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The United Powers. "Come cutside, young 'un, we've prepared a nice little demonstration for you

Montenegro. “Oh, go away, you silly sailor-men; can't you see I'm busy?”

The Effect on

the seacoast from the port of San Giovanni view of the old proverb with regard to invaddi Medua to the present Montenegrin border, ing forces which reflects the barren character and a feriile region close to Skutari itself. of the country : “ In Montenegro a large

army starves to death, a small army is deDespite Austria's reported feated.” It is also the more notable in view the Slavs

request to the Powers to take of the fact that, no matter what governments

measures to force Montene- may do, peoples will not always follow. On gro to evacuate Skutari within forty-eight the very day when the Russian Government hours, failing which Austria herself would redeclared its adherence to the programme intervene in force, Montenegro stands un- of the Powers, there was a great popular terrified.

Austria is reported to think that demonstration at St. Petersburg in celebraa force of forty thousand men would be tion of the Montenegrin victory, including a sufficient to subdue Montenegro. This is Te Deum service at the Kazan Cathedral, refreshing in view of the fact that the little which drew an immense crowd. Many offi country has been able itself to muster a cers were present. Several thousand perforce of fifty thousand men, and also in sons afterwards formed a procession and marched through the streets singing patriotic course of events. The events should be songs, and as the processions passed by the favorable to the strikers, if we may judge officers at the barracks saluted. Even more from the Belgian Prime Minister's statement significant demonstrations occurred in Aus- in Parliament of the Government's intentions, tria itself wherever the population was Slav. a statement promptly placed on record by a At Prague, the capital of Bohemia ; at Cra- vote of the Chamber of Deputies. Thus the cow, formerly the capital of Poland; at Belgian Constitution is to be finally readjusted Agram, the capital of Croatia ; at Ragusa, so that actual conditions will be in greater the Dalmatian city, and at numerous other harmony with its text. Article 6 of that Slav centers, the demonstrators were brought Constitution reads : “ All Belgians are equal into conflicts with the Poles, as the demon- before the law.” This seems to have been strations often took the form of fierce antag. interpreted to mean, not that all Belgians are onism to the Vienna Government's policies. to be equal in the exercise of the franchise, Let Austria have a care, therefore. A Gov- but that they must equally submit themselves ernment which almost created a general to the law's requirements, and that they have European conflagration by mobilizing its the same right to claim the law's protection. army to uphold Teuton as against Slav Now, however, equality of suffrage is, we interests, which threatened Servia in a series hope, to be assured. This is a sufficiently of flimsy pretexts, and which later actually impressive result of the strike. But there is “ held up " the Powers by an arrogant ulti- another result, in our estimation equally immatum, may feel “forward," but cannot pressive, namely, the evidence of the strength, defy too much the sentiment of the whole solidarity, and discipline of the Belgian Slav race.

Slav admiration for Monte- strikers. Never, so far as we know, has a negro, their plucky protagonist, whose decla- strike been more admirably managed. Its ration of war began the Balkan crusade of purpose was quickly attained because exliberation, remains unbounded. The Mon- pressed with an absence of disorder and tenegrin spirit also commands the sympathy violence.

violence. Thus the strikers showed their of liberty-loving people everywhere. “ Even fitness for unrestricted suffrage.

What a if forsaken by every one,” says King Nich- contrast to suffragette methods in England ! olas, " Montenegro, conscious of her glorious past and her ideals, will continue the struggle. She may possibly yield to superior

