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Although a lawyer, Haldane showed before ending of the volunteer force, which became long that he was a brilliant organizer; he the popular “ Territorials” under County revolutionized every department of the War Associations. Coincident with greater effiOffice. It was immediately acknowledged ciency, Lord Haldane aimed at reduced exthat there never had been so able a War penditure on what was practically a new Minister; and, when, after six years, he quit army. And, having matured his scheme and the office, he left it more efficient than it had set the machinery in motion, he did not spare ever been.

himself in bringing personally to the notice Lord Haldane started on a well-defined of every man in the country his new policy. plan of reorganization so far as the forces For months he spoke almost daily at public were concerned. He held that the first line meetings, appealing to the good sense and of defense for a country so peculiarly situ- patriotism of his countrymen to make the ated as Great Britain was the navy. His Territorial Force a

This Citizen plan, therefore, was to provide out of the Army, properly organized and rendered effiregular army an expeditionary force for over- cient, was to be the answer to the Conscripsea service larger than anything that the tionists. "If I were a Frenchman or a Gercountry had hitherto been capable of sending man,” said Lord Haldane a few weeks ago, forth at short notice, while this army was “I should accept the notion of a nation in also to be adapted for recruiting, in time of arms and the entire manhood of the country war, Britain's Indian dependency and other compulsorily trained to defense, because I outposts of empire. He did not intend to should feel that it was impossible without that denude Britain ; his object was to provide to resist the enemy who might come over for home defense a Citizen Army—to bring the imaginary land frontier and conquer my into proper cohesion all the old-time military country. But we live in an island, and put forces, the Regulars, the Militia, the Yeo- our faith in the command of the sea." manry, and the Volunteers. It meant the Many British military experts are of opinion that Lord Haldane's triumph in the reform of but the Minister was apparently doing noththe Regular Army was greater even than his ing. He talked to you in a quiet, leisurely success in creating an entirely new fighting way and promptly finished the business you machine in the personnel of the Territorials. had to do with him.

Apart from having perfected the expedi- Lord Haldane is a man with a well-trained tionary force and created the Territorials, he mind and a gift for method and organization. instituted the General Staff in 1906, a body All the time that he was at the War Office of distinguished officers to whom has been he found time not only to do his share of delegated a voice in the business management work as a member of the Cabinet and to of the army, along with the work of training deliver more speeches than his colleagues, in peace and leading in war. He initiated but he was Chairman of a Royal Commisthe Officers' Training Corps, while the Tech- sion on University Education. He has a pasnical and National Reserves, in connection sion for education. An educational reformer with whom he transmitted to private citizens before he is an army reformer, his view is some of his own energy and enthusiasm, are that moral power, and not brute force, comalso products of the last six years. The mands predominance in the world ; that Cadet organization, in addition, took a new armaments will tend to diminish and ultiform, which received the approbation of King mately to become extinct; and that the apEdward VII a short time before his death. pallingly increased effectiveness of the means

The Army Estimates for 1912–1913 furnish of destruction to which the advancing science eloquent testimony to the economies intro- of war is yearly adding, and the accompanyduced by Lord Haldane during the six years ing increase in the burden of cost, are prothat he was Minister of War. They amount gressingly cogent arguments against the to $139,300,000, and represent a saving of force of arms. Lord Haldane's scheme of about $10,000,000 as compared with the last improved educational facilities has for its financial year of the last Conservative Govern- object the formation of tastes rather than the ment. He combined economy with efficiency. mere communication of knowledge, and he

