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restored peace to the country, Diaz capturing test and supplies an outfit to physicians for its the Emperor Maximilian and marching into the application. capital in 1867.
DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS. See AËRONAUAfter being an unsuccessful candidate for the TICS; and MILITARY PROGRESS. presidency against his friend Juarez, Diaz re- DISASTER AT SEA. See SAFETY AT SEA. tired for the time from public life. In 1871 he DISCIPLES OF CHRIST. The total memorganized a rebellion against the government. bership in this religious body in 1914 was 2,During the fighting his brother, Felix, was killed, 283,003. There were 17,236 churches, and 14,and Diaz was forced to flee. At the death of 184 ministers. The sect has two bodies: The Juarez he pledged his support to Lerdo de Disciples of Christ proper, with 1,363,163 comTejada, but in 1874 he started an insurrection, municants, 8494 churches, 6161 ministers; and was defeated and took refuge in the United the Church of Christ, with about 157,000 comStates. Two years later he returned to Mexico municants, 2700 churches, and 2100 ministers. and, raising an army, triumphed over Lerdo at The churches lie chiefly in the Middle West and Tocoac. In 1877 he became president. As the in the South, though the denomination is repreconstitution provided that no man should hold sented in nearly every State in the Union. the office of chief executive for two consecutive Churches are also found in Australia, and other terms, Diaz was succeeded in 1880 by his close provinces of Great Britain, in Cuba, Scandinavia, personal friend, General Gonzalez, while he be and the Philippines. The denomination controls came governor of Oaxaca. Diaz was unani- 26 institutes of learning. Missionary work is mously elected president in 1884 and, changing carried on in several countries. The income of the constitution, continued in office term after the missionary societies in 1914 was $1,506,716. term until his resignation in May, 1911. Of the general convention, which met in October,
The fall of Diaz was brought about by the re- 1915, Dr. F. W. Richardson, Kansas City, Mo., bellion launched by Francisco I. Madero, one of is president, and Rev. Robert G. Frank, Liberty, the leading capitalists of the country, and rep- Mo., is secretary. resenting the large and constantly growing DISEASE AND FOOD. See FOOD AND Nunumber of Mexicans who felt Diaz was flagrantly abusing his power. Diaz left Mexico DISEASE CARRIERS. See INSECTS, PROPAsoon afterward and passed his remaining days GATION OF DISEASE BY. in various European capitals, death coming to DISEASES, OCCUPATIONAL. See LABOR LEGhim in Paris. See Mexico.
ISLATION; and OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES. DIET. See PELLAGRA.
DIVING. In the raisir of the United States DIETETICS. See FOOD AND NUTRITION. submarine F-4, which sank in the harbor of DIGESTION. See FooD AND NUTRITION.
Honolulu, Hawaii, March 29, 1915, the United DIPHTHERIA. The control of this disease States made use of experiment and training in has been advanced by the use of the Schick test, deep water diving which had been carried on which has been extensively used during the past for two years previously. These experiments year. This test consists in injecting, beneath carried much further some that were undertaken the superficial layers of the skin, a diluted stand by the British government in 1906 and 1907, ardized diphtheria toxin of such strength that where divers had been able to go down to a 0.1 c.c. contains 160 of the minimum lethal dose depth of 200 feet in safety, the best results befor a guinea pig weighing 250 grams. A posi- ing secured by bringing the diver up by stages, tive reaction is characterized by a steadily in- allowing a period of from 15 to 30 minutes at creasing area of reddening and induration about each stop for him to become used to the altered the site of the puncture, reaching its maximum pressure. In other words, the trouble was due in 48 hours and lasting for about a week. Such to the improper decompression, and the blood a reaction indicates that the subject is suscepti- which had taken up nitrogen from the air did ble to diphtheria, i.e. he has not sufficient anti- not have opportunity to eliminate it. In the toxin in his blood to resist an invasion of diph- American navy the greatest depth previously attheria bacilli. When there is no reaction, the tained was 100 feet, and accordingly it was desubject is immune and possesses sufficient anti- cided to undertake a series of tests in a tank toxin in