the metrical designs (squares, circles, and tri- signals from the smaller stations, instruments angles) will serve to distinguish public aerial that are mechanically or electrically congarages, hotels, and theaters from one an- trolled, just as United States Naval Observaother. The elevator platforms on which tory time is now transmitted from a master machines will be lifted will surely be painted clock to hundreds of timepieces. a vivid color, contrasting with that of the All this applies to the air-ship as well as to roof itself, and an attendant will be constantly the flying-machine. For, although the giant on duty to signal to those in the air when Zeppelins of our time were destroyed with they may descend and use the elevator. disheartening regularity, it must not be sup
Quick to awaken to the possibilities of the posed that the aeroplane will completely disroof will be the advertiser. He will plaster place the dirigible. Count von Zeppelin's it, whenever he can do so without misleading leviathans have come to grief, not in the air, the airman, with pictures and legends, pro- but when anchored near the ground in a gale. claiming the virtues of his pills and soaps, his A stranded schooner, battered by huge waves breakfast foods and his safety razors. The against a reef, is in a predicament only a signs which now flank every railway, and shade worse than that of a Zeppelin anchored which inform the passenger that the particu- in a hurricane. The Zeppelin is not simply lar marsh at which he is languidly gazing is hammered and twisted, but is also exposed “ ten miles from Bloomer's Emporium,” will to the dangers of static electricity generated find their counterparts in huge advertisements by friction. A single electric spark has been that lie flat on their backs and stare up at the known to ignite the highly explosive buoyant population of the atmosphere. In their hori- gas with which the envelope compartments zontal position they will be as useful as the of a Zeppelin are filled, and to reduce a vesvertical sign erected for the benefit of the sel costing one hundred and fifty thousand railway traveler, for they, too, will indicate dollars to a chaos of twisted metal. the proximity of a town, and serve as guideposts for the aerial navigator.
GIANT DIRIGIBLE OF
GUIDING THE MAN WHO SAILS THE
To guard against such accidents, steel
towers have been latterly proposed (a small Indeed, the guiding of the airman will one has even been erected in England), from become so highly important that govern- the tops of which the ships may swing with ments will set about the task of mapping the the wind like so many weather-vanes. High ocean of air as carefully as ever the waters above the roofs of the future city, higher about a rocky coast have been charted. even than the tallest office buildings of the With the aid of a compass and an official present, these towers are destined to loommap (a band, perhaps a hundred feet long, Eiffel towers padded at the top to prevent which can be unrolled from one cylinder upon injury to the ships in possible collisions. another beneath a sheet of transparent cellu- They will not be erected haphazard, with no loid, and which will clearly indicate the posi- regard to their location in the city, but, lest tion of church spires, telegraph and telephone they interfere with aerial traffic, they will wires, forests, railways, and tall factory chim- fringe the city like the steamship wharves of neys) the aerial navigator will pick his way the present. through the blue.
In your mind's eye can't you see the eleBut suppose that it is night, or that a vators conveying passengers upward through dense fog veils the terrain below ? Is he the maze of steel girders to the great ships helpless ? Not when a really efficient set of tethered above, casting enormously long shadwireless instruments has been invented for ows on the roofs and streets below? Can't the use of aviators. He will clap his wireless you see a transatlantic air-liner starting on its receiver to his head and listen for the guiding voyage simply by floating off with the wind signals of the nearest government transmitter or by backing off with reversed propellers ? of aerial waves. Every little village will have Can't you see another approaching a tower its wireless station, electrically controlled from very closely against the wind? Can't you a central weather bureau or geographical office see the first thin rope cast from the ship hundreds of miles away. Only in the dron- uncoiling like a long serpent ? Can't you