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of many narrow views and habits of In fact, if it contains a fair amount of thinking, which a close attention to living Christianity within its member. one, or a few branches of knowledge, is sbip, it is almost sure to evolve such a apt to engender. The tendency is to religious association out of itself. render proficiency in these the standard And then, lastly, these associations by which to measure the relative abili. are usually the ideans of forming ties of others.

friendships among their members, of The theologian, in many cases, dis- the bighest, most profitable, and pleastrusts the man of science, and he, in ing kind, and such as may exert an turn, looks sometimes with contempt influence for good upon the whole curupon the theologian; while both, in rent of their lives. Yes; the memory their several spheres, may be men of of friendships formed in such associa. equal proficiency. And so with nearly tions often lingers when memory itself every department of study. The only is fading, the mind reverting to and cure for this unbealthy state of mind dwelling long upon these glad and is to bring the latter into contact with profitable times of mutual and refresb. the various descriptions of truth ; then ing intercourse ; just as the sun-to it obtaios a realizing, and not unfre- employ a beautiful simile used by one quently a humiliating sense of the of our great poets--which is sinking littlepess of its own attainments, as in the golden west, casts back bis contrasted with the great fields of un- latest rays, not on the valleys, or the acquired knowledge which are yet forests, or the streams, or even on the spread out before it, and also an occa- busy cities he has travelled orer, but sional glimpse of the fact that there far away, to bathe with softened light are other spheres of truth as grand, or the mountain tops, above which the even grander than the one within whicb, morning saw him rise. at that particular time, its faculties are Such, then, is our conception of the being exercised.

influence of a young man's Mutual Then, again, connection with a Improvement Association; it can never Mutual Improvement Association ena- usurp the place of systematic study, bles a young man to form, with greater but rather should be looked upon as its accuracy ihan he might otherwise do, accompaniment, affording a stimulus to an estimate of his own character and engage in it, preventing so.ne of its abilities-a matter which oes far, we more injurious mental effects, enabling should think, to influence his prospects the student to use his knowledge with in the world. To attain this end, it is readiness and freedom, and carrying only needful that the members be with it many incidental advantages truthful with each other ; avoiding, on which should not be rashly despised by the one hand, all affectedness in criti- any who are entering upon li'e.cism; and on the other, everything JAMES ORR. in essay-writing which approaches plagiarism. The latter practice, in- The PhilosoPHICAL INSTITCdeed, is as self-destructive as it is dis. TION, EDINBURGH, was established in honest, cramping the energies, weaken- 1839. lis first president was Proing the sense of honoar and the feeling fessor John Wilson (Christopher North); of self-respect, and fatally obstructing its second, Lord Macaulay; and its the development of individualoriginality. third is Lord Brongbam. It owed

Then, once more, a Mutual Improve- its origin, indirectly, to a course of ment Association often forms the step- lectures delivered by George Combe, ping-stone to some association of a author of "The Constitution of Man;" religious character, and introduces its and it is sometimes taupted even members very frequently into some yet with being rather inclined to the important sphere of Christian work.

encouragement of, not heterodoxy, but

non-orthodoxy. This was lately al- The lectures for the session 1864-5, leged as an objection to it by Dr. embracing the usual variety of hisMcCosh, author of "The Metbod of torical, literary, and scientific inDivine Government." This stigma it struction, are enumerated below, and bas been anxious of late to wipe off, naturally divide themselves into two and it has shown quite an ecclesiastical sections, viz. :bearing recently. It provides its members with a news-rooin, to which ahove

