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Literary Notes.

A BIOGRAPHY of Don John of Austria (1546-78) is in preparation by W. Stirling, Esq., of Keir, M.P. (b. 1818), author of the "Cloister Life of Charles V.." whose natural sou Don John was.

Francis Espinasse, one of the most Versatile and Suent of the littérateurs of the metropolis, pro:nises " The Life and Times f Voltaire.”

Adolphe Schule, pastor of Heersin, near Hildesheim, botanist, died September 26.

Professor M. Deutinger, of Manich, author of " Renan and Miracles." &c., died at Bud Pfäffers, September 28.

The crand-nephew of Mirabeau, Count Horace de Keïlcastel, archæalogist, journalist, and novelist, died S-ptember 30.

The Vth vol. of Carlyle's “Life of Frederick the Great " is already in type, and the author is said to be ncarly finished with Vol. VI. They are likely to be simultaneously issued in February.

Captain Andrew Torrens (brother of the late Colonel Torrens, the political economist). one of the early editors and managers of the Globe, which latter office he held till his death, expired October 7, aged 76.

Lora Dufferin, great-grandson of R. B. Sheridan, bora 1826, author of “ Lispings in Low Latitudes," and "Letters from High Latitudes," has been appointed Under Secretary for India.

The Globe edition of the works of William Shakspere, by William Glelark and W. A. Wright, superintendents of the Cambridge Sbakspere, is to be issued in November, price 3s. 61.

The Bampton Lectures for 1864, on the Progress of Doctrine in the New Testament, by the Rev. Thomas Delaney Bernard, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxon., gainer of the Theological Essay prize, 1838, “On the Conduct und Character of St. Peter," and the

English Essay prize, 1839, “ On the Classical Taste and Character compared with the Romantic," and now Rector of Walcot, are in the press.

Ferdinand Lasselle, the Silesian phi. losopher, politician, and poet (6. 1824), autbor of “ Heraclitus the Sad," "The Theory of Right," &c., was shot in a dael by a Wallacbian prince, and died at Geneva, August 31.

The Life of the Rev. Wm. Capning. ham, D.D., Principal of the New Col. lege, Edinburgh, is to be written by the Rev. James Mackenzie, of Free Abbey Church, Dunfermline, author of “History of Scotland," and editor of the Free Church Record.

Charles Mackie, author of "The Castles, Palaces, and Prisons, of Mary Queen of Scots," died September 29.

Sir Charles Lyell's address at the British Association at Bath bas been issued as a pamphlet (translated) in Germany.

David Pollok, A.M., brother and biographer of Robert Pollok, author of · The Course of Time," died September 19.

MM. Perière are about to issue in Paris an enormous Encyclopædia, to comprise the whole krowledge of humanity, in about 200 vols.

Grotis's “History of Greece" has been translated into French by M A. L. de Sadons.

A Thesaurus of French Literature, from the Period of the Revolation of 1789, by K. Graesser, has been issaed by Brockhaus.

A new edition, partly re-written and wholly revised, of Bailey's “ Festus ** is promised.

A new edition of Dante's poems, from a MS. of the fourteenth century, in the library of Monte Cassino, is to be issued by the Benedictine monks in Dante's sexcentenary year, 1865.

Joseph Scaliger's poems, Greek and at Ramewz, in Silesia (where he was Latin, have just been republished. born), in honour of Lessing.

The Rev. C. J. Vaughan, D.D., An Italian translation of Darwin's Vicar of Doncaster, is editing, in parts, “ Origin of Species” has been published " The Epistles of St. Paul,” in chrono- at Modena. logical order, with introductions, the The Philosophical Society's daw Dicauthorized version, a literal English tionary, projected six years ago, is translation, with commentary, notes, and progressing, and an instalment will a paraphrastico-explanatory interpreta- shortly, we understand, be forthcoming. tion, to enable English readers unac- A volume of plays, entitled “The quainted with the Greek language to Theatre of Nohant," has been pubenter with intelligence into the meaning, lished by George Sand (née Amantine, connection, and phraseology of the great Lucile Aurore Dupin, Mrs. Dadevant, apostle. Each epistle is to form a b. 1804). They were written and perseparate part, and to vary in price with formed at her own residence at Nohant, its size.

and hence its name. Mr. Partridge, of Wellington, Salop.