Two members of the

The Marconi Muddle force, but never in the dishonorable way

in England

British Cabinet and the proposed by European diplomacy. Monte

chief Whip of the Libnegro has not lived five hundred years in eral party are under fire for certain investdarkness by the will of Europe, but by the ments which they have made in the American blood of her best sons. She will only yield Marconi Company. The criticism is that now by the shedding of blood. She can die they have violated the sound rule of conduct but once and die gloriously.” Who with a that members of a Government shall not be drop of red blood in his body will refuse a investors in any concern with which the tribute of admiration to this declaration ? Government is involved in contractual rela

tions. The facts, which are, we believe,

admitted, are these : Sir Rufus Isaacs is the The Belgian strike has excited Attorney-General, Mr. Lloyd George the The Belgian

interest everywhere. It has Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Master of Strike

been the largest attempt ever Elibank the chief Government Whip. All made, in proportion to population, to influ- three, therefore, are important members of ence political action. Out of a population of the Administration. Last year the Governabout eight million, no less than four hundred ment entered into a contract with the English thousand men relinquished work a fortnight Marconi Company for the use of the Marago as long as might be necessary to secure coni system of wireless telegraphy at stations universal suffrage. Ten days later the in different parts of the British Empire. A Government capitulated and the Socialists brother of the Attorney-General, Mr. Godfrey voted to end the strike. The Govern- Isaacs, was a director in both the English ment's capitulation was, of course, definite and the American Marconi companies. At enough to lead the Socialists to feel that they a time subsequent to the signing of the concould demobilize their forces and await the tract, Sir Rufus Isaacs, through another

It was

brother, Mr. Harry Isaacs, invested in shares invested. A second principle would, we of the American company. His colleagues, presume, meet general acceptance. Mr. Lloyd George and the Master of Elibank, well set forth by one of the Law Lords, Lord did the same. In October a question was Robson: “Nobody, indeed, can put himself raised in the House of Commons as to the above suspicion, but you can avoid putting action of the Attorney-General in sending a yourself in circumstances to which suspicion public telegram to be read at a banquet in would naturally attach.” This is surely a New York, held apparently to further the sound principle of action for the individual, promotion of the American company.

Sir even if it is not admitted that it is a privciple Rufus defended himself against any charge to which, under all circumstances, others of impropriety in sending the telegram, but have a right to demand that the indidid not reveal the fact that he was in any way

vidual adhere. Cæsar's wife ought, of interested in the American company.


course, to do everything she can to keep investment and those of his colleagues be- herself above suspicion ; but the only way came known later, we believe, through an she can do it is by keeping out of situaction for libel brought by them against the ations in which suspicion would naturally Paris - Matin." Subsequently the whole attach to her. We believe that every memmaiter was taken under investigation by a ber of the British Cabinet would agree to Parliamentary committee. The acts of the these two rules of conduct. There is not the three members of the Administration have slightest evidence that the two members been the subject of severe criticism and heated and their associate outside the Cabinet have controversy.

The London Spectator " is swerved from the first rule. Whether they apparently the chief spokesman for the have departed from the second is somewhat critics. That journal explicitly and repeat

more open to debate. In view of the looseedly disclaims any suggestion of corruption ness of the connection between the two comon the part of the Ministers involved. It panies and the inherent improbability that does, however, take them severely to task anything the members of the Administration for what it describes as their lack of the might do in their official capacities would discretion, the delicacy, and the carefulness have any influence on the value of their holdof public interests with which they ought to ings, we do not believe that they have put have acted.” This seems to be the gravamen themselves in circumstances to which, under of the charge against them. It raises an the normal conditions of ordinary life, susinteresting question in regard to the acts of picion would naturally attach. But the conmembers of an administracion in relation to ditions of political rivalry in England, or for their private financial affairs.

that matter in any country, are very different from the conditions of ordinary life. Under

circumstances involving a One principle, we be

continued and The Responsibilities of Official Position

lieve, would be agreed heated contest it was well-nigh inevitable that

to by every one. No suspicion should be directed at such acts as member of an administration should be pe- those of Sir Rufus Isaacs and Mr. Lloyd cuniarily interested in any undertaking in which George, however far removed they might the value of his interest may be affected by really be from any actual impropriety. an act done by him in his official capacity. The Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Obviously, if Sir Rufus Isaacs had been a Attorney-General made a serious mistake in stockholder in the English Marconi Company not recognizing this fact. at the time that the contract with the company was under consideration, he should have

