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themselves exceptions from his mercy, cannot love him like that wilich distinguishes the "new creature." It on that account. The third admit the same “ general is not, therefore, a warrantable evidence of either rege love of God to man," and it is the foundation of their neration or justification. But if we find love to God hope; but does this produce love? The view of his as a God reconciled; as a Father; as a God who “loves mercy in the gift of his Son, and in the general promise, us;” it is plain, that as this love is the root of holiness, may produce a degree of this emotion, or perhaps more it precedes it; and we must consider God under these properly of gratitude; but do they love his justice, lovely relations on some other evidence than “ the tesunder the condemnation of which they feel themselves, timony of our own spirits,” which evidence can be no and his holiness, the awful purity of which makes other than that of the Spirit of God. them afraid? If not, they do not love God as God; that Thus it is established, that the witness of the Spirit is, as a whole, in all his perfections, the awful as well is direct, and not mediate; and the following extracts as the attractive, the alarming as well as the encourag- will show that this is no new or unsanetioned doctrine. ing; which is, doubtless, the character of the love of Luther“ was strengthened by the discourse of an old those who are justified by faith. But leaving this nicer Augustine monk coucerning the certainty we may bavo distinction, the main question is, do they love hiin as a that our sins are forgiven. God likewise gave him Father, as their God in covenant, with the love which much comfort in his temptations, by that saying of St. leads up the affections of "peace and joy,” as well as Bernard, 'It is necessary to believe, first of all, ihat you “gentleness, goodness, and fidelity ?" for in this com- cannot have forgiveness but by the mercy of God; and pany, so to speak, the apostle places this grace, where next, that through his mercy thy sins are forgiven it is a fruit of the Spirit,”—“ The Spirit which they that thee.' This is the witness which the Holy Spirit bears believed on him should receive.” This is impossible; in thy heart, Thy sins are forgiven thee.' And thus it for these seeking, though hoping penitents, do not re- is, that, according to the apostle, a man is justified gard God as their Father, in that special sense in which freely through faith."(2) the word is correlative “to children and heirs ;" they

“ In the 88th Psalm is contained the prayer of one, do not regard him as their God in that covenant, which who, although he felt in himself that he had not only says, “I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and man, but also God angry towards him; yet he by prayer their sins and iniquities I will remember no more; and humbly resorted unto God, as the only port of consoI will be to them a God, an they shall be to me a lation ; and in the midst of his desperate state of troupeople.” This is what they seek, but have not found; ble, put the hope of his salvation in him whom he felt and they cannot love God under relations in which they his enemy. Howbeit, no man of himself can do this; know, and painfully feel, that he does not yet stand to but the Spirit of God, that striketh man's heart with them. They know his “ general love to man, but not fear, prayeth for the man stricken and feared with unhis pardoning love to them; and therefore cannot love speakable groanings. And when you feel yourself, and him as reconciled to them by the death of his Son. It know any other oppressed after such sort, be glad, for follows, therefore, that the last class only, the “justi- after that God hath made you know what you be of fied by faithi,” bear that love to God, which is marked yourself, he will doubtless show you comfort, and deby the characters impressed upon it by the apostles. clare unto you what you be in Christ his only Son; He is their Father, and they love him as his children: and use prayer often, for that is the means whereby he is their God in covenant; and as they can in this God will be sought unto for his gifts.”(3) appropriating sense call him their God, that love him “ It is the proper effect of the blood of Christ to correspondently, though not adequately. Their love, cleanse our consciences from dead works to serve ibe therefore, rests upon their persuasion of their personal living God; which, if we find it doth, Christ is come and individual interest in his pardoning, adopting, and to us as he is to come; and the Spirit is come, and puts covenant-fulfilling mercy to them; and where these his teste (witness). And if we have his testé, we may benefits are not personally enjoyed, this kind of love to go our way in peace; we have kept a right feast in God cannot exist. This, then, we think sufficiently him, and to the memory of his coining. Even so, come, establishes the fact, that the Scriptures of the New Lord Jesus, and come, oh blessed Spirit, and bear witTestament, when speaking of the love of believers to ness to our Spirit that Christ's unter and his blood, ue God, always suppose that it arises from a persuasion of have our part in both; both in the fountain opened for God's special love to them as individuals, and not merely sin and uncleanness, and in the blood of the New Tesfrom a knowledge of his “ general love" to mankind. tament, the legacy whereof is everlasting life in tby