The War Minister was a marvel as a busi- would have democracy insist on equality of ness man. Before he assumed command opportunity as something that should be the War Office was a tangle of red tape. within the reach of every youth and maiden. The officials occupied a large part of their He loses no chance which offers to preach time in writing to each other from adjoining the gospel of Civic Universities, and he has rooms; it took days and sometimes weeks to been instrumental in stimulating and encourobtain a decision. Lord Haldane

aging the foundation of a number of new abolished all these had traditions. He set university colleges. To him also belongs the the example himself by being accessible to credit of a British Charlottenburg-a high every one who had any call to see him. When technical school. His great ambition as an differences of opinion on policy arose between educational reformer is to see public educaofficials or officers, he had them before him tion in England democratized so that the and settled matters at once. He carried best training will be available for the poorest through big transactions with a rapidity children, and that the ladder between the which astonished those accustomed to old common or elementary school and the uniroutine methods. The British War Minister versity will be complete. He feels that the has a prodigious amount of work to do in Liberal Government, of which he is a memnormal times in the way of conferences, cor- ber, has failed to deal adequately with educarespondence, official functions, etc., besides tion, and he is the real author of a new which he has to pass most of the day in Par- Reform Bill about to be introduced and the liament. Lord Haldane is one of those inspirer of the policy which it represents. I extraordinary men who do a lot of work would not be surprised if, should the Liberals without even appearing to be busy. When continue in office for many more years, Lord a visitor called upon him at the War Office he Haldane stepped down from the august and was found sitting at the head of a big table, mighty office of Lord Chancellor and became smoking a cigar, without a scrap of paper Minister of Education. before him ; the table was clean ; one basket Since he has been a member of Mr. might contain a bundle of letters to sign, Asquith's Cabinet, Lord Haldane has taken another a series of official documents ; news- a keen interest in foreign policy. The weak papers lay in orderly array on another table, spot in British foreign policy in recent years


has been a certain misunderstanding with Lord Haldane was presented by the Emperor Germany arising partly from naval rivalry. with a bronze bust of his Majesty and a Last year Lord Haldane went on a mission graciously worded autograph letter. In all to Berlin and began a new policy leading to that has taken place between England and mutual confidence and trust between England Germany since Lord Haldane opened the and Germany. That policy has been quietly door for a better understanding he has played but steadily developed since Lord Haldane's an important part, and as a result the future memorable visit. No one is better fitted to is full of promise both for the friendship represent England in these friendly negotia- between the British and German Empire and tions. German statesmen admire him, and for the peace of Europe. know that he knows their character and the When, in 1912, Lord Haldane vacated the institutions of their country better than any War Office for the Woolsack, he could not other Englishman. He approaches German take his heart from the army, although there statesmen with an intelligent appreciation were aspects of the Lord Chancellorship and sympathy. He is on friendly terms with which appealed to him. He remains a memthe Kaiser and the Kaiser's chief Ministers. ber of the Committee of Imperial Defense, This friendship with the Emperor William and continues to give the country the benefit and the veneration in which he holds German of his views on the Army and Imperial Dephilosophers are shown in Lord Haldane's fense. One of the last reforms which he house in Queen Anne's Gate, overlooking carried out before leaving the War Office was St. James's Park, where a portrait of the the creation of a joint naval and war staff, Emperor, who has lunched here when on a bringing the two great defense departments visit to London, occupies the place of honor. into closer co-operation. Here are also hung portraits of his mentors, Lord Haldane, who is a bachelor, lives in Hegel, Goethe, Schiller, Voltaire, and so Queen Anne's Gate, a quaint old-fashioned forth, while the literature which crowds the street near the Houses of Parliament, and bookshelves in his library is largely German. overlooking St. James's Park. It is a street The German Emperor recently accepted five which is in process of transition and is being thousand copies of Lord Haldane's book, taken possession of by architects, engineers, “ Universities and Public Life," for distribu- and official offices. At one end of it stands tion among the school libraries of the Real- the new administrative mansion of the AngloGymnasia in the German Empire. On the American Oil Company—the British branch occasion of one of his recent visits to Berlin, of the Standard Oil Trust.



How good it is, when overwrought,
To seek the woods and find a thought
That to the soul's receptive sense
Delivers dreams as evidence
Of truths for which man long has sought !
Truths that no vulture years contrive
To rob the soul of, holding it
To all the glory infinite
Of beauty that shall aye survive.
Still shall it lure us. Year by year,
Addressing now the spirit ear
With thoughts, and now the spirit eye
With visions that like gods go by,
Filling the mind with bliss and fear,
In spite of Science' scoff, that mocks
The Loveliness of old, nor minds
The ancient myths, gone with the winds,
The soul still finds 'midst woods and rocks.