his blood to resist contagion. The value where conditions equivalent to a depth up to 215 of the Schick test lies in the fact that it is now feet could be_reproduced. These experiments possible to discriminate between immune and were begun in February, 1914, and continued for non-immune persons, especially nurses, children, a number of months, checking the English deand others who may be exposed to diphtheria, compression table and accustoming the divers thus rendering unnecessary the administration under training to deep water work, and also of prophylactic doses of antitoxin in those found testing the various features of the equipment, by the test to be immune. It is also of value in such as suits, helmets, and other gear, as well detecting "carriers” who are always non-suscept- as modern self-contained diving apparatus ible and give a negative reaction; yet a culture equipped with chemical and oxygen cylinders. taken from them will usually show a growth of As a result of this work an improved method of diphtheria germs. It has been found by Kolmer feeding air to the divers from compressed-air and Moshage that 40 to 50 per cent of children cylinders instead of by hand pumps was adopted, under 15 years of age react positively; also that properly devised valves, air washers, and other immunity conferred by an injection of antitoxin devices regulating the supply of air. A diver's begins to disappear in 10 days and is lost en telephone was also devised so that conversation tirely in about four weeks; also that scarlet was possible at any time, where formerly the fever patients are especially susceptible to diph- diver depended on signals by line. This work, theria. The immunity conferred by an attack which was mainly under the charge of Chief of diphtheria is of short duration or it may be Gunner George D. Stillson, United States navy, entirely absent. The New York Health Depart- was supplemented by actual tests in deep water, ment encourages the general use of the Schick the torpedo boat destroyer Walke being equipped
with diving apparatus, including a recompres- eventually with the Brooklyn marginal railway. sion tank for the treatment of divers affected by Two other piers, at 29th and 30th Streets, South the bends. During these practical tests, Chief Brooklyn, were also under construction. The Gunner's Mate Drellishak made a world's record pier construction was typical of other New York at 274 feet, remaining under water long enough City piers, in that pile bents spaced 10 feet to work. Immediately upon receipt of the news apart and trussed were employed, on which were of the disaster to the submarine F-4, Chief Gun- laid reënforced concrete slabs. Work continued ner Stillson and five assistants, accompanied by actively during the year on the new ocean steama naval surgeon, were hurried to Honolulu, and ship piers in the Hudson River at 46th Street. the submarine was found covered by about 275 Boston. During 1915 much excavation had feet of water. The divers were able to attach been done for the new South Boston dry dock, lines to the vessel, and the greatest depth at which was to be the largest in the United States, tained by any diver, 288 feet, a world's record, being 1200 x 149 feet in over all dimensions. was made.
Philadelphia. Two piers, known as the SouthDOCKS AND HARBORS. UNITED STATES. wark piers, were completed during the year at New London. The State of Connecticut during Philadelphia. It was part of a scheme ultithe year 1915 was engaged in the construction mately to give the city a municipally owned of a 1000-foot pier, 200 feet wide, at New Lon- waterfront of more than a mile. These two don, at a cost of $1,000,000. The design piers were the first of such a group, and repreadopted under the appropriation made by the sented the best construction yet undertaken by State Legislature in 1911 called for a fill inside the city, being designed along the lines of the of masonry bulkheads, with outside deck made general Philadelphia type of construction with up of pre-cast concrete slabs resting on reënforced concrete substructures extending soted timber piles. This new pier, made for a down to low water and carried on wooden piles. steamship terminal, was designed for a commer. The superstructure was of structural steel with cial life of 25 years, this time being selected, as reënforced concrete facings. The two new piers, it was thought that in the interval changes in known as Nos. 38 and 40, are along the Delatransportation would render of doubtful utility ware River at the foot of Queen and Christian any more permanent construction.