Others there are, who, in adverting to these fruits of kingdom of glory.”(4) the Sjurit, overlook “ love, joy, and peace,” and fix their "The Spirit which God hath given us, to assure us attention only on “gentleness, goodness, meekness, that we are the sons of God, to enable us to call upon fidelity, and temperance,” as those graces which make him as our Father.”(5) up our practical holiness, and thus argue justification “Unto you, because ye are sons, God has sent forth from regeneration, which is an unquestionable conco- the Spirit of bis Son into your hearts, to the end ye mitant of it. The reply to this is, that the fruit of the might know that Christ hath built you upon a rock imSpirit is undivided; that all attempts at separating it movable, that he hath registered your names in the is, therefore, criminal and delusive; and that where Book of Life.”(6) there is not "love, joy, and peace,” we have no Scrip- " From adoption flows all Christians' joy, for the tural reason to conclude that there is that gentleness, Spirit of adoption is, first, a witness, Rom. viii. 16; se. that goodness, that meekness, &c., of which the apos- cond, a seal, Eph. iv. 30; third, the pledge and earnest tle speaks, or, in other words, that there is that state of our inheritance, Eph. i. 14; setting a holy security of regeneration which the Scriptures describe; at least on the soul, whereby it rejoiceth even in affliction, in not ordinarily, for we leave seasons of deep spiritual hope of glory.”(7) exercise and cases of physical depression to be treated * This is one great office of the Holy Ghost, to ratify according to their merits. Thus this argument falls to and seal up to us the forgiveness of our sins. In the ground. But the, same conclusion is reached in whom, after ye believed, ye were sealed with that Holy another way. Persons of this opinion would infer for- Spirit of promise,'" &c.(8) giveness from holiness; but holiness consists in habits “It is the office of the Holy Ghost to assure us of the and acts of which love to God is the principle; for we adoption of sons, to create in us a sense of the paternal first “love God," and then “keep his commandments.” | love of God towards us, to give us an earnest of our lloliness, then, is preceded by love as its root, and that, everlasting inheritance. The love of God is shed abroad as we have seen, by manifested pardon. For this love in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, which is given wito is the love of a pardoned sinner to God as a Father, as us. For as many as are led by the Spirit of God are a God in actual covenant, offered on one part, and accepted on the other; and it exists before holiness, as (2) Life of Martin Luther, by John DANIEL HEEthe priuciple exists before the act and the habit. In the SMCHMID process, then, of inferring our justified state from moral (3) Bishop HOOPER, See Fox's Acts and Monuments changes, if we find what we think holiness without (4) Bishop ANDREW. Sermon of the Sending of the love, it is the holiness of a Pharisee without principle. Holy Ghost. If we join to it the love which is supposed to be capa- (5) HOOKER. Sermon of Certainty of Faith. ble of springing from God's general love to man, this (6) HOOKER. Sermon on Jude. is a principle of which Script'ire takes no cognizance, (7) Archbishop USHER. Sum and Substance of the and which at best, if it exist at all, must be a very mixed Christian Religion. and defective sentiment, and cannot originate a holiness (8) Bishop BioWNRIGG's Sermon on Whitsunday.

the sons of God. And because we are sons, God hath of the four opinions on this subject entertained by sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying divines, the first alone is fully conformable to the Scrip. Abba, Father. For we have not received the spirit of tures, and ought, therefore, to be believed and taught. bondage again to fear; but we have received the Spirit The second opinion is refuted in our examination of of adoption, whereby we cry Abba, Father. The Spirit the third ; for what is called “the reflex act of faith” is itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the only a consciousness of believing, wnich we have children of God. As, therefore, we are born again by shown must be exercised in order to pardon, but canthe Spirit, and receive from him our regeneration, so not be an evidence of it. The third opinion has been we are also assured by the same Spirit of our adoption; examined in all its parts, except the reference to“ voices and because, being sons, we are also heirs, heirs of and impulses,” in the quotation from Scott's CommenGod, and joint heirs with Christ, by the same Spirit tary, which appears to have been thrown in ad capwe have the pledge, or rather the earnest of our inhetandum. To this we may reply, that however the fact ritance. For he which establisheth us in Christ, and of his adoption is revealed to man by the Holy Spirit, it hath anointed us in God, who hath also sealed us, and is done by his influence and inexplicable operation, hath given us the earnest of his Spirit in our hearts; producing clear satisfaction and conviction that God is so that we are sealed with that Holy Spirit of promise, reconciled; that “our iniquities are forgiven, and our which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the re- sins covered." The fourth opinion was refuted when demption of the purchased possession."(9)

first stated. "This is that avevpa viobeolas, that Spirit of adoption, which constituteth us the sons of God, qualifying us so to be by dispositions resembling God, and filial affections towards him; certifying us that we are so, and