I.--Historical and Literary Section. 120 sheets are supplied per diem, “Reading; its Use and Abuse," besides price lists, telegrams, market by Robert Lee, D.D., Professor of Bibreports, &c.; a reading-room containing lical Criticism in the University of a valuable collection of books of re- Edinburgh. 2 lectures. [Professor ference, encyclopædias, dictionaries, Robert Lee, D.D., was born at Tweedatlases, &c., new books for a certain mouth, Durham, in 1804, and educated period before being added to the library, at the Grammar School of Berwickthe chief periodicals of the time, and u pon-Tweed and St. Andrews Univerthe reports of the learned societies. sity. He held the pastoral charge in This room is fitted up commodiously Arbroath and Campsie, whence he was and handsomely. A circulating library, transferred to Greyfriars Church, containing upwards of 14,000 volumes, Edinburgh. On the institution of the to which monthly additions are made; i professorship of Biblical criticism, in evening classes for the study of Latin, 1846, in the University of Edinburgh, French, German, drawing, mathe- he was, in opposition to Dr. Candlishmatics, and instructions in fencing, for whoin the chair was by its origigymnastics, &c.; examinations in con- nators intended-appointed to that nection with the Society of Arts. There office. He is a prominent member of is provided also a ladies' reading-room, the General Assembly, is the author of furnished attractively both as a lounge several lectures, sermons, and controand a study. In addition to all these versial treatises, and editor of a reference elements of usefulness and comfort Bible, of humble pretensions, but great there is a lecture department, and this utility.] department is usually filled up with “The Ballad and Romantic Poetry great tact. We direct the attention of of the Border," by William Brown, our readers to the programme of this M.D. 2 lectures. institution for the present session, in " The History of English Literature" 'the belief that it will be interesting to (Second Course); “Fifteenth and Sixmany associations to know the kind of teenth Centuries; by John Nichol, B.A., topics wbich are brought before the Oxon., Professor of the English Lancultured audience of the Scottish me- guage and Literature in the University tropolis. It will be seen that the course of Glasgow. 4 lectures. of lectores present subjects of a very “ The Genius and Works of Sir varied order, and that they are of much David Wilkie and Sir Edward Landinterest. The inaugural address of the seer” (with Illustrations), by the Rev. session has been entrusted to the Adam L. Simpson, F.S.A. Scot., MinisReverend the Bishop of London-a ter of Kirknewton, ordained in 1812, gentleman born and educated in Edin- and Moderator of the General Assembly burgh, and who by his abilities and of the Church of Scotland, 1849 (?). worth occupies the distinguished posi- 2 lectures. tion he now holds. Amongst the lec- “ The Story of Jaques Van Arteturers there are several gentlemen who velde,” by Willlan B. Hodgson, LL.D., visit the institution for the first time. London. 2 lectures. [A favourite The programme seems to be a very lecturer in Edinburgh, wbere he was inviting one.

educated, famous as an expositor of Healtb, Economics, &c., for whom it is Keeper of the Mining Records, London, said that it has been suggested to found 4 lectures. a chair of Economics.]

Geology; its History and Pro“The Connection between English gress," by David Page, F.R.S.E., Art and Literature," by John Henry F.G.S., author of several popular works Chamberlain, Professor of Architecture on geology and geography. 2 lectures. in Queen's College, Birmingham. 2 "Optics and Acoustics" (with Illuslectures.

trations), by Edmund Wheeler, F.R.S. “Thackeray and his Works; Old London. 2 lectures. Books, &c.," by George Dawson, M.A., “Sketches from Martin Chuzzlewit," Birmingham. 4 lectures.

by George Grossmith, Esq., London.

Reading," by Miss Murray: Sbak11.-Miscellaneous Section.

spere's “ Midsummer Night's Dream," “ Two Walks through Pompeii" with the whole of Mendelssohn's musc, (with Illustrations), by John H. Ben

performed by a complete orehestra, nett, M.D., Professor of the Institutes

chorus, and solo singers, under the of Medicine in the University of Edin- direction of Mr. Adam Hamiltop. burgh. 2 lectures. [Born in London, The sessin 1864-65 will be opened 1812, served an apprenticeship of four on the evening of Friday, the 4th of years to a surgeon, entered Edinburgh November, 1864, and on this occasion University as a student, 1833; was chosen the inaugural address, as we have before President of the Royal Medical and the observed, will be delivered in the Musie Royal Physical Societies, Edinburgh, in Hall, by the Right Rev. Archibald 1836; graduated in 1837, and obtained Campbell Tait, D C.L., Lord Biabop of the University gold medal for the best London, who is a native of Edinburgh, reports of clinical cases; studied in where he was born in 1811, educated Paris, 1837-9; at Heidelberg and at the High School and the Edinburgh Berlin, 1839-41; lectured on the prac- Academy, the University of Glasgow, tice of physic and clinical medicine, and Baliol College, Oxford, being sent 1842-48; was appointed Pathologist from the former to the latter university of the Edinburgh Infirmary in 1843, as Snell exhibitioner. He was a proand to his present chair in 1848. He minent member of the Oxford Debating is the author of professional treatises, Society. He passed first class in and is held in high esteem personally, classics, 1833, gained a fellowship in professionally, and professorially in the 1835, became exaininer in 1841, took Scottish metropolis.]