Streets, 550 feet in length, 180 feet wide, and New Orleans Improvement. During the year 200 feet apart. These piers are two-story strucwork was begun on an important port improve- tures with numerous elevators and sheds of vament in New Orleans, whereby a large wharf, six rious kinds, while the railroad tracks down the large reënforced concrete cotton warehouses, and middle of each pier connect with the belt line on a railway terminal covering approximately 100 Delaware Avenue. The actual construction of acres of ground, and costing $3,500,000, were put this work, which will involve eventually the ex: under way. The terminal wharves, located on penditure of $24,000,000 for the South Philadel. the Mississippi River, were to be two-story struc- phia Railway improvement, began in April, and tures of reënforced concrete, 2000 feet in length, involved not only an extensive railway system to and 180 feet wide, built on pine piles placed 20 give access to the piers and to the various indusfeet on centres each way. On these piles re- tries along the river, but also a systematic im. enforced concrete columns were to be carried up provement of the water front. to the first floor of the wharf, the two stories of Los Angeles. The city of Los Angeles had the superstructure being 16 feet 8 inches, and under construction a large timber wharf and 15 feet 8 inches, respectively. The wharf and shed on Mormon Island channel in the inner general terminal were to be provided with con- harbor and a concrete wharf and steel shed on veyor apparatus for handling cargoes and a com- the east side of the east channel in the outer plete system of railway tracks.
harbor. The latter was one of the first sections New York Docks and Piers. The construction of the outer harbor improvement, and is a dock of the water terminal to be connected with the 650 feet wide and 4000 feet long, with the main New Haven, Pennsylvania, and New York Cen- ship channel on one side and the east channel on tral railroads at Hunt's Point, in the Borough the other. of the Bronx, was in active progress during the Chicago. In Chicago a municipal pier was year. This project involved the construction under construction for freight and passenger and filling in behind a 3600-foot bulkhead to re- steamship service, with a recreation space and claim 200 acres of ground, and required heavy public hall in addition located north of the pile driving, dredging, the placing of 400,000 mouth of the Chicago River in line with Grand tons of riprap, and extensive filling with other Avenue and Illinois Street. It was 3000 feet materials, not to mention suction dredge work- long and 292 feet in width. At the shore end ing. As much of the work had to be done in was a head house forming an ornamental enoriginally soft mud and varying types of bot- trance and carrying offices on its upper floors. tom, practically every form of construction was Two parallel double deck buildings, 2335 feet in involved, and a large amount of stone from length, are used for freight and passenger servBronx subway cuts was employed in the filling. ice, and are supported on a central 80-foot driveWork was in progress during the year on a new way. The remaining 665 feet of the pier length South Brooklyn pier at 35th Street, 1740 feet are devoted to recreation purposes, with an open in length, 175 feet wide, this being the longest upper deck which forms a shelter for the space pier yet built in New York Harbor. This pier below. Near the end of the pier is a municipal has a railway track on either side so that there hall for public meetings, concerts, etc. Two can be direct transfer from ship to cars, which double track railways extend along the sides of the steamship company owning the pier claims the driveway adjacent to the sheds, and a douis both possible and essential. The shed of the ble track incline will connect the street railways pier is nearly 140 feet wide, and the tracks are with tracks on the upper deck of the pier. The placed outside the shed. The floor slabs are of pier is an elaborate structure and the total cost reënforced concrete. The pier will be connected was estimated at about $4,000,000.
Cleveland. At Cleveland, Ohio, the new Ninth ton concrete blocks stacked up to the required Street pier in Lake Erie was opened for service height and joined together laterally to form a late in June, so that the steamship companies continuous wall. Above low water granite faccould use the lake proper for docking instead of ing is employed as a protection against frost the channel of the Cuyahoga River, the lake and sea water. An elaborate system of shed and front being protected by an extended breakwater. warehouse structures has been planned, and the This new pier was built by the steamship com- construction was actively in progress during the panies and is connected to the trunk line rail. year. The plan for the Halifax port developways. It is 720 feet in length and 300 feet wide, ment was so well worked out that it was bebeing made of a continuous line of concrete wall, lieved that when completed the terminal costs part of which is founded on the remains of an at this port could be brought in proper relation old bulkhead and the rest on new pile construc- to its operation costs, but it was a problem tion.