CIIAPTER XXV. causing us by a free instinct to cry Abba, Father; running into his bosom of love, and flying under the wings

EXTENT OF THE ATONEMENT. of his mercy in all our needs and distresses; whence, We have already spoken of some of the leading as many as are led by the Spirit, they (saith Paul) are blessings derived to man from the death of Christ, and the sons of God, and the Spirit itself weareth witness the conditions on which they are made attainable. Before with our spirits that we are the children of God.”(1). the remainder are adduced, it may be here a proper place

The second testimony is that of our own spirits, to inquire into the extent of that atonement for sin “and is a consciousness of our having received in and made by the death of our Saviour, and whether the by the Spirit of adoption, the tempers mentioned in the blessings of justification, regeneration, and adoption word of God as belonging to his adopted children; that are rendered attainable by all to whom the Gospel is we are inwardly conformed by the Spirit of God to the proclaimed. image of his Son, and that we walk before him in jus- This inquiry leads us into what is called the Calvin. tice, inercy, and truth, doing the things which are pleas- istic controversy; a controversy which has always ing in his sight.”(2) But this testimony, let it be ob- been conducted with great ardour, and sometimes with served, is not the fact of our adoption directly, but to intemperance. I shall endeavour to consider such parts the fact that we have in truth received the Spirit of of it as are comprehended in the question before us, with adoption, and that we are under no delusive impres- perfect calmness and fairness; recollecting, on the one sions. This will enable us to answer a common objec- hand, how many excellent and learned men have been tion to the doctrine of the Spirit's direct witness. This arranged on each side; and, on the other, that, while is, that when the evidence of a first witness must be all honour is due to great names, the plain and unsosupported by that of a second, before it can be fully phisticated sense of the Word of inspired Truth must relied on, it appears to be by no means of a “ decisive alone decide on a subject with respect to which it is not and satisfactory character; and that it might be as well silent. to have recourse at once to the evidence, which, after In the system usually called by the name of Calvinall, seems to sustain the main weight of the cause." ism, and which shall subsequently be exhibited in its The answer to this is not difficult; if it were, it would different modifications, there are, I think, many great weigh nothing against an express text of Scripture, errors; but they have seldom been held except in conwhich speaks of the witness of the Holy Spirit and the nexion with a class of vital truths. By many writers witness of our own spirits. Both must, therefore, be who have attacked this system, the truth which it conconcluded necessary, though we should not see their tains, as well as the error, has often been invaded; and concomitancy and mutual relation. The case is not, the assault itself has been not unfrequently conducted however, involved in entire obscurity. Our own spirits on principles exceedingly anti-scriptural, and fatally can take no cognizance of the mind of God as to our delusive. These considerations are sufficient to inspire actual pardon, and can bear no witness to that fact. caution. The controversy is a very voluminous one; The Holy Spirit only, who knows the mind of God, and yet no great dexterity is required to exhibit it with can be this witness; and if the fact that God is recon- clearness in a comparatively small compass.

Its esciled to us can only be known to him, hy him only can sence lies in very limited bounds; and, according to it be attested to us. It cannot, therefore, be “as well the plan of this work, the whole question will be tested, for us to have recourse at once to the evidence of our first and chiefly, by scriptural authority. High Calown spirits;" because, as to this fact, our own spirits vinism, indeed, affects the mode of reasoning à priori, have no evidence to give. They cannot give direct evi- | and delights in metaphysics. To some also it gives deuce of it; for we know not what passes in the mind most delight to see it opposed on the same ground; and of the invisible God: they cannot give indirect evidence to such disputants it will be much less imposing to of the fact; for no moral changes, of which our spirits resort primarily, and with all simplicity, to the testican be conscious, have been stated in Scripture as the mony of the Sacred Writings. “It is sometimes comproofs of our pardon; they prove that there is a work plained,” says one, “that the mind is unduly biassed of God in our hearts, but they are not proofs of our in its judgment, by a continual reference to the authoactual forgiveness. Our own spirits are competent rity of the Scriptures. The complaint is just, if the witnesses that such moral effects have been produced Scriptures are not the Word of God; but if they are, in our hearts and character, as it is the office of the there is an opposite and corresponding danger to be Holy Spirit to produce; they prove, therefore, the real- guarded against, that of suffering the mind to be unduly ity of the presence of the Holy Spirit with us, and in biassed in the study and interpretation of the revealed 16. That competent and intallible witness has borne will of God, by the deductions of unaided reason."(1) his testimony that God is become our Father; he has With respect to the controversy, we may also observe, shed abroad his holy comfort, the comfort which arises that it forms a clear case of appeal to the Scriptures : from the sense of pardon; and his moral operation for to whom the benefits of Christ's death are extended, witbin us, accompanying, or immediately following whether to the whole of our race, or to a part, can be upon this, making us new creatures in Christ Jesus, is matter of revelaton only; and the sole province of the proof that we are in no delusion as to the witness reason is that of interpreting with fairness and consis. who gives this testimony being in truth the Spirit of God. tently with the acknowledged principles of that revela

