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but was defeated in two heats of a series of cession to the nationalist aspirations of the pethree match races at five miles.
titioners. In delivering this brusque rebuke, the Kramer also distinguished himself by setting High Commissioner explained orally that the many new records for the shorter distances. population was not unanimous in desiring affiliThe showing of the Australasian riders—Goul- ation with Greece, and that the Turkish element let, Grenda, McNamara, and Spears—makes it on the island had actually submitted a petition probable that when Kramer does relinquish his in favor of the continuance of British rule. Locrown as cycling king it will be placed on the cal journals, however, pointed out that the elebrow of one of these marvelous wheelmen. ment of the population favorable to British rule
Among the amateur riders, Ernest Ohrt was constituted but a small minority; and in some in a class by himself, winning the championship quarters it was suggested that a more favorable competition and also making the fastest time attitude towards the Hellenic Cypriotes would ever made by an amateur for the mile, starting have been more in keeping with Great Britain's from scratch. Ohrt's time was 1 minute, 533 rôle as protector and liberator of small nations. seconds.
In October, the British government offered to The annual six-day race at Madison Square cede Cyprus to Greece if the latter would lend Garden, New York City, was won by Alfred her aid in the operations against Great Britain's Grenda of Tasmania and Fred Hill of Boston, enemies (see GREECE, History). As Greece was Mass., a new world's record of 2770 miles and unwilling to pay the price, however, the offer eight laps being made. Robert McNamara and lapsed. Robert Spears, both of Australia, finished sec- CYRENAICA. See LIBYA. ond. Goullet, who, teamed up with Grenda, cap CZAPLICA, Miss.-HER EXPLORATIONS. See tured this event in 1914, was not entered.
EXPLORATION, Asia. CYPRUS. An island in the easternmost basin DACIA CASE. See U. S. AND THE WAR. of the Mediterranean, until 1914 nominally a DAHOMEY. A French West African colony; part of the Ottoman Empire, but ceded for ad- one of the component parts of the governmentministrative purposes to Great Britain in 1878. general of French West Africa (9.v.). A recent In November, 1914, it was annexed by Great estimate of population is 910,902, of whom 809,Britain. It has an area of 3584 square miles, 402 fetishist, 75,000 Mohammedan, 20,064 Roand its population by districts (1911) is as fol- man Catholic, and 6500 Protestant. Capital, lows: Nicosia, 81,497; Famagusta, 58,530; Lar Porto Novo, with 40,000 inhabitants; other naca, 29,737; Limassol, 46,084; Paphos, 38,508; towns are: Abomey (12,372), Ouidah, or Why. Kyrenia, 19,752; total, 274,108. Estimated pop- dah (13,000), Grand Popo (2115), and Cotonou ulation at the end of 1913, about 287,000. Mo- (2456). The principal products for export are hammedans form about 25.9 per cent of the pop palm kernels (export in 1912 valued at 13,398,ulation, the remainder being nearly all Chris. 416 francs, in 1909 at 8,353,252), palm oil (6,tians of the native Cypriote Church. Nicosia, 361,320 and 6,452,100), dried fish (304,670 in the capital, had, in 1911, 16,052 inhabitants. 1912), live animals (155,713 and 151,378), corn Elementary schools of all classes, in 1914, 610 (325,036 and 712,713), copra (105,263 and 99,(414 Christian, 196 Mohammedan), with 739 420), cotton, kola nuts, etc. Imports and exteachers and an enrollment of 33,805 (27,685 ports for 1912 were valued at 20,310,098 and Christians and 6120 Mohammedans).