whether, with all its facilities and low terminal St. Louis. Plans for the first section of the charges, sufficient commerce would be directed municipal dock system at St. Louis, Mo., were to Halifax in preference to Montreal and Queapproved, during 1915, by the Board of Public bec, to warrant the long railway hauls from the Service, and an ordinance authorizing the con- interior to the coast. struction was introduced in the Board of Alder- Prince Rupert. The official test of the 20,000
The estimated cost of the dock alone is ton floating dry-dock at the ship-repair plant of $255,000, and of equipment $30,000. The first the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway at Prince unit of the dock was to be 300 feet long out of Rupert, Canada, was made successfully during a total length of 1200 feet, and was to be a re- the year, and the plant was ready for work. It enforced-concrete structure, including both piling includes a carpenter shop, shipbuilding shed, and decks. The dock will be open underneath launching platform, machine shop, boiler and and riprapped. A railroad track was to extend blacksmith shops, foundry, and a power plant. down the centre of the dock, back of which a Victoria. Progress was continued during the steel frame warehouse was to be built. The dock year at Victoria, B. C., in harbor development was to be equipped with two traveling cranes under the supervision of the Department of Pubfor transferring material between either boats lic Works of Canada. The project involved the and cars, or between boats and the warehouse, construction of 2500 feet of breakwater and two and the warehouse and platforms were to be large docks in the outer harbor, all with rubequipped with electric trucks. The estimated ber-mound foundations and reënforced concrete cost of the other three sections of the dock, sub- superstructure. The breakwater affords a 90sequently to be put under construction, was acre area of shelter, within which are the two $155,000.
docks, which have berthing space from 800 to Coal Dock at Toledo. At the opening of navi- 1000 feet in length. The improvement of the gation on the Great Lakes a new coal handling channel was also under way, and it was intended plant, dock, and yard, containing one of the that the inner harbor should be used by smaller three largest car dumpers in the country, was craft. put into use at Toledo, Ohio, by the Cincinnati, Toronto. During 1915, $2,000,000 was being Hamilton, and Dayton Railway. This new ter- spent on the Toronto harbor improvement, being minal, which was constructed during the winter, devoted to the water front between the Don and involved 802 feet of concrete dock, concrete the Humber rivers, and supplementing the $1,foundations for the unloader, approach, and 400,000 spent in 1914 in piles, cribs, dredging, run-off trestles, the relaying of the load and and filling. The total estimated cost of the enempty yards, and the erection of the unloader tire improvement, which is about equally diframe and machinery. The load yard has a ca- vided between the Harbor Commission and the pacity for 140 cars, and the empty yard for 96 Dominion government, is $24,000,000, and concars. The new dock, except at the unloaders, is tracts for nearly $11,000,000 have been let. of reënforced concrete on piles cut off 18 inches ZUYDER ZEE.. One effect of the war was the below the water line.
postponement of the vast project for the reclaBALBOA DBY DOCK. The important dry dock mation of the Zuyder Zee, which had been disat Balboa for the Panama Canal, described in cussed for a quarter of a century previously, the YEAR Book for 1914, was practically com- and which latterly had been developed in displeted at the end of 1915. A second dry dock tinct plans whose consideration by the Dutch had been planned, but its erection was not con- Parliament was desired. It was necessary first templated for some years.