tion, those parts of it in which the subject is directly or (9) Bishop PEARSON on the Creed.

incidentally introduced. (1) Dr. Isaac BARROW'S Serinon on the Gift of the The question before us, put into its most simple form, Holy Ghost. (2) Wesley's Sermons.

(1) DR. WHITeler's Essays

is, whether our Lord Jesus Christ did so die for all men, I bring upon themselves swift destruction." So also in as to make salvation attainable by all nen; and the the case of the apostates mentioned in the Epistle to allirmative of this question is, we think, the doctrine the Ilebrews, “Of how much sorer punishineni, supof Scripture.

pose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden We assume that this is plainly expressed,

under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood 1. In all those passages which declare that Christ of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy died " for all men,” and speak of his death as an atone- thing, and hatb done despite unto the Spirit of Grace ?" ment for the sins “ of the whole world."

If any dispute should here arise as to the phrase, We have already seen, in treating of our Lord's atone- “wherewith he was sanctified,” reference may be made ment, in what sense the phrase, to die “for us," must to chap. vi, of the same epistle, where the same class be understood ; that it signifies to die in the place and of persons, whose doom is pronounced to be inevitable, stead of man, as a sacrificial oblation, by which satis- are said to have been "once enlightened;" to have faction is made for the sins of the individual, so that "tasted of the heavenly gift;" to have been made parthey becorne remissible upon the terms of the evan- takers of the Iloly Ghost;" to have “tasted the good gelical covenant. When, therefore, it is said, that word of God," and "the powers of the world to come;" Christ " by the grace of God tasted death for every all which expressions show that they were placed on man;" and that he is the propitiation for our sins, and the same ground with other Christians as to their intenot for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole rest in the new covenant,--a point to which we shall world;" it can only, we think, he fairly concluded from again recur. such declarations, and from many other familiar texts, 2. In all those passages which make it the duty of in which the same phraseology is employed, that by the men to believe the Gospel; and place them under guilt, death of Christ, the sins of every man are rendered re- and the penalty of death, for rejecting it. "Ile that missible, and that salvation is consequently attainable believeth on the Son hath everlasting life : and lie that by every man. Again, our Lord calls himself “the believeth not the Son shall not see lite; but the urath Saviour of the world;" and is, by St. Paul, called “ the of God abideth on him.”. ** But these are written, that Saviour of all men.” John the Baptist points him out ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of as “the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of God, and that believing, ye might have lite through Ilis the world;" and our Lord himself declares, “ God so name.” “He that believeth not is condemned already, loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, becausc he hath not believed in the name of the onlythat whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but begotten Son of God.” “ And he said unto them, Go je have everlasting life : for Gop sent not his son into into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creathe world to condemn the world ; but that the irorla ture. He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; through him might be saved.” So, also, the apostle but he that believeth not, shall be damned.* Поw Paul, *God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation?" himself, not imputing their trespasses to them.” “The Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with

2. In those passages which attribute an equal extent his mighty angels, in Haming fire, taking vengeance on to the effects of the death of Christ as to the effects of thein that know not God, and that obey not the Gospel the fall of our first parents. “For if through the of- of our Lord Jesus Christ.” The plain argument from all fence of one many be dead, much more the grace of such passages is, that the Gospel is commanded to be God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus preached to all men ; that it is preached to them that they Christ, hath abounded unto many." " Therefore, as may believe in Christ, its Author; that this faith is by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to required of them, in order to their salvation,-." that condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one believing ye may have lite through lis name;" that the free gift came upon all men unto justification of they have power thus to believe to their salvation, life."(2)