21,451,317 francs, respectively. A railway (722 Agriculture, the chief industry, has been kilometers), which, when completed, will connect greatly retarded by reason of the lack of water; Cotonou with the Niger at a point near Karithe rivers, nearly all mountain torrents, dry up mana, is finished as far as Savé (261 kilomein summer, and the rainfall is deficient. A plan ters). The line has three main sections: Cotofor storing water for irrigation is in process of nou to Paouignan, 194 kilometers; Paouignan realization. The large numbers of goats, to to Parakou, 246; Parakou to the Niger, 250. A gether with frequent forest fires, are a hindrance branch from Cotonou (32 kilometers) runs to to the development of valuable forests. Cereals, Ouidah and Segboroué. Ch. Noufflard was lieucarobs, the famous Cyprus wine, cheese, fruit, tenant-governor in 1914. vegetables, and live stock are exported. In 1913 DAIRY FARMING. See DAIRYING. there were about 67,700 horses, mules, and asses; DAIRYING. SUPPLY OF DAIRY PRODUCTS. 60,500 cattle; 265,500 sheep; 255,200 goats; and The increase in the value of dairy products in 37,000 swine. The imports in 1913 were valued, the United States was hardly commensurate exclusive of specie, at £619,338 (from Great with the increased consumption and export deBritain, £171,712; from British colonies, £6196; mands which characterized the trade in 1915. from other countries, £441,430); the exports at There appeared to be a marked shortage of milk £620,591 (to Great Britain, £120,713; to British in New England and New York, due probably to colonies, £6249; to other countries, £493,629). a shortage of cows in that section, while the Shipping entered and cleared (1913), 721,515 Middle West remained about normal. The daitons. Revenue (1913-14), £341,816; expendi- rying industry of the country suffered by reason ture, £296,165. A sum of £92,800 was payable of the spread of the foot-and-mouth disease, annually to Turkey, but this is appropriated to which, however, at the end of the year was under the interest on the guaranteed loan of 1855. control as a result of the vigorous policy of British high-commissioner in 1915, Sir John E. eradication followed. Fortunately, the National Clauson.
Dairy Show herd of 700 head were saved by a HISTORY. In reply to the memorial which the most thorough and complete quarantine from Greek Cypriotes had submitted to the British which they were released in May (see also VETgovernment in 1914 (see YEAR BOOK, 1914) ask- ERINARY MEDICINE). ing for union with Greece, the High Commis- It was estimated by the United States Departsioner handed to the Greek archbishop, Cyril, ment of Agriculture that the average per capita Jan. 4, 1915, a curt acknowledgment of the re- milk consumption in cities of 2500 inhabitants ceipt of the memorial, without the slightest con or over was 112 quarts per year, and was slightly higher in cities of 25,000 or over than in a little less than 8,000,000 pounds in 1914, to smaller cities. There was apparently less vari- less than 4,000,000 pounds in 1915. American ation in milk consumption by months in the cheese, running at about 2,500,000 pounds a year, large cities than in the small ones, the fluctu went to 54,000,000 pounds in the fiscal year ations being less than 10 per cent. Investiga- 1915. Here also, as in the case of butter, the tions made by the New York Cornell Experiment trade balance was transferred to the export side, Station showed that milk was being produced in for the year's imports of cheese last year totaled that section at a net cost of $1.21 per 100 only 50,000,000 pounds, a decrease of 13,750,000 pounds, and butter fat at 33.3 cents per pound. pounds from the total for 1914. The average profit realized was 31 cents per 100 England became the largest foreign market for pounds, and the net profit per cow was $20.39. American butter, cheese, and condensed milk, The average cost of feed per cow was $51,57, and having taken 3,333,000 pounds of butter, 48,500,the labor cost $23.12. The profit from cows 000 pounds of cheese, and 4,000,000 pounds of yielding 10,000 pounds per year of milk was 51 condensed milk from the United States. Canper cent greater than from those yielding 6000 ada, Cuba, Panama, Australia, and Venezuela pounds.