Statues of Leibnitz, Milton, Descartes, claims to have bought, in parcel of Galileo, and Raphael, are to adorn the waste paper, a couple of autographs of

Pesth Academy. Shakspere. They occur in a copy of A correspondence between Voltaire the Book of Common Prayer, black and the sister of Frederick the Greatletter, date 1596. At the foot of ove Margravine of Bairenth-has been dis. page appears the words “ William covered, and is to be published. Sbakspeare." and on another page, "W. M. Baptie has been appointed to the Shaks pear, 1600." The signatures are newly reinstituted chair of political said to be in "the ink of the period." economy at the School of Law in John Macrae Moir, secretary of the

Paris. Scottish Hospital, London, has in the The writings of Charles Lamb, press a work on Capital Punishment, hitherto uncollected from The Reflector founded on the "Lodes-Straffe" of the (1810-11), The London Magazine celebrated jurisconsnit and politician, (1820-9), The Englishman's Magazine C. J. A. Mittermaier (b. 1787), Pro- ' (1831-2), The Athenæum (1829-34), fessor of Law in Heidelberg--the &c., are to be published shortly, under Bentham of Germany.

| the editorship of an American gentleMr. Robert Buchanan, whose "Under- man, by Messrs. Ticknor and Field, and tones” have been gratefully heard in will soon be reissued and welcomed the concert of British poets, has in

here. rehearsal at Sadler's Wells a new poetic Walter Savage Landor (b. 1775), drama, entitled “The Witchfinder.” author of " Imaginary Conversations"

A statue of Immanuel Kant (of whom (1824-9), “ Hellenics” (1847), &c., see a sketch in British Controversialist, died at Florence, 17th Sept. Aug. and Sept., 1863] was inaugurated Antonio Somm, an Italiaa writer of at Könisberg, 18th Oct., by the Crown tragedies, died shortly since at Venice. Prince of Prussia.

"The Early Scottish Church,” by A small tract, containing a few letters Rev. Thomas McLauchlan, mivister of written to the Hon. Wm. B. Reed, the Gaelic Free Church, Edinburgh, is brother of the late Henry Reed (Professor of Rhetoric in Pennsylvania T. S. Baynes, LL B., author of “ An University, whose " Lectures on English Essay on the New Analytic of Logical History and Poetry are so widely Forms,”-expository of the system of read), has been published for private Sir Wm. Hamilton, and translator of circulation.

"The Port-Royal Logic, with Noies,” A memorial tower bas been erected ! &c, has been appointed Professor of

in the press.

num,

Logic, Rhetoric, and Metaphysics in the Josephine, were sold at 1fd. per Ib. to University of St. Andrew's.

a butcher in St. Germain's lately! The London Review informs us that The new commentary on the Bible, recently the incomes of literary men on which some of our most distinguished have become a matter of discussion in scholars, under the editorship of the the Paris journals. Of M. Louis Ul. Archbishop of York, are at work, will bach (b. 1822), author of “Gloriana,” not be published this year. a volume of poems, “ Argine Piquet," & The article on Wordsworth in the novel, "Writers and Men of Letters," North British Revier is said to be by &c., a correspondent says that “he bas Professor Shairp, of St. Andrew's, aathor engaged to furnish three novels a year, of “Kilmaboe," a Highland pastoral, for which the publisher allows him himself a poet of the meditative type, 1,200 fr. a month for five sears' copy- and a great lover of Tweedside and its right of these novels, or £600 per au- ballads.

He receives as dramatic critic of John Veitch. A.M., Professor of Le Temps somewhat more than £1,000 Logic in the University of St. Adper annam, and for his correspondence drew's, one of the editors of the works to L'Independance Belge, in which a of Sir W. Hamilton, translator of " Desletter from bis pen appears every three cartes," &c., bas been transferred to the weeks, he is paid yearly the sum of Professorship of Logic and Rhetoric in £300. Add to these a play, which he the University of Glasgow, vacant by produces every year, and for which he the resignation of Professor Robert Boreceives about £250. This income, chanan, who has occupied that chair however, is as nothing compared to the

for forty years. revenue of successful dramatists, who “ The History of India, as told by make their £8,000 and £10,000 per its own Historians; comprising the

M. de Lamartine (for a bio- Mobammedan Period from A.D. 1000," graphical sketch of whom see British is to be published under the editorship Controversialist, June, 1860) only re- of E. B. Cowell, from the posthumous ceived £50 from Didot for bis " Medi. papers of the late Sir H. M. Elliot, of tations." His "Song of Harold's Pil- The Bengal Civil Service; Dr. Reingrimage" realized about £800, but hold Rost will edit the same author's now his income is some thousands per “ History, Philology, and Ethnic Disannum from the French publishers. tribution of the Races of India." M. Thiers received £20,000 for his A portrait of Kant, by Vernet the famous “ History of the Consulate and elder, for Professor R. B. Jachman, of Empire;" Victor Hugo accepted the St. Petersburg, considered most faith. same sum from the Brussels publishers ful, is being copied and multiplied by for his "Les Misérables," whilst Jules photography. Michelet, the historian, will only pub- Dr. Otto Tambert has issued & monolish with the Messrs. Hachette on com- graph on Paul Schede (Paulus Schedius mission, preferring to keep the copy- Melissus, of Melrichtstadt, 1539righits in his own hands, as is the 1600), a writer of poems in Latio and custom with many of our Eoglish au- ! in German, author of “Meletemata." thors. It is believed that M. Michelet "A History of the Sepoy War." by is the only literary celebrity in Paris Mr. Kaye, is announced as founded on who adopts this course, although it the correspondence of Lord Canning, was followed by Balzac, who united in Sir John Lawrence, Sir James Outram, his person author, printer, and pub- &c., eye-witnesses of the events. lisher, and, as might have been expected, The only copy of the first edition finished his affairs in bankruptcy. (1605) of Cervantes' " Don Quixote"

Eighty pounds weight of letters, known to exist has just been acquired written by Talleyrand and the Empress for the National Library at Madrid.

annum.