(from whatever source, or by whatever means this As the unlimited extent of Christ's atonement to all power is derived to them, need not now be examined: mankind is plainly expressed in the above cited pas- it is plainly supposed; for not to believe, is reckoned to sages, so is it, we also assume, necessarily implied, them as a capital crime, for which they are condemned

1. In those which declare that Christ died not only already, and reserved to final condemnation); and that for those that are saved, but for those who do, or may having power to believe, they have the power to obtain perish: so that it cannot be argued, from the actual salvation, which, as it can be bestowed only through condemnation of men, that they were excepted from the merits of Christ's sacrifice, proves that it extends to many actual, and from all the offered, benefits of his them. The same conclusion, also, follows from the nadeath. “And through thy knowledge shall thy weak ture of that faith, which is required by the Gospel, in brother perish, for whom Christ diell." “Destroy not order to salvation. This, we have already seen, is not him with thy meat, for whom Christ died.” “ False mere assent to the doctrine of Christ's sacrificial death, teachers, who privily shall bring in damnable here- but personal trust in it as our atonement; which those, sles, even denying the Lord that bought them, and surely, could not be required by a God of truth to exer:

cise, if that atonement did not embrace them. Nor (2) To these might be added, all those passages could they be guilty for refusing to trust in that which which ascribe the abolition of bodily death, to Christ, was never intended to be the object of their trust; for who, in this respect, repairs the e Bet of the transgress- God so designed to exclude them from Christ, he ion of Adam, which he could only do in consequence could not command them to trust in Christ; and if they of having redeemed that body from the power of the are not commanded thus to trust in Christ, they do not grave. This argument may be thus stated. It is taught violate any command by not believing; and, in this rein Scripture, that all shall rise from the dead. It is spect, are innocent. equally clear from the same authority, that all shall rise 3. In all those passages in which men's failure to in consequence of the interposition of Christ, the second obtain salvation is placed to the account of their own Adam, the representative and Redeemer of man—"as opposing wills, and made wholly their own fault. in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made "How often would I have gathered thy children alive.” It follows, therefore, that if the wicked are together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under raised from the dead, it is in consequence of the power her wings, and ye would not!" “And ye will not come which Christ, as Redeemer, acquired over them, and of to me that ye may have life.” “ Bringing upon theinhis right in them. That this resurrection is to them a selves swift destruction." “ Whosoever will, let him curse, was not in the purpose of God, but arises from take of the water of life freely." It is useless here to their wilful rejection of the gospel. To be restored 10 multiply quotations, since the New Testament so conlife is in itself a good; that it is turned to an evil is stantly exhorts men to come to Christ, reproves thein their own fault; and if they are not raised from the for neglect, and threatens them with the penal conse. dead in consequence of Christ's right in them, acquired quences of their own folly: thus uniforinly placing the by purchase, it behooves those of a different opinion to bar to their salvation, just where Christ places it, in show under what other constitution than that of the his parable of the supper, in the perverseness of those, gospel, a resurrection of the body is provided for. The who having been bidden to the feast, would not come original law contains no intimnition of this, nor of a From these premises, then, it follows, that since the general judgment, which latter supposes a suspension Scriptures always attribute the ruin of men's souls to of the sentence inconsistent with the strictly legal their own will, and not to the will of God; we ought penalty, in the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt to seek for no other cause of their condemnation. surely die."

can know nothing on this subject but what Golla

revealed. He has declared that it is not his will that observe that, “ many” or “the many," must mean all men should perish : on the contrary, “He willeth all men in the first clause; nor is it to be restricted in the men to be saved;" and therefore, commands us to pray second, as though, by being “made righteous,” actua! for “all men;" he has declared, that the reason they personal justification were to be understood; for the are not saved, is not that Christ did not die for them, apostle is not speaking of believers individually, but of but that they will not come to him for the "life" which mankind collectively, and the opposite conditions in he died to procure for “the world;" and it must there which the race itself is placed by the offence of Adam fore be concluded, that the sole bar to the salvation of and the obedience of Christ in all its generations. all who are lost is in themselves, and not in any such It is equally impracticable to restrict the phrases, limitation of Christ's redemption, as supposes that " the world,” “the whole world;" and to paraphrase they were not comprehended in its efficacy and in- them the “world of the elect :" and yet there is no tention.