also took considerable quantities of American The cow testing associations were on a firmer butter. Panama and the West Indies are imfooting than they had been in previous years. portant markets for cheese. American conMany new associations were organized through densed milk was being exported in record-breakthe efforts of the Department of Agriculture and ing amounts, with sales aggregating 37,235,627 the extension divisions of the agricultural col- pounds in the fiscal year 1915, against less than leges. The results of these associations were one-third that amount in 1911. Cuba led among highly satisfactory, many of the herds under the foreign markets for this American product, their control making notable gains in yields, due while very large amounts were sold in the Orient, to the elimination of inferior cows and the adop- chiefly Japan, China, and the Philippine Islands. tion of the most approved methods of feeding The war has diverted large quantities of Caand management.
nadian butter and cheese to England that would The spirit of coöperation has been especially otherwise have sought a market in the United evident in Wisconsin within recent years. There States, eleven months' imports of butter being were in 1915 over 1500 farmers' companies in but 3,721,224 pounds, against 7,640,995, and of that State, of which 347 were creamery organiza- cheese 46,561,251 pounds, against 58,778,538 tions, 290 cheese factories, and 35 live stock pounds last year. Italy and Switzerland were shipping associations. In point of number and the leading sources of the cheese imported into the money handled the dairy enterprises exceeded the United States, having supplied in 1915 26.5 all other coöperative agencies. The Wisconsin million and 22.5 million pounds, respectively, as Station reported that approximately half of the against nearly 5.5 million from France, 3% milcheese of the United States was made in that lion from the Netherlands, 3.25 million from State. Two-thirds of this was American and Greece, 1 million pounds from Canada, and the remaining one-third was Swiss, brick, and smaller amounts from Norway, Germany, Eng. Limburger. Many fancy varieties were produced land, and Austria-Hungary. but they were of little commercial importance. DAIRYING IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. Census reSince 1909 the production had been decreasing in ports of food supplies in Australia showed that other leading States and increasing in Wiscon- from 30 to 40 per cent of the dairy cattle in that sin. More than half of the cheese factories were country were lost in consequence of drought, and coöperative. It appeared that a great portion of that with the limited milk supply an output of the middleman's charges in marketing cheese only 13,000,000 pounds of cheese could be exwere legitimate, and for the present, necessary. pected for 1915. The annual consumption in
Notable dairy records for the year were as fol- Australia was in excess of 18,000,000 pounds. lows: The Holstein cow, Duchess Skylark There was likewise a serious shortage of butter, Ormsby, completed a year's record of 27,761 and while there was probably ample for home pounds of milk containing 1205 pounds of fat. consumption, very little butter would be availThe Holstein cow, Finderne Pride Johanna Rue, able for export. Australia was forced to become made a record of 28,403.7 pounds of milk and an importer instead of an exporter of butter. 1176.47 pounds of fat in one year. The 3-year Large shipments were being made by American old Holstein Frisian heifer, Finderne Holingen concerns. Fayne, produced 24,612.8 pounds of milk con The dairy industry in New Zealand had betaining 1116.05 pounds of fat. The 10-year-old come an important factor in the prosperity of Guernsey cow, Murne Cowan, completed a year's that country. At the close of the year ended record of 24,008 pounds of milk containing April 30, 1915, there were 167 public creameries, 1098.18 pounds of fat.
330 public cheese factories, 64 private creameries, Announcement was made of the formation of and 24 private cheese factories in operation. the American Milking Shorthorn Breeders' Ag Large exports of cheese and butter were being sociation, with headquarters at St. Paul, Minn. made from that country, Canada and the United Animals will be registered as foundation stock States being the principal consumers. until the end of 1918 under certain conditions. The production of milk, butter, and cheese by
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF DAIRY PRODUCTS. dairy farmers in Glasgow and the west of ScotCheese, butter, and butter fats were again be- land showed a decided increase since the begincoming important factors in the United States ning of the war. Formerly the tendency was in export trade after a long period of comparative many cases toward producing milk alone. The inactivity. Butter usually averaging about 3, war, however, brought a rise in the prices of 500,000 pounds annually in the export trade, in milk, butter, and cheese, particularly of cheese. the fiscal year 1915 went to nearly 10,000,000 The total value of the exports of condensed milk pounds. During this period imports of butter from Switzerland increased in value from $8,were reduced by more than one-half, falling from 529,634 in 1913, to $9,151,674 in 1914. The
general situation in the condensed milk industry point of the foundation to its parapet, and is in 1914 was comparatively favorable. The re- about 250 feet above the river bed. It is arched duced production of milk in Switzerland, due to in plan to a 662-foot radius. The section is a shortage of feed crops, and subsequently the the normal gravity type. The length at the top difficulty in procuring sugar, threatened to cur- is 1100 feet, and the width at that point 16 feet. tail the condensed milk and certain other Swiss At the base it is 240 feet thick. The total food products industries. See also AGRICUL- amount of concrete reached 610,600 cubic yards. TURE.