to have the various departments of the governCANADA. Halifax. The largest harbor work ment approve the plans, and this approval had in progress during the year in North America been forthcoming for all the civil departments, was at Halifax, N. S., where the Dominion De- but the War Department had been unable up to partment of Railways and Canals was develop- 1915 to pass on the military features of the ing the port as a part of a project to cost $30, reclamation project, as naturally this affected 000,000.“ Contracts in force during the year the schemes of national defense, and was one totaled over $7,000,000, and the new work in reason for the delay, although financial considvolved the building of a large reënforced con- erations also applied. The proposed scheme was crete pier, as one of six for deep water vessels, to cost 300,000,000 guilders (a guilder equaling as well as a 2000-foot landing quay, and some forty United States cents), and would reclaim 6 miles of railways, so as to insure communica- at the same time an area of about 47,000,000 tion throughout the terminal and with the rail
The cost of the project would be spread ways. Halifax is a deep water, all the year, over a number of years, but with the expense port, and the work is being prosecuted with the for mobilization, which up to September had idea of making it an important landing place amounted to 275,000,000 guilders within its Eufor the commerce of Canada. The construction ropean limits, and 65,000,000 in the colonies, work for the quay wall involved the use of 60- with a flotation of a 200,000,000 guilder war
loan, there was little chance for expenditure on PRODUCTION, COMMERCE, ETC. Agriculture civic works. The project was of interest, as it and cattle raising are virtually the only source involved a vast mileage of dykes, canals, with of national wealth, as mining and manufacturing locks connecting the canals with the sea, large are little developed. Sugar and cacao are compumping stations, and various economic prob- mercially the leading crops. Others of imporlems, such as the destruction of the salt water tance are tobacco, coffee, cotton, and bananas fishing industry and its possible replacement by and other fruits. a fresh water fishing industry of large propor- Several different sets of figures were published tions. Further, there would be involved the in 1915 purporting to state the commerce of construction of an auxiliary system of canals to 1914. The following are taken from the Gaceta preserve water communication facilities for the Oficial mentioned above. Imports and exports towns on the Zuyder Zee, and a provision for in 1913, $9,348,839 and $10,047,297; in 1914, $6,suitable materials for the levees and other works, 608,112 and $10,611,228. Sugar export in 1914, many of these not being native to Dutch soil. 103,331 metric tons, valued at $4,973,272; cacao, On the engineering side the project was so com- 20,825 metric tons, $3,899,102. Considerably plete and interesting that its abandonment even more than half the trade, both importation and temporarily was a source of regret. See CA- exportation, is with the United States.
The length of railway in operation is reported DODGE, ARTHUR PILLSBURY. American law. at 282 kilometers (175 miles) ; in addition there yer, inventor, and publisher, died Oct. 12, 1915. are private lines for sugar plantations reported He was born in Enfield, Mass., in 1849; studied at 362 kilometers (225 miles). Telegraph oflaw; and in 1879 was admitted to the bar. In fices, 16, with 352 miles of line. Post offices, 1886 he founded the New England Magazine, and 105. later the Bay State Monthly, and the Granite FINANCE. The unit of value is the American State Monthly. For a time engaged in the pub- dollar. For 1915, estimated revenue and exlishing business, he later became interested, penditure, $4,485,350 and $4,490,821, respecthrough his association with George M. Pullman, tively. Nearly four-fifths of the revenue is dein motor power for railways.
rived from customs. A treaty between the DomDOLOMITE. See GEOLOGY.
inican Republic and the United States authorDOMINICA. A presidency of the Leeward ized a loan of $20,000,000 for the conversion of Islands colony. Most of the inhabitants are de- the debt, and established an American receiverscendants of the original French settlers and ship of customs from April 1, 1905. The sum speak a patois. Roseau, the capital, had, at the of only about $14,000,000 was issued, the bal1911 census, 6577 inhabitants. The island is ance being kept against certain disputed liabilifertile; coffee, sugar, spices, oils, timber, fruits, ties and the provision of a fund for public works. etc., are exported. Trade and finance statistics Total outstanding, Dec. 31, 1914, $13,042,850. for the years 1907-14 are given in the following A further loan of $1,500,000, having no connectable:
tion with the original loan, was issued in March, 1913. Both loans are guaranteed by the cus
toms. By agreement between the Dominican Imports £121,650 £128,779 £147,332 £175,590
and American governments in 1914, an AmeriExports
102,339 112,111 190.701 can financial expert was appointed to control the Revenue
39,865 39,521 42,133 48,143 national expenditure and the revenues other Expenditure 31,486 41,860 39,603 47,572
than those derived from customs. Shipping 508,631 713,227 694,985 572,222
GOVERNMENT. The executive authority is * Tonnage entered and cleared.