Vorwärts," a So

The German Armor either disposed of his holdings or dissociated

cialist paper of Ber

Scandal: The Charges in himself so definitely from the negotiations



lin, publishes (if that were possible) as to make it crystal

text of instruction clear that he was not involved in a dual rela- sent by the Deutsche Munitions und Waffentionship to the company of owner and of nego- fabrik Company to its Paris agent, instructtiator on the public's behalf. Such, of course, ing him to “ leave no stone unturned” to was not the actual situation. His relation- persuade some popular French newspaper to ship to the company began after the con- publish a statement that France intended to tract was executed, and it was the Amer- double her orders for machine guns, the ican company, not the British, in which he object being to persuade the German Govern

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ment to give machine gun orders to the an armor-plate maker to employ agents Deutsche Waffenfabrik. This is a serious

to stir up

bad blood between any two charge; so serious as to be incredible. It nations so that he may sell more goods ; for should not be accepted except on proof. him to organize clubs for the cultivation of But this is not all that is charged.

the war fever ; for him to subsidize newswärts "continues :

papers which shall preach war; or for him to The Minister of War has repeatedly empha- sell his goods at reduced rates to hostile sized in recent statements in the Reichstag the nations so that their warlike preparations strict correctness of all the transactions of the

may make his home Government indulge in War Ministry. We desire humbly to inquire whether he considers the editing of special

similar purchases--and at higher ratesadvertising numbers of illustrated weeklies and this is beyond anything that has ever been the begging for advertisements by his depart. charged against army contractors in America ! ment strictly correct.

We are glad that the German Parliament has The journal then announces that the War empowered a committee to investigate all Ministry edited, assisted in the compilation of, armament contracts; and our confidence in and invited advertisements of, armaments firms the essential thoroughness and integrity of for the Military Number of the “ Leipziger the German nation is such as to make us Illustrierte Zeitung,” produced on April 10, believe that this scandal will be sifted without at sixty cents a copy, with the express object fear or favor. We earnestly hope, for the of stirring up public feeling on behalf of the sake of common humanity, that the accusaArmy Bill.“ Vorwärts” publishes an official tions will be disproved. memorandum issued by the War Ministry to these firms urging them to advertise in the

The principles which

The California “ Illustrierte Zeitung." The publishers' cir

underlie the grave prob

Land Law Agitation cular accompanying the War Office memo

lems raised by the prorandum, says “ Vorwärts,” points out that posed anti-alien land legislation in California the number would be sure to “ make a deep are considered in an editorial elsewhere in impression in Germany and create an enor- this issue of The Outlook.

No actual step mous sensation abroad."

in advance or in retreat was made at Sacra

mento last week. The bill which passed Another Berlin paper, the Assembly is of a hybrid nature, in The German Armor

a very radical but not that in its main provisions the limitations Scandal : Government

a Socialist sheet, the Action

as to ownership and leasing relate to aliens

Morgen Post,” also who have not declared their intention "acexplains how army and navy societies spring cording to law” to become citizens; while up to preach war with the unconcealed the provision as to corporations forbids ownerfinancial assistance of the armor plate firms, ship when a majority of the stockholders are how files of pensioned officials steadily aliens “ ineligible to become citizens of the perambulate through the country preaching United States under the naturalization laws war, how the armor firms subsidize German thereof." The importance attached, whether newspapers to conduct crazy campaigns of rightly or not, to the distinction between these hatred against France and England, and how two definitions is indicated by the stress these same firms sell weapons to the German placed upon this point in President Il'ilson's Government at higher prices than to the telegraphic letters to Governor Johnson, and nations their press is paid to abuse. It through him to the Legislature and people of concludes : “ The armaments factories pay California. In the first of these, sent in Mr. thirty per cent dividends, but the German Bryan's name, the President “ very respecttaxpayer is treacherously sold." In regard fully, but most earnestly, advises against the to the assertion that an article had been use of the words ineligible to citizenship ;' printed in the Paris “ Figaro” in order to he even goes so far as to say that the Senate foment agitation in Germany for an increase bill is greatly to be preferred. In the second of German armament, the “ Figaro” indig- letter, signed by the President personally, he nantly denies that any such suggestion was says: “If they (that is, the California Legismade to it. As the French press is for lature and people] deem it necessary to the most part significantly silent, it is as- exclude all aliens who have not declared their sumed that other charges made in Ger- intention to become citizens from the privimany may have overreached the mark. For leges of landownership, they can do so along