N English poet has written,

wearing away of the colored tips of the “ The sultry summer past, September

feathers; but it is often true and striking, as comes,

in the cases of the scarlet tanager, bobolink, Soft twilight of the slow declining goldfinch, and others, which lose their gay year.”

nuptial dress and put on a traveling suit of But this will not do at all for our American soberer hue. September. The flame of summer has by All the wood-folk are making haste to

means died down—often it flares high grow fat--especially woodchucks, which do before the month closes. Only the longer not neglect the good things our gardens procoolness of the dark hours gives the month vide whenever there is a hole in the fence : much distinction from August, and, weary and they, and the skunks and chipmunks, are of the heat, we welcome the occasional chilly digging the deep burrows to which they will breeze or rain from the North, as suggestive presently retire. Now, too, as the corn develof bracing days to come. The outdoor ops into its sweet, milky stage, the 'coons, world seems likewise worn and faded. All old and young, come to feed on the juicy kerthe streams are sluggish and half empty, nels-stealing from the woods by moonlight, their fishes dull in hue. Hillsides and watching for dogs and men, dodging among meadows are mottled with brown, and where the shadows, racing across the lights, and a fortnight agostood a field of waving gold with eager whimpering stripping the husks one sees only grizzly stubble, with whirling from the coveted ears. The milky corn is flocks of sparrows, or shore-larks, and quail, climbed and nibbled by mice and squirrels calling anxiously. The foliage in the woods too, but they go by daylight. and along the roads is dusty, droops a little, The characteristic feature of the month in and sprinkles the ground with crumpled, the naturalist's eyes, however, is the southinsect bitten leaves whenever a wind shakes ward return of the birds. The domestic the tree-tops.

duties which urged them to hasten northward Their falling lets in the ripening sunlight, in the spring are completed, and back they and more and more reveals the products of come to their winter haunts in the South. a busy season's work- a wealth of fruits, red, Restlessness to depart seems to stir them as golden, black and white, burdening the tree soon as they have seen that the family eggs boughs and glistening among vines and herb- are hatched and the young are becoming able age. Heaps of ripe apples dapple the green- to travel. Again we notice unfamiliar sorts sward of the orchard ; and “ peaches with last scen in May, and their coming seems to downy cheeks, wearing the blush of mellow excite our resident birds to take to the long ripeness, are drooping voluptuously from road. Snipe and shore-birds gather in chattheir slender boughs," as Wilson Flagg de- tering bands and dart away in the dusk to

marshes not threatened by frost; the woodInimal life responds to the quieting influ- land songsters flit cautiously from copse to ences of the aging summer as it adorns itself copse; ducks and geese cleave their way with purple and gold. The furry mammals through the twilight to fresh feeding-places : are shedding their hair in ragged patches, and the marshes are clouded with vast flocks among which are slowly growing the new and of blackbirds, swallows, and the like, congrewarmer coats for which trappers are waiting gating to fly southward in company. The autumnal molting of the birds is also at In this gregarious tendency the autumnal hand. The fledglings, now fully grown, are migration differs very strikingly from the putting off childish ways and clothes, and get- spring flight. The birds always seem at this ting new suits more or less like those of their season less hurried than in spring, loafing parents. Sometimes, in mature birds, the along by day—for food is still abundantchange is more apparent than real, due to and making their journeys mainly after dark.

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In clear nights, and especially when the moon by the glow. On such nights no one who is shines, they rise to a high plane and bear out in a quiet, open place, where the chatter straight away on their course; but when the of the katydids and tree-frogs does not fill his nights are dark and misty, as often happens ears, can fail to hear in the gloom above him toward the end of the month, they skim low the almost incessant voices of passing birds, over the trees and houses, feeling their way calling to one another in the effort to keep along, and often getting confused and scat- together. It is one of the pleasures of the tered. Then it is that they knock at high win- early autumn to listen to these anxious little dows or swarm about lighthouses, attracted aviators, winging their way to the tropics.

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