vested in a President, who, constitutionally, is
elected by indirect vote for six years. The legis. See LEEWARD ISLANDS.
lative power rests with a Congress of two houses, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, THE. An inde- the Senate (12 members, elected for six years) pendent state occupying the larger and eastern and the Chamber of Deputies (24 members, part of the Island of Haiti. The capital is elected for four years). În 1913 José Bordas Santo Domingo.
Valdés became provisional President, assuming AREA, POPULATION, ETC. The republic con- office April 14th. After the insurrection of sists of 12 provinces, with an estimated area of 1914, Bordas Valdés resigned (August 27th), 48,577 square kilometers (18,756 square miles). and the Congress elected Ramón Báez as proviEstimates of population vary. A 1913 estimate sional President. At elections held later in was 724,500. In October, 1915, the Gaceta 1914, Juan Isidro Jiménez was chosen President, Oficial stated the population (as for Dec. 31, and on December 5th he was inaugurated for the 1914) at 657,270. The population of Santo Do- six-year term. mingo was given as 26,486; according to an un- HISTORY. Confusion in Financial Affairs. official census, reported earlier in 1915, the popu- Late in January it became known that a shortlation was 23,624. Estimated population of age existed in the San Domingo Department of other towns: Santiago, 20,000; Puerto Plata Public Works. Under the right which was given (the chief port) and San Pedro de Macorís, to the United States by the convention between 15,000 to 16,000 each; Samaná, La Vega, Sán- the two countries, Secretary of State Bryan, on chez, Monte Cristi, and Azua, 4000 to 5000 January 22nd, ordered an investigation of the each.
situation. Three days later the State DepartReported births in 1913, 27,332, and in 1914, ment at Washington issued the statement: 24,319; marriages, 2557 and 2022; deaths in “When Nolasca, the auditor in charge of the 1914, 6393; immigration in 1914, 3930, and emi- Public Works Fund, was removed recently, a degration, 1587. Primary instruction is free and falcation of some $8000 was discovered. The nominally compulsory. In 1911 there were 590 irregularities date back at least two years. A schools, with 20,453 pupils. The state religion further defalcation of $1000 is reported under is Roman Catholicism.
the Mann administration. Nolasca is a citizen
of Santo Domingo and his appointment was master of the high school of Edinburgh, and made by the Santo Domingo government. Full in 1881 professor at Aberdeen University. He information has been asked for, and, in so far held this position until 1886, when he was apas the prosecution depends upon the actions of pointed vice-chancellor and principal of the Unithis government, instructions will be given when versity of St. Andrews. He was one of the first the facts are fully known.”. By the terms of to endorse simplified spelling. He wrote widely the convention American officials were in charge and authoritatively on a number of educational of the customs houses of the republic as well as subjects. In 1907 he was knighted. His pubseveral other financial posts. It is the duty of lished writings include: A Greek Grammar these officials' to see that the interest on the (1863); The Apostolical Fathers (1874); The American-owned debt is paid monthly, that the Westminster Confession of Faith (1905); and sinking fund is enlarged, and that the residue Woman: Her Position and Influence in Ancient of the customs, after 5 per cent is taken out Greece and Rome, and Among the Early Chrisfor expenses, is turned over to the government. tians (1906). The defalcation of the two sums of $8000 and D'OOGE, MARTIN LUTHER. American scholar $1000 occurred entirely in the native administra- and educator, died Sept. 13, 1915. He was born tion of affairs, not in any department with which at Zennemaire, Netherlands, in 1839, and graduAmericans were connected.