The excavation amounted to 683,000 cubic yards. LITERATURE. Among the important publica. It was completed nearly two years ahead of time tions that appeared during the year were the at a saving of more than $2,500,000 on the origfollowing: Proceedings of the 6th, 7th, and 8th inal estimate. It is a part of the Boise project Annual Conferences of the American Association of the United States Reclamation Service, which of Medical Milk Commissions, 1912, 1913, and embraces an area of 240,000 acres. 1914 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1915); W. A. G. Pen- Work continued during the year on the Elelington, Science of Dairying (London, 1915); phant Butte Dam described in the 1914 YEAR S. H. Ayers and W. T. Johnson, Jr., “Ability of Book, and on Sept. 1, 1915, 560,000 cubic yards Colon Bacilli to Survive Pasteurization” (U. 8. of masonry had been placed, leaving about 50,000 Department of Agriculture, Journal of Agricul- cubic yards to complete the structure, which was tural Research, February, 1915); C. Thom and virtually finished by the end of the year, so that R. H. Shaw, "Moldiness in Butter" (U. 8. De sometime in 1916 it would be ready for use. partment of Agriculture, Journal of Agricultural This dam is built of rubble concrete masonry Research, January, 1915); G. L. A. Ruehle and with a smooth concrete face, and local conditions W. L. Kulp, “Germ Content of Stable Air and introduced many interesting problems. Its Effect upon the Germ Content of Milk” (New During the year further progress was made York State Station Bulletin 409); B. H. Hib- on the Calaveras Earth Dam for the Spring Valbard and A. Hobson, "Markets and Prices of ley Water Company, of San Francisco. This Wisconsin Cheese" (Wisconsin Station Bulletin dam, when completed, will be the highest earth 251); J. D. Brew, "Milk Quality as Determined dam in the world, with a crest of 240 feet above by Present Day Score Cards” (New York State bedrock, and containing over 3,000,000 cubic Station Bulletin 398).
yards of material. The dam was being conDALLES-CELILO CANAL. See CANALS. structed by the hydraulic process and by means DAMS. One of the most important engineer- of material placed on the lower slopes by teams ing questions under discussion in 1915 was the loaded by steam shovels. The dam is located construction of dams for power development in a narrow valley with steep hills on either across rivers under the control of the Federal side, and as the earth on the slopes was not well government. It was claimed that existing legis- suited to hydraulic excavation and placing, much lation seriously curtailed hydroelectric develop- of the material required had to be carried in a ment that would be of direct benefit to many pipe line for a considerable distance in order to persons, and in his annual report for 1915, Sec- reach suitable earth. The Calaveras reservoir retary of War Garrison pointed out that the when completed was expected to increase the national general dam act had prevented the de- available water supply for San Francisco by 30,velopment of water power on navigable streams 000,000 gallons per day, and would provide for and characterized the law as a "makeshift which considerable growth of the city, which now has effectually prevents all development.” Referring a daily consumption of 45,000,000 gallons. to it specifically, he stated :
In 1915 progress was made on the cyclopean "The general dam act does not offer the right- masonry dam which was being built near the ful and necessary inducement for an economical present Holden reservoirs of the city of Worcesand profitable development, nor on the other ter, Mass., to impound an additional water suphand would it adequately protect the interests ply. This dam was to be 108 feet in height, of the public if development were possible under from foundation to top, and 80 feet wide at base, it. It is a general dam act in name only; while and 17 feet wide at the top, which is 850 feet purporting to lay down general conditions to long. The dam closes the narrow outlet of a cover development in all cases, it nevertheless natural basin and is built on solid rock, so that requires in each case the further special author- a certain amount of the excavated material can ization of Congress, which made of each appli- be used in the dam masonry, while rock excacation an independent legislative proposition, vated near the dam site will be used for the and subjected each project to the delay and haz- concrete aggregates, and for making sand as well ard of congressional action.”
