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THE PANAMA CANAL IN RELIEF
THE PHOTOGRAPHS ARE FROM MODELS MADE BY
THE PANAMA CANAL EXHIBITION COMPANY
THESE four bird's-eye views of the whose combined names are a memorial to
completed Canal bring home vividly the discoverer of the western world. To
the reality of that vast undertaking the left can be seen a dredge; through the The first three might have been taken from middle foreground runs the line of the old an aeroplane traveling from Gatun Lake to French canal, and in the middle distance the Atlantic entrance in Limon Bay. Num- are docks, coaling stations, and the terminus ber one shows in the foreground part of of the Panama Railway. The fourth view Gatun Lake, the great earth dam and the shows the locks at Pedro Miguel, situated locks at Gatun, the spillway over which the above and to the northwest of the small surplus waters from the Chagres River are artificial lake at Miraflores. Almost in the to Aow, and, in the distance, the cities of center of the picture can be seen the huge Cristobal and Colon. West of these cities emergency dams that are to stop the outwe can see a fleet of battle-ships. The old rushing waters should the lock gates be roadbed of the Panama Railway, which now blown up or otherwise disabled. If necesskirts the farther shore of the lake, lies sity arises, these structures can be swung somewhere under the keel of the steamer out over the walls of the locks, just as a sailing southeast toward the Pacific. The drawbridge is swung across a river, and the two schooners form the only element of dams which they carry dropped almost unreality within the picture. No large sail- instantly into position. ing vessels will traverse the waters of The Canal Zone contains about 436 Gatun Lake save under the control and square miles, about 95 of which will be direction of a tug. In the second picture under the waters of the Canal and Gatun the aeroplane in which we are supposedly and Miraflores Lakes. The cities of seated has passed over the great dam, and Panama and Colon are excluded from the the observer is looking backward toward the Zone, but the United States has the right locks and the lake. One steamer has just to enforce sanitary ordinances in those cities, entered the upper locks, a second has just and to maintain public order in them in case departed for Panama, and a third, perhaps the Republic of Panama should not be able, a great liner bound from San Francisco in the judgment of the United States, to to Liverpool, is passing down the sea-level do so. Of the 436 square miles of Zone canal leading from Gatun to the Atlantic. territory, the United States owns about 363, The third picture shows the twin cities and 73 are held in private ownership.
THE EDUCATIONAL WORK OF THE
UNITED STATES NAVY
BY FRANK HUNTER POTTER
THE PHOTOGRAPHS WERE TAKEN EXPRESSLY FOR THE OUTLOOK
ON BOARD THE BATTLE-SHIP WYOMING
OW are the men behaving ?” asked cities, recruiting officers can see to it that
of the Secretary of the Naval good of the service and for their own comBranch of the Young Men's Christian Asso- fort, for they are going to command these ciation in Brooklyn. "Spendidly," replied young men later, and it is pleasanter and the Secretary ; “ I have not seen a drunken easier to handle bright boys than dullards, man in the building for over a month." and well-behaved ones rather than ruffians. “Well,” said the Admiral, “ it's so long since Indeed, the good behavior of our sailors has I have seen a drunken bluejacket that I come to be a matter of gratified comment have forgotten what one looks like.”
everywhere. Admiral Evans said, with pride, The old-fashioned type of hard-drinking, that when he took our battle-ship fleet around hard-swearing sailor is a thing of the past in to San Francisco the authorities of every the navy, and the days when a liberty party port at which the fleet touched complimented ashore meant a fight all along the water-front him on the behavior of his men; and evihave gone forever. The new ships, aggre- dence to the same effect is continually forthgations of the most intricate machinery, de- coming. The officer in charge of the detachmand a new class of sailor, and qualities ment of men sent from
the battle-ship different from the ability to lay out on a yard Delaware to the inauguration of President in a gale of wind or to haul away on a rope. Wilson gave his men two days' leave after The mechanical demands of these ships are the ceremonies were over, and plenty of so great that they have produced an entirely spending money. At the end of the two new type of bluejacket, a clear-eyed, clean- days every single man reported at the railway limbed young man, mentally alert and physi- station, and the train drew out a quarter of cally active, fitted for the high pressure of the an hour ahead of time. duties which have come to him under the Only a few weeks ago the correspondent of new order of things.
the New York “ American,” in Panama, deAs a matter of fact, the navy has become scribed how nine hundred sailors from the one vast public school where everybody, offi- fleet were taken at one time over the Canal cer and sailor, is employed in learning or works, and how on their return there was not teaching, very often in both. The duties on a single straggler, but every man reported on board our modern men-of-war are so highly his ship. Considering that these men had specialized that it is impossible to find men not left their ships in over a month, and fitted for them outside the service—they have remembering the attractions which Panama to be trained in it. Consequently, from the and Colon offer to young men of the college day the apprentice sailor arrives at the train- boy age, which is that of most of these sailors, ing station until he leaves the service, his life it is reasonable to ask whether an equal numis occupied in learning one thing or another, ber of collegians from any institution in the sometimes along the lines of a particular trade, country would have made as good a record. always in the absorption of certain moral les- There was a time, indeed, when the navy sons and the acquirement of certain points of was regarded as a sort of reform school, and view which are, after all, the most valuable magistrates would consent to suspend senthings which he gets out of his life in the navy. tence on condition that the prisoner “would
Getting into the navy is no longer the easy enlist in the navy,” but that sort of thing is thing it once was. A recruit must be an discouraged by the recruiting officers, who American citizen, in the first place, and he refuse such men when they know their hismust be intelligent, more or less educated, tories, and happily it is becoming less in favor and of good moral character. Thanks to the with magistrates themselves. Not long ago number of men who apply for enlistment, a Justice Goff, of the New York Supreme large proportion of whom are from inland Court, refused to suspend sentence in a case
sprinkling of college men. The motives for enlistment are various. Some go in because they have not yet settled on a career. Others go in because the navy affords them a better prospect than most ordinary trades. Railroading is considered to be an unusually good trade. At the time recently when the engineers were demanding increased pay it was calculated that the average pay of railway men was $640 a year; the average pay of the bluejacket is $420, but he has in addition free board, lodging, and medical attendance, while there is no danger of loss from strikes or lay-offs. Hence it is clear that the net amount which the sailor has in hand at the end of the year, after all expenses have been paid, is very considerably larger than the railway man has.
Another feature of life in the navy which attracts many young men is the prospect of seeing something of foreign countries. Some years ago I attended the funeral of a retired naval officer in a suburban town, and on my return in the train sat next the petty officer (a gunner's mate, I think), in charge of the firing party of bluejackets from the Brooklyn Navy Yard. He asked if he had not seen me in the church,
and added that he was inTHE NEW METHOD The semaphore arms are raised or lowered at different angles, and at night these
terested in church matters arms have three distinct color lights which are flashed at intervals
because his brother was the of this kind, saying that “the navy does not rector of a large church in a neighboring city. want criminals. The day has passed when I talked to him for some time, and then, imcrooks and scoundrels can get into the navy. pressed by his faultless English and evident It is composed of respectable young men." good breeding, ventured, with due apologies,
As all enlisted men must be citizens of the to ask him how it was that he, a man of such l'nited States, and the lowest age limit for obvious cultivation, came to be an enlisted enlistment is seventeen years, all of them man in the navy. It was clearly not habitual have a certain amount of education, while a dissipation which drove him to it; his rank timber are high school graduates, with a precluded that.
precluded that. He was evidently intelligent