"D.C.L.” degree in 1842, in which year Aspects of Nature in the High he was chosen to succeed Dr. Arnold as North" (with Illustrations), by George head master of Rugby. This he reJ. Allman, M.D., Regius Professor of signed through illness, and was soon Natural History in the University of after appointed Dean of Carlisle. He Edinburgh. 2 lectures. [Appointed, was also placed on the commission to 1855, successor to Edward Forbes; and inquire into the state of Oxford Uma man of great industry in the per- versity. In 1856 he was appointed formance of his professional duties.] successor to Bishop Bloomfield (retired),

“ The Hebrides," by Robert Carru- at the suggestion, it is believed, of her thers, Esq., editor of the Inverness Majesty. He was offered the archiCourier, biographer of Pope, superin- episcopal dignity of York in 1862, but tendent of Chambers' “ Cyclopaedia of declined the honour and emolument. English Literature," and one of the He has acquired little or no literary contributors to the “Encyclopædia distinction, but he is admired for the Britannica," 2 lectures.

clearness and force of bis style, and for “Mines and Miners” (with Illustra- firm and discreet fulólment of his tions), by Robert Hunt, F.R.S., F.G.S., episcopal functions.

66

" James

The Birmingham Central Literary lishment. 13. That known and incorAssociation are preparing their arrange- rigible thieves ought not to be suffered ments for the session 1864-65. They to be at large. bave ebosen the following gentlemen as office-bearers: - President, Mr. F. Dalkeith Scientific Association. Sebnadhorst; Vice-President, Mr. A. On Thursday, October 13th, the annual Freeth; Treasurer, Mr. J. Hinks; meeting of this association was held in Honorary Secretary, Mr. E. M. Cole- the Scientific Hall; the vice-president, man; Comınittee, Messrs. H. Allbutt, Dr. Lucas, in the chair. The treaS. Edwards, C. Lean, T. Griffiths, and surer read his anpual statement of the S. Woodhouse, Jun. There are up- income and expenditure of the society, wards of 120 members. The following which showed matters to be in a very subjects have been proposed for discus- favourable position. The office-bearers sion, and arrangements are nearly com- for the ensuing year were elected, and the pleted for the production of papers affirm- usual rontine business disposed of, after ative and negative, to be followed by the which Mr. J. S. Gibbs, rector of the critical remarks and controversial opin. academy, read a paper on ions of the members upon these topics, Beattie, LL.D., Poet and MetaphyFiz:-1. That the proposed Federation sician," of which the following is a of our North American Colonies de brief summary. After a few introducserves English sympathy and support. tory remarks on the beneficial effects of 2. That the Treaty concluded between . biographical study, he proceeded to the French and Italian Governments is give a succinct narrative of Dr. Beatcalculated to advance the Freedom and tie's life, followed by a critical estiUnity of Italy. 3. That the Univer- mate of his works as a moralist and sities are national Institutions, and that metaphysician, as well as a poet. In their honours and emoluments should the narrative the lecturer pointed out be attainable without distinction of the encouragement to young men strivreligious profession. 4. That the in- ing to qualify themselves for future fluence of Thomas Carlyle's writings eminence, to be derived from the exupon the literature of the age has been ample of Beattie. “ He was born in beneficial. 5. That Dr. Newman has the tben little village of Laurencekirk, satisfactorily vindicated himself and in 1735. His father, an intelligent bis church from the charges of Mr. small farmer and shopkeeper, died Kingsley. 6. That the result of Chris- while Beattie was but seven years of tian Missions has been adequate to the age. This loss was partly made up by means employed. 7. That the recent the filial affection of his elder brother speech of the Right Hon. W. E. Glad- David, who sacrificed bis own tastes stope embraced sound principles of Re- for the advancement of his brother, form, which should form the basis of a who even at this early age had shown Bill to be passed by Parliament. 8. glimpses of his future character, in his That the Bank Charter Act of 1844 love of books and solitude, being known has been injurious to the commercial amongst his fellows, even then, as the interests of this country.