ated from the University of Michigan in 1862. Sullivan Inquiry, On January 13th, Presi. He afterwards studied at the University of dent Wilson ordered an investigation as to the Leipzig. In 1867 he was appointed assistant fitness of James M. Sullivan, minister to Santo professor of ancient languages at the University Domingo. This investigation was in answer to of Michigan, becoming acting professor of Greek a letter sent to the President by W. W. Vick, language and literature there in 1868, proformerly connected with the American admin- fessor in 1870, and professor emeritus in 1912. istration of Dominican customs. Mr. Vick He was ordained to the Congregational ministry charged that Sullivan owed his appointment to in 1878, and in the same year became one of the a political group representing the interests of commissioners of the American School of Classithe Banco Nacional of San Domingo, who had in cal Studies, at Athens, and was its director in view the control of concessions, government con- 1886–87. In 1884 he was president of the Amertracts, or deposits of government funds. The ican Philological Association. He was an editor names of Secretary of State Bryan, ex-Governor of Greek classics, the author of The Acropolis of Martin H. Glynn of New York, and Representa Athens (1898), and a contributor to journals tive James H. Hamill were mentioned among and periodicals, classical and archæological. He those alleged to share in profits from the pros- received the degree of LL.D. from the University pective contracts. Witnesses testified in New of Michigan, and D.Litt. from Rutgers College. York, Washington, and Philadelphia, while offi- DOUGHERTY, WILLIAM EDWARD. American cials likewise came from the Banco Nacional to soldier, died July 13, 1915. He was born in offer their evidence. It became known in June Ireland in 1841, and was educated in private that Senator Phelan, in charge of the investiga- schools there, in Germany, and in England. He tion, reported to the President that Minister removed to the United States, and on the outSullivan had done nothing which involved moral break of the Civil War enlisted as a private in turpitude, but was temperamentally unfitted the United States infantry. He served throughfor a diplomatic post. Consequently, Minister out the war, rising to the rank of first lieutenSullivan's resignation
announced in ant. He was appointed brigadier-general, and July.
was retired at his own request, after over 43 Internal Affairs. In March, Governor Zayas years of service, in 1904. He took part in many of Santo Domingo and two of his children were important actions in the Civil War, and in murdered at Azua, a small town 55 miles south- 1865–66 was provost marshal in Louisiana. He west of Santo Domingo. Zayas had gone to served against the Indians from 1874-82, in Azua to assume the duties of governor, and Cuba in 1898, and in the Philippine Islands had been in office only two days. His assassina- 1901-02. tion was brought about by political enemies. In DOURINE. See VETERINARY MEDICINE. April, Minister Sullivan reported a new revolu- DRAINAGE. The year 1915 has been one of tion in the island. The cruiser Des Moines was comparative inactivity in the drainage of wet ordered from Progreso, Mexico, to assist the lands for agricultural purposes throughout the gunboat Nashville in maintaining order. Three world. The European war practically stopped commissioners, Jacinto Peynardo, minister of such work in belligere countries and their colojustice, Frederico Velasquez, minister of public nies, and this covers most of the territory in works, and Dr. Henriquez, were appointed in the Eastern Hemisphere where such work was in May to discuss financial matters with American progress. On the Western Hemisphere the wave financiers. In September, two new appointments of land reclamation, by both irrigation and were made in President Jiménez's cabinet. They drainage, which was so acute a few years ago, were José Manuel Francisco Jiménez, minister has subsided to a large extent and attention is of interior, and Francisco Herrera, minister of being devoted principally to the attempts to finance. Jiménez had held the portfolios of in- utilize the lands made available in the past. terior and public works in previous administra- UNITED STATES. Land drainage in the United tions.
States is of two classes—(1) the drainage or DONALDSON, Sir James. English scholar protection from overflow of lands already occuand educator, died March 10, 1915. He was pied and producing some crops, where drainage born in 1831, and was educated in the Aberdeen is merely a means of improvement; and (2) the grammar school, in the University of Aberdeen, reclamation of lands which are now unproductive at New College, London, and at Berlin Univer- and waste by reason of insufficient drainage or sity. In 1854, appointed director of the high overflow. Work of the former class goes on school in Stirling, he became, in 1856, classical more or less continuously throughout the United