other alternative; for either the whole worla" means It will now be necessary for us to consider what those those elected out of it; or else Christ died in an equal who have adopted a different opinion have to urge sense for every man. “God so loved the world, that he against these plain and literal declarations of Scripture. gave his only-begotten Son," &c. Here, if the world It is their burden, that they are compelled to explain mean not the elect only, but every man, then every man these passages in a more limited and qualified sense, was "so loved” by God, that he gave his own Son for than the letter of them and its obvious meaning his redemption. To say that the world, in a few places, teaches; and that they must do this by inference means the Roman empire, and in others Judea, is merely; for it is not even pretended that there is any nothing to the purpose, unless it were meant to text whatever to be adduced, which declares as lite- affirm, that the elect were the people of Judea, or those rally that Christ did not die for the salvation of all, as of the Roman empire only. It proves, it is true, a hy. those which declare that he did so die. We have no pas perbolical use of the term in both instances; but this sages, therefore, to examine, which, in their clear literal cannot be urged in the case before us : for, meaning, stand opposed to those which we have quoted, 1. The elect are never called “the world” in Scripso as to present apparent contradictions, which require ture; but are distinguished from it. "I have chosen to be reconciled by concession on one side or the other. you out of the world ; therefore the world hateth This is at least, prima facie, strongly in favour of those you." who hold that, in the same sense, and with the same 2. The common division of mankind, in the New design, “ Jesus Christ tasted death for every man.” Testament, is only into two parts; the disciples of

To our first class of texts it is objected, that the terms Christ, and “the world." “If ye were of the world, "all men,” and “the world,are sometimes used in the world would love its own.” “ Ye are not of the Scripture in a limited sense.

world, even as I am not of the world.” “ We know This may be granted without injury to the argument that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickdrawn from the texts in question. But though in edness." Scripture, as in common language, all, and every, 3. When the redemption of Christ is spoken of, it and such universals, are occasionally used with limit often includes both those who had been chosen out of ation when the connexion prevents any misunderstand the world, and those who remained still of the world. ing; yet they are, nevertheless, strictly universal “ And you hath he reconciled,” say the apostles to those terms, and are most frequently used as such. The that had already believed; and as to the rest,“ God was true question is, whether, in the places above cited, they in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputcan be understood except in the largest se:ise; whether | ing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed to "all men" and the world” can be interpreted of the us the word of reconciliation," plainly that they might elect only, that is of some men of all countries.

beseech this "world" to be reconciled to God : so that We may very confidently deny this,

both believers and unbelievers were interested in the 1. Because the universal sense of the terms, “all," reconciling ministry, and the work of Christ. " And and “all men,” and “every man,” is confirmed, either he is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only; by the context of the passages in which they occur, or but also for the sins of the whole world :" words cannot by other Scriptures. When Isaiah says, “ All we like make the case plainer than these, since this same wrisheep have gone astray; and the Lord hath laid on him ter, in the same epistle, makes it evident how he uses the iniquity of us all;" he affirms that the iniquity of the term "world," when he affirms that the world all those who have gone astray was laid on Christ. lieth in wickedness,” in contradistinction to those who When St. Paul says, “We thus judge, that if one died knew that they were “ of Gop.” for all, then were all dead ;" he argues the universality 4. In the general commission before quoted the exof spiritual death, from the universality of the means pression “ world” is connected with universal terms adopted for raising men to spiritual life: a plain proof which carry it forth into its utmost latitude of meanthat it was received as an undisputed principle in the ing. “Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gosprimitive church, that Christ's dying for all men was to pel (the good news) to every creature ;" and this too in be taken in its utmost latitude, or it could not have been order to his believing it, that he may be saved; "he that made the basis of the argument.

When the same believeth shall be saved; and he that believeth not (this apostle calls Christ the “ Saviour of all men, and espe- good news preached to him that he might be saved) cially of those that believe,” he manifestly includes shall be damned.” both believers and unbelievers, that is, all mankind, in 5. All this is confirmed from the gross absurdity of the term "all men ;” and declares, that Christ is their this restricted interpretation when applied to several of Saviour, though the full benefits of his salvation are the foregoing passages. “For God so loved the world, received through faith only by them that believe. that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever When again he declares that, “As by the offence of one, believeth