9. That poet. He wect to Marischall College the science of Political Economy should in 1749, and showed his ability by be taught in our public schools. 10. gaining in public competition the That works of Fiction should be sub- highest bursary in his college. He ject to a censorship. 11. That the took his degree of M.A. in April, 1753, facts of Geology have tended to con- and a few months after was chosen parish firm the Mosaic account of Creation. schoolmaster and session clerk of For12. That the present system of Church doun, a hamlet some five miles distant patronage is productive of disastrous from his native place, Laurencekirk. effects, and is a stigma upon the Estab- Here he remained till 1758, discharging

his duties well and carefully, and en- in teaching his two sons, with the les. joying to the full that close intercourse sops, in eight lines eacb, marked in the with the wild and beautiful in nature second and third books of the Æneid. which enabled him to become the The first page contains the antograph author of The Minstrel.' He left of the eldest son, James Hay Beattie. Fordoun to become one of the mas- After his death the book bad come ters of the Grammar School, Aberdeen. into the possession of his brother, Two years later, in 1760, Beattie be- Montague Beattie, whose autograph is came professor of logic and moral on the second page. After both were philosophy in Marischall College, Aber- gone, the anguish-stricken father, in deen, the duties of which office be con- trembling cbaracters, traced his owo tinued assiduously and successfully to name below his son's. Two rare endischarge up to almost the very close gravings of Beattie were also exbibited, of his life. His career as a writer and -one as a young man immediately after as a professor was very successful, but the publication of the “Essay on Truth;" bis domestic enjoyment was much the other, a profile taken when aboat lessened by the unhappy insanity of sixty years of age. There was also sbown his wife, bis own shattered health, and a thick quarto volume in MS., bolo the deaths of his two sons when verg- graph by Dr. Beattie, and very beautiing on a manhood

much promise. fully written, containing the lectores Beattie did not long survive the death read by him as professor of moral phiof bis last and youngest son.

He died sosophy. A cordial vote of thanks was of palsy, August 18th, 1803. Beattie's awarded at the close to Mr. Gibbs for moral and metaphysical works are-1. tbe lecture, and for the valuable and

Essay on Truth, 1770. This work, interesting relics he bad exhibited. written to refute Hume, caused an extraordinary sensation, was the means of Edinburgh.-On Thursday evening procuring the author many friends in the Rev. Andrew Crichton, of Free England, two lengthened interviews New North Churcb, delivered an introwith royalty, and a premium of £200 ductory lecture to the members of the a year. 2. `Essays on Poetry and United Young Men's Literary AssoMusic, &c.,' 1776. 3. Dissertations ciation, in the schoolroom under Dr on Memory and Imagination, &c.,

' Guthrie's church. The rev, lecturer 1783. 4. Evidences of Christianity, chose for his subject, “What is truth?" 1786. 5. Elements of Moral Science, ----moral, scientitic, intellectual, histo 2 vols., 1790-3. In addition to these rical, and religious, which he treated in Beattie wrote, but published anony

an able and lucid manner. He was mously-6. “Letter to Dr. H. Blair, listened to with great attention, and a on a New Translation of the Psalms,' the close received, on the motion of Mr. 1779. 7. 'Scotticisms,' 1787. His Wm. Todd, a hearty vote of thanks. poetical works are — 8. Original A vote of thanks was given to the Poems and Translations,' 1760. 9. chairman (Mr. Dickson). The Minstrel; or, Progress of Genius,' 1774." In estimating Beattie's cha- Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.racter as a writer, Mr. Gibbs assigned A course of lectures was delivered in him a high position as a metaphysical Erskine Church, Carlton, Melbourne writer, though he allowed it was as a (Rev. J. Ballantyne's), during July and poet be would be longest and most August, which bas excited more than pleasantly remembered. The lecture, usual interest. On each occasion the which was warmly received, was ren- church was crowded, and probably it is dered still more interesting by the ex- not too much to say that, in point of hibition of several relics of the poet:- attendance and sustained interest, the a small copy of Virgil, used by Beattie course has, perhaps, been the most suc

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