as the coarser concrete, two sand rolls having The Secretary also pointed out that the usual been installed. This work was being done by use of electric power, in cities and in factories, municipal labor, with small annual appropriawas not the only outlet for hydroelectric energy, tions, and is estimated to cost about $700,000. and instanced the fact that the fixation of atmos. The reservoir formed by the Roosevelt Dam pheric nitrogen, through the use of the electric across the Salt River in Arizona was filled to furnace, offers a tremendous field for the use of the dam crest for the first time on April 14th, cheap power-a matter of particular importance and water passed over the spillway. This dam at a time when nitrogen for explosives is so im- was 280 feet high above bedrock, 1080 feet long portant a factor in military effectiveness. He (including spillways), and the reservoir has a urged that Congress enact suitable legislation capacity of 1,400,000 acre feet. along the lines of that which failed to pass in the The year saw also the completion of the LaCongress of the previous year.
hontan Dam of the Truckee-Carson irrigation The Arrowrock Dam, across the Boise River project in Nevada. This earth embankment was just above Boise, Idaho, the highest dam in the 124 feet high, and supplied 290,000 acre feet of world, was officially dedicated on October 4th. water for irrigation. It is across the Carson This dam is 348.5 feet in height from the lowest River, near Fallon and Hazen, Nev. The struc
ture cost about $1,500,000, and is unique in pos- nor, L. C. Helweg-Larsen; government seat, sessing twin spillways 250 feet long at either Charlotte Amalie (Saint Thomas). end of the dam, with a combined normal dis- DARTMOUTH COLLEGE. An institution charge capacity of 30,000 second feet, which con- for higher education, founded in 1769 at Hanverge on a circular pool 230 feet in diameter. over, N. H. The total enrollment in all departThere is also a reënforced concrete outlet tower ments in the autumn of 1915 was 1470. The with two cylindrical hydraulically balanced faculty numbered 142, which includes also offivalves. In its construction there was involved cers of administration. During the year Prof. an electrically operated plant and also a sand James L. McConaughy was appointed head of cement plant. For an earth embankment the the department of education and director of the Lahontan Dam presents many striking and in- summer session; Dr. Philip Greeley Class, diteresting features.
rector of music; Henry T. Moore, assistant proThe Great Falls Dam on the Missouri River fessor of psychology, in place of Walter Van near Great Falls, Mont., was dedicated August Dyke Bingham; Herbert E. Cushman, lecturer in 11th, when water passed over the crest of the philosophy. No notable benefactions were redam. The improvement of the Ohio River in- ceived during 1915. The productive funds at the volves construction of a number of dams, and end of the fiscal year amounted to $3,861,717, Dam No. 10, at Steubenville, Ohio, was com- and the income to $392,768. The library conpleted November 4th, and locks placed in oper- tained 135,000 volumes. ation on that date.