in him should not perish.” Now, if the world judgment came upon all men to condemnation'; EVEN here means the elect world, or the elect not yet called so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon out of it, then it is affirmed, that “whosoever” of this all men, (als), in order to justification of life;" the force elect body believeth, shall not perish; which plainly of the comparison is lost if the term “all men” is not implies, that some of the elect might not believe, and taken in its full extent; for the apostle is thus made to therefore perish, contrary to their doctrine. This absay, as by the offence of one, judgment came upon all surd consequence is still clearer from the verses which MEN; EVEN so by the righteousness of one, the free immediately follow. John iii. 17, 18,“For God sent not gift came upon A FEW MEN. Nor can it be objected, his Son into the world to condemn the world ; but that that the apostle uses the terms,“ many," and "all men, the world through him might be saved. He that beindiscriminately in this chapter; for there is in this no lieveth on him is not condemned; but he that believeth contradiction, and the objection is in our favour. All not is condemned already.” Now here we must take men are many, though many are not in every case all. the term “world” either extensively for all mankind, But the term many," is taken by him in the sense of or limitedly for the elect. If the former, then all men all, as appears from the following parallels : “death “through him may be saved,” but only through faith : passed upon all men ;" many be dead;" “ the gift by he, therefore, of this world that believeth may be saved: grace hath abounded unto many;"> the free gift came but he of this world that believeth not is condemned upon all men." “By one man's disobedience many already.” The sense is here plain and consistent; but were made (constituted) sinners," made liable to death; if, on the other hand, we take " the world” to mean the “so by the obedience of one shall many be made (con- elect only, then he of this eleet world that believeth flituted) ishteous." On the last passage we may , may be saved, and he of the elect world that “believeth

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not is condemned;" so that the restricted interpretation the judgment of charity," we are to presume Christ necessarily supposes that elect persons may remain in died (4) To say nothing of the danger of such unlicensed unbelief, and be lost. The same absurdity will follow paraphrases, in the interpretation of Scripture, it is obfrom a like interpretation of the general commission. vious, that this exposition entirely annuls the motive by Either "all the world" and “every creature" mean which the apostle enforces his exhortation. Why are every man, or the elect only. If the former, it follows, we not to be an occasion of sin to our brother? The that he of this “ world,” any individual among those answer is, lest we “destroy him;" and, in the parallel included in the phrase “every creature” who believes, place, 1 Cor. viii. 11, lest“he perish.” But what is the " shall be saved,” or, not believing,"shall be damned:"aggravation of the offence? truly that "Christ died for if the latter, then he of the elect, any individual of the him;" and so we have no tenderness for a soul on whom elect who believes “shall be saved," and any indivi- Christ had so much compassion as to die for his salvadual of the elect who believes not “shall be damned.”tion. Let the text then be tried, as paraphrased by Similar absurdities might be brought out from other Poole and other Calvinisis: Destroy not him, for passages; but if these are candidly weighed, it will whom, in the judgment of charity, it may be concluded, abundantly appear, that texts so plain and exphicit can- Christ died;", and it turns the motive the other way. not be turned into such consequences by any true For if I admit that none can be destroyed for whom method of interpretation, and that they must, therefore, Christ died, then, in proportion to the charity of my be taken in their obvious sense, which unequivocally judgment, that any individual is of this number, I may expresses the universality of the atonement.

be the less cautious of ensnaring his conscience in indir It has been urged, indeed, that our Lord himself says, 1erent matters; since at least, this is certain, that he John xvii. 9, “I pray for them: I pray not for the cannot perish, and I cannot be guilty of the aggravaled world, but for them which thou hast given me.” But oflence of destroying him who was an object of the will they here interpret“ the world" to be the world compassion of Christ. Who can suppose that the of the elect? if so, they cut even them off from the apostle would thus counteract his own design? or that prayers of Christ. But it by “ the world” they would he should seriously admonish his readers not to do that have us understand the world of the non-elect, then which was impossible if, in fact, he taught them that they will find that all the prayers which our Lord puts Christ died only for the elect; and that they for whom up for those whom“ the Father hath given him," had he died, could never perish? Another commenator, or this end, “ that they,” the non-elect " world,' may be the same school, explains this as a caution against doing lieve that thou hast sent me,” verse 21: let them choose that which had a tendency to the ruin of one for either side of the alternative. The meaning of this whom Christ died; not that it implies, that the weak passage is, however, made obvious by the context. brother would actually perish."(5) But in this case, Christ, in the former part of his intercession, as re- aiso, as it is assumed, that it was a doctrine taught by St. corded in this chapter, prays exclusively, not for his Paul and received by the churches to whom he wrote, church in all ages, but for his disciples then present that the elect could not perish, the motive is taken away with him; as appears plain from verse 12, “ While 1 upon which the admonition is grounded. For if the was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name:" persons to whom the apostle wrote, knew that the but he was only with his first disciples, and for them weak brother, for whom Christ died, could not perish, he exclusively prays in the first instance; then, in then nothing which they could do had any tendency" verse 20, he prays for all who, in future, should believe to destroy him. It might injure him, disturb his mind, on him through their words; and he does this in order lead him into sin, destroy his comforts; all, or any of that "the world might believe.” Thus “ the world,” which, would have been appropriate motives on which in its largest sense, is not cut off, but expressly included to have urged the caution: but nothing can have even a in the benefits of this prayer.