The Eloquence of the platform, the Hustings,

the Vestry, and the Lecture-room.

66

The platform is a modern institution. Public meetings and the right of free speech have given origin to a new mode of address and a fresh form of eloquence. The Times has declared that the easiest means of gaining a public character in Britain is that presented by the platform. We greatly doubt the correctness of the statement. The effective occupation of the platform is a task not accomplishable by many men; nor do all those who tread its conspicuous height succeed in putting it to its true use. This arises, we believe, from the non-recognition of the fact that there is a style of eloquence, specific in its character, which secures success on the platform, while other styles of public speaking fail to be effective. Orators often feel this, without knowing how or whence it is. Many a preacher who can step into the pulpit with assured composure, trembles when he rises to speak on a platform, and fails to impress and electrify there, though capable of producing considerable stir in auditories which assemble in a place of worship, and for the purpose of being religiously instructed. Many a politician feels a more palpable shiver passing through his frame when called to declaim from a platform, than he is sensible of when haranguing in the halls of the legislature. Many a speaker whose voice sways the jury, and sometimes even affects the judge, is conscious of an unaccustomed impediment in the flow of his thoughts, and the fluency of his address, when the counsel's bar is exchanged for the close packed platform in a well-filled hall. The habits and associations of persons moving in these walks of life interfere with the ease of manner they have elsewhere acquired, and impart a sense of unusualness which mars their speech. Eloquence in platform oratory is confessedly less common than that of any other sort, and consummate adroitness is far less frequently seen in platformed halls than in any of the other great arenas of eloquence. There is an appropriateness of address from a platform seldom attained, but when heard is excessively attractive and successful. To get at the secret of this suitableness, and to discover, to some extent, its laws and its requirements, is intended to form the object of the present prelection in its earlier part. Of course the reasons for the ideas proposed for the reader's acceptance will be given as the ground of the writer's belief that there is an eloquence of the platform distinct from that of the Pulpit, the Bar, or the Parliament, and that it has laws of its own, and requirements which must receive attention, if genuine success is sought by the orator who employs it.

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A public meeting is a concourse of a peculiar character, varying with the object, the promoters, the method of calling it, and the form of procedure to be adopted at it. At a public meeting the courtesies of acquiescence are reduced to a minimum. No one, unless invested with office by the free will of the meeting, can stand on his dignity; for none is acknowledged. That it is a public meeting puts all men as nearly as possible on a level. It is, for the time being, a social deliberative republic, in which each man, by hypothesis, counts for as much as another. There is no provision · made for personal or social influence or position. These are all, for the time and place, abnegated and in abeyance. Public meetings

"Niggards of respect

To merit's unauthenticated forms." All privileges depend on the will of the meeting, and all rights lie in their voice-except in so far as custom rules and fixes the ordinary etiquette of public meetings.*.

Speech must accommodate itself to its conditions or it can never be effective, and unless effective it cannot be eloquence. He who would move a meeting by speech must be careful to note

“ The bearings of men's duties and desires," and he must win their desires before he can impress them with a right sense of their duties. The first requisite in a platform speaker is sympathy-the power of loving conciliation--a fellow-feeling with the purpose, passion, movement, hope, fancy, or even whim of the time. If, by sympathy, a speaker can gain access to the hearts of the audience, he has acquired the very pivot-point of the helmwheel of mankind, and he has only to work on and from that centre of power, to move them as and whither he would. He must, therefore, be one "that, with most quick agility, can turn and re-return; can make knots and undo them," but still keep possession of the master-seat of conversion-the sympathy of the audience. To be possessed of a nature, or to have acquired the art which enables us to feel, as if by transfusion, the emotions which are stirring in the inmost heart of another, and to utter, by an analogous im. pression of concern, language appropriate to his feelings and accordant with our own, is essential to the most effective platform oratory

A platform speaker requires to be at once ingenious and ingenuous. Candour of view and honesty of utterance must be conjoined with plausibility and dexterity. His praise of his own party, aims, views, &c., must not be stated offensively, dogmatically, or vaingloriously; for such a method of expression will act as a poig. nant stimulus to opposition and dislike: nor must be rate their value too low; for that will discourage their adoption, and defeat the

* See “Public Meetings, and how to conduct them," in British Controversialäst May, 1863, p. 321.

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