DEATH RATE. See VITAL STATISTICS. One of the dam failures during the year was DEFECTIVES. See CHARITIES, passim. the Lyman Dam, an earth dike across the main DE GOURMONT, RÉMY. See FRENCH LITERchannel of the Little Colorado River, about 12 ATURE, Literary Events. miles south of St. Johns, Ariz. This dike was DEGREE, Ph.D. IN GERMAN UNIVERSITIES. 450 feet long on the bottom, and 65 feet on the See PHILOLOGY, MODERN. crest, 65 feet high, with a 12-foot crest, and a DELAFIELD, FRANCIS. American physician, slope of 2.1 on both sides, and contained 200,- died July 17, 1915. He was born in New York 000 cubic feet of material. The reservoir which City in 1844, and graduated from Illinois Colit formed had a capacity of about 40,000 acre lege in 1860. He studied medicine at the College feet, being the next in size in Arizona to the of Physicians and Surgeons, and received the Roosevelt reservoir. The dam failed on April degree in 1872. After post graduate work in 14th, and the reason assigned for this was that a London, Berlin, and Paris, he began practice in portion of the dike across the channel below the New York City. His investigation of the proboutlet conduit did not have an opportunity to lems of medicine soon gave him a recognized dry out properly and therefore was materially place among the original workers of the day, weak.
particularly as a pathologist. He was appointed As in other States, Pennsylvania requires the surgeon at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, consent or permission of the Water Supply Com- and pathologist to the Roosevelt Hospital in the mission previous to the construction or change same year. In 1871 he joined the staff of Belleof any dam for power or other water obstruction, vue Hospital, and a year later became adjunct and during 1915 rules of inspection were issued professor of medicine in the College of Phyby the commission to aid its engineering depart. sicians and Surgeons. Two years later he was ment and for the guidance of those intending to elected to the chair of the theory and practice construct dams. With each application plans of medicine. From 1901 until his death he was and specifications were required, including a lo- professor emeritus. He was the first president cation plan or map, a general plan of the dam of the Association of American Physicians. and reservoir, a longitudinal section, typical While professor of the College of Physicians and cross section, detailed plans of the spillway, and Surgeons, he founded and himself supported for other works, diagrams of forces, and their some time the first pathological laboratory in stresses acting on the structure. In Colorado the United States. He was called to Buffalo in also there is State supervision of reservoirs, and consultation after the shooting of President Mcdetailed regulations and specifications are pro Kinley. He received degrees of LL.D. from Illivided for construction. While in Colorado there nois and Columbia universities. His writings have been a number of failures of reservoir dams, include: Hand Book of Post Mortem Examina. it has been found that in practically every case tions and Morbid Anatomy; Manual of Physical there has been inadequate investigation of the Diagnosis; Diseases of the Kidneys; and Handfoundation of the dam and of the materials book of Pathological Anatomy and Histology used in it.
(with Dr. T. M. Pruden). DANBURY HATTERS' CASE. See Boy DELAND, MARGARET. See LITERATURE, ENGCOTT.
LISH AND AMERICAN, Fiction. DANISH LITERATURE. See SCANDINA. DELANY, JOHN JOSEPH. American jurist, VIAN LITERATURE.
died July 14, 1915. He was born in New York DANISH WEST INDIES. Three West In City in 1861, and was educated at the College of dian islands (Saint Croix, 84 square miles, 15,- St. Francis Xavier in that city. In 1888 he 467 inhabitants in 1911; Saint Thomas, 33 and graduated from the Columbia Law School. Ap10,678; Saint John, 21 and 941), which compose pointed assistant corporation of council of New a colony of Denmark. Negroes form the ma- York City in the following year, in 1904 he bejority of the population, and the cultivation of came corporation counsel. He was elected sugar-cane is the chief industry. The sugar ex- to the Supreme Court of the State in 1910. port from Saint Croix in 1911-12 was 10,023 Delany was prominent in important municipal metric tons; in 1912–13, 6063; in 1913–14, 5825. litigation, including the fight for eighty-cent In 1913–14, the export of rum from Saint Croix gas. was 86,957 gallons; cotton, 161,539 kilo- DELAWARE. POPULATION. The population grams; cotton seed, 277,144 kilograms. Gover- of the State on July 1, 1915, was, according to