tendency to destroy him whose salvation is fixed by an John X. 15," I lay down my life for the sheep,” is unalterable decree. Mr. Scott is, however, evidently also adduced, to prove that Christ died for none but his not satisfied with his own interpretation; and gives a sheep. But the consequence will not hold; for there painful example of the influence of a preconceived is no inconsistency between his having died for them system in commenting upon Scripture, by charging the that believe, and also for them that believe not. Christ apostle himself with careless writing. “We may, is said to be " the Saviour of all men, and especially of however, observe, that the apostles did not write in that them that believe;" two propositions which the apostle exact systematical style which some affect, otherwise held to be perfectly consistent. The very context they would scrupulously have avoided such erpresshows that Christ laid down his life for others besides sions." This is rather in the manner of Priestley and those whom, in that passage, he calls “ the sheep." Belsham, than that of an orthodox commentator; but The sheep here intended, as the discourse will show, it does homage to the force of truth by turning away were those of the Jewish " fold;" for he immediately from it, and by tacitly acknowledging that the Scriptures adds, “other sheep I have, which are not of this fold,” cannot be Calvinistically interpreted. The same comclearly meaning the Gentiles:"them must I bring.” | mentators, following, as they do, in the train of the He, therefore, laid down his life for them also; for the Calvinistic divines in general, may furnish, also, the sheep in the fold, who “ knew his voice and followed answer to the argument, from 2 Pet. ii. 1, “ Denying the him," and for them out of the fold, who still needed Lord that bought them, and bringing upon themselves “bringing in;" even for the lost, whom he came to swift destruction.” Poole gives us three interpretations: seek and save,” which is the character of all mankind: the first is, “ The Lord that bought Israel out of Egypt; " "all we like sheep have gone astray ;” and “the Lord as though St. Peter could be speaking of the Mosai. hath laid on him the iniquity of us all."

and not of the Christian Redemption; and as though A restrictive interpretation of the first two classes of the Judaizing teachers, supposing the apostle 10 texts we have quoted above, may then be affirmed di- speak of them, denied the God of the Jews, when it was rectly and expressly to contradict the plainest declara- their object to set up his religion against that of Christ, tions of God's own word. For, it is not true, upon this The second is, that “they were bought,” or redeemed, interpretation, that God loved “the world,” if the ma- by Christ, froin temporal death, their lives having been jority he loved not ; nor is it true, that Christ was not spared: but we have no such doctrine in Scripture, as * sent to condemn the world," if he was sent even to that the long-suffering of wicked men, procured by enhance its condemnation; nor that the Gospel, as the Christ's Redemption, is unconnected in its intent with Gospel, can be preached "to every creature," if to the their eternal salvation. The barren fig-tree was spared majority it cannot be preached as a good tidings of great at the intercession of Christ, that means might be taken joy to all people;" for it is sad and doleful tidings, if the with it to make it fruitful; and in this same epistle of greater part of the human race are shut out from the St. Peter, he teaches us to “ account the long-suffering mercies of their Creator. If, then, in this interpretation of the Lord salvation ;” meaning, doubtless, in its tenthere is so palpable a contradiction of the words of dency and intention. To this we may add, that there inspiration itself, the system which is built upon it is nothing in the context to warrant this notion of mere cannot be sustained.

temporal redemption. The third interpretation is, “that As to the texts which we have urged, as necessarily they denied the Lord, whom they professed to have implying the unrestricted extent of the death of Christ, bought them." This also is gratuitous, and gives a very the usual answers to those which speak of Christ having different sense from that which the words of the apostla died for them that perish, may be briefly examined. " Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ

(4) Annotations. died," Rom. xix. 15. Him, says Poole, for whom," in

(5) Rev. T. SCOTT's Notes.

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