lines already followed in the laws of many of National Government in the ultimate analysis the other States, and of many foreign coun- must lead and not follow in whatever relates tries, including Japan herself.” This accords to National honor and National obligation. with the two statements on the alien law The telegraphic correspondence to which we question made public by Governor Johnson. have referred was followed by President In both he declares that California would not Wilson's proposal that the Secretary of State, attempt to do more than has been done by Mr. Bryan, should visit California, if agreeother States, and points to laws against alien able to the Governor and Legislature, for the ownership in the District of Columbia and purpose of counseling and co-operating with in the States of Illinois, Minnesota, Missouri, its members in framing a law " which would and Washington, in all of which the acquisi- meet the views of the people of the State tion of land by aliens is made to depend upon and yet leave untouched the international the purpose of becoming citizens. The Presi- obligations of the United States.” Governor dent's effort to indicate at this stage what Johnson and the Legislature promptly indimay be done without contravening treaty cated their pleasure in having the opportunity rights seems to many to be a premature to consult with the Secretary of State, but attempt to decide what can really be decided (rather significantly, we think) made no refwith authority only by the Supreme Court. erence to the proposal of " co-operation.” It would have been wiser if the Administra- One comment quite generally made upon the tion at the very outset-not after excitement sending of Mr. Bryan to California is that in Japan led to talk of a serious clash be- when the State was agitated over Japanese tween the two nations-had openly suggested exclusion from the schools, the Mayor of San to California, first, that the California legis. Francisco went to Washington to get the lators, before passing laws dealing with inter- Government's view, while now the Adminisnational matters, should assure themselves tration sends its representative to California by consultation with the Federal Government to get the State's view.-a reversal of prothat the laws proposed were not incompatible cedure, it is argued, not altogether consonant with the treaty and the Constitution ; and, with National dignity. It is improbable that second, that if laws doubtful in this respect the California Senate will take any action for should be passed, the Federal Government some little time after Mr. Bryan's arrival this would instantly put the matter to the test in week. Federal courts, and until a final decision was obtained would prevent injustice and loss to

Entirely apart from treaty

Is There a individuals, whether Californians or Japanese,

Japanese Peril ?

obligations, or questions as by injunction from Federal courts.

Not to

to the relative rights and advise or to protest against the wording of duties of State and Federal authorities, it is of laws, not merely to urge recognition of the high moral importance to ask whether Caliinternational character of specific legislation, fornia has ground for being seriously disturbed but to assert the right and power of the about Japanese landownership. However National Government to uphold its treaties disguised the phraseology of the bills proand its Constitution, on the one hand, and posed may be, and whether or not they are the rights of the people of California, on the technically correct, legally and constitutionother, was what the case called for.

ally, American public sentiment throughout

the country will deeply resent it if, without The country cordially adequate reason or cause, one State shall Mr. Bryan's Mission

indorses the Presi- take action which gives offense or seems to California

dent's hope that noth- humiliating to a nation with whom our relaing may be done to embarrass our Govern- tions are now friendly and are increasingly ment“ in its dealings with a nation with intimate. In point of fact, statisticians who whom it has most earnestly and cordially have looked into the alleged dangerously sought to maintain relations of genuine large control of land in California by Japanese friendship and good will, and that least of say that, including both ownership and leasall do they desire to do anything that might ing, the Japanese control less than one-third impair treaty obligations or cast a doubt of one per cent of the State's total arable land, upon the honor and good faith of the Nation and that the amount has decreased instead of and its Government.” But the country also increased within the last two or three years. believes that it should be made clear that the A Japanese who was formerly special agent

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