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plete plays, entitled Chief Contemporary Drama- Java, Madoera, and the outpost provinces at the tists.

end of 1905 are given in the table below: The study of the drama was also encouraged by the publication of several very valuable

Sq.m. Pop.

. studies in contemporary stagecraft. Among these Java

48,686 28,604,719 new books, mention must be made of: The Madoera

2,090 1,493,289 Theatre of To-day, by Hiram Kelly Moderwell;

Outposts The New Movement in the Theatre, by Sheldon Island of Sumatra : Cheney; The Modern Drama, by Ludwig Lewi.

Sumatra, West Coast

31,788 Padang Highlands

403,431 sohn; Aspects of Modern Drama, by Frank Wad

Padang Lowlands

905,040 leigh Chandler; The Changing Drama, by Archi- Tapanoeli

413,301 bald Henderson; and How to See a Play, by


9,437 204,269 Lampong Districts

11,338 156,518 Richard Burton.


53, 718 796,354 DRAMA IN EUROPE. See FRENCH, GER- Sumatra, East Coast



20,550 582,175 Riouw


112,216 Banka



1,869 36,858 DREAMS. See PSYCHOLOGY.

Borneo, West District

56,061 450.929

782,726 DREISER, THEODORE. See LITERATURE, ENG- Borneo, South and East Districts ...157,587



49,600 415,499 DRY DOCK. See DOCKS AND HARBORS.


22,177 436,406 American civil Ternate † Amboina +

19,870 299.004 DU BOIS, AUGUSTUS JAY.

176,598 370,902 engineer and educator, died Oct. 19, 1915. He Timor

17,782 308,600 was born in Newton Falls, Ohio, in 1849, and Bali and Lombok

4,063 523,535 graduated from the Sheffield Scientific School in


739,547 37,979,377 1869, later studying mechanics in Germany. In

Consists of Indragiri in Sumatra and the Riouw and 1875 he was appointed professor of civil and Lingga archipelagoes. i Included in Ternate are a part mechanical engineering at Lehigh University, of eastern Celebes Island, Dutch New Guinea, and a holding this position for two years, when he was

part of the Moluccas; the rest of the Moluccas are in

Amboina. Dutch New Guinea extends to 141° E., with made professor of mechanical engineering at estimated area 152,428 square miles and estimated popuSheffield Scientific School, becoming professor of lation 262,000. civil engineering at that institution in 1884. He published several books on engineering sub- The native population (exclusive of New jects, including: Elements of Graphical Štatics Guinea) numbered 37,020,460 (Java and Ma(1876); and Elements of Mechanics (three vol doera, 29,715,908); Europeans, 80,910; Chinese, umes, 1893–95). He edited and translated im- 563,449; Arabs, 29,588; Orientals, other than portant engineering works from the German. natives, 22,970. Batavia had 138,551 inhabiHe also contributed numerous articles to tech- tants; Semarang, 96,600; Pekalongan, 41,719; nical journals concerned with the relation of Djokjakarta, 118,378; Padang, 91,440; Palemscience to the spiritual and supernatural. bang, 60,985; Bandjermasin, 16,708.

DUNKARDS, or DUNKERS. See BRETH- PRODUCTION. Area (1912) under rice, 3,342,REN, CHURCH OF THE.

084 bahoes (1 baho = 1% acres) ; production, DURNOVO, PETER NIKOLAIEVICH. Russian 85,514,914 piculs; sugar cane, 281,994 (sugar statesman, died Sept. 24, 1915. He was of a production, 21,562,047 piculs) ; tobaceo, 262,736; noble family of the Province of Chernigoff, and indigo, 14,583; other cultures, 3,704,660. Govfirst became prominent while minister of the ernment coffee plantations (Java), 59,526 bainterior, during the repressions that followed the hoes (production, 81,000 piculs); production "Charter of Liberties" granted by Alexander III. from emphyteutic lands, 272,000; from private He entered the government as an official of the estates, 29,000. Tobacco: 30,673,631 kilos in interior department, later joining the police Java, and 19,965,896 in Sumatra. Tea (Java), department, of which he finally became head. 29,412,704 kilos; cacao, 2,272,953 kilos. Tin Following scandals in the department, he was from the government mines at Banka in 1911-12, dismissed, and for a time disappeared from 250,496 piculs; from private mines (as Billiton sight, emerging as governor of one of the Volga and Riouw), 76,914; total tin production, 1912– Provinces under Nicholas II. He was made 13, 20,219 tons. Coal production (1912), 673,head of the department of posts and telegraphs 121 metric tons; petroleum, 1,518,044 tons. shortly before the Russo-Japanese War. When Gold, silver, diamonds, copper, and manganese Plehve was killed, he was appointed minister of are mined. the department of the interior to take the lat- COMMERCE. Government and private trade, ter's place, resigning in May, 1906, as a result merchandise and specie, are given for three years of disloyalty which, Witte declared, Durnovo (in florins): showed toward him. He later became a member of the Council of the Empire, and in March,

Imports 1911, in company with Trepoff, was suspended

Government: from all sittings of the Council until January, Merchandise.. 7,667,549 20,229,755 27,021,000 1912, at the instigation of Premier Stolypin. Specie

8,850,000 5,170,000 4,419,000 DUTCH EAST INDIES. Possessions of the Private: Netherlands, lying between Australia and the Merchandise. .243,544,983 380,669,597 437,903,000 Asiatic continent. Capital, Batavia.


20,499,027 29,553,007 23,998,000 AREA AND POPULATION. The Dutch East In

Total 280,561,559 435,622,359 493,341,000 dies consist of two main divisions: (1) Java (16

Exports 1908


1913 residencies) and Madoera (1 residency); and Government: (2) the outposts (17 provinces). Area and

Merchandise.. 16,856,649 51,411,500 51,231,000 population (for the outposts approximate) of Specie










in greater quantity. _At the close of the year an Private:

order for a 45,000 K. V. A. turbo-unit was anMerchandise..452,823,332 533,617,014 620,504,000 nounced, this being the largest ever constructed. Specie 1,034,623 1,410,614 6,211,000

The 35,000 K. V. A. generating set mentioned in .....470,714,604 587,048,200 683,946,000 the 1914 YEAR Book as being installed by the

Philadelphia Electric Company was put in servThe Netherlands is the important country of ice early in 1915. In New York City, the subdestination for exports, which consist mainly of stitution of turbine for reciprocating enginesugar, coffee, tea, indigo, cinchona, tobacco, driven generating sets was continued by the New copra, and tin. A large export of rice goes to York Edison and Interborough Rapid Transit Borneo and China. There were entered at the Companies, the last named replacing, on the ports in the 1913 trade, 6253 steamers, of 5,046,- same floor space, four 7500 K. V. A. engine000 tons, and 2664 sailing vessels, of 192,000. driven units with three turbo generator sets,

Railways in operation (1913), 1721 miles; each one of which had a rating equal to that of government telegraph and cable lines, 12,319 all four old units combined, thus trebling the miles.

station capacity without enlarging the building. FINANCE, ETC. Estimated revenue, 1915, 309,- Near Newark, N. J., the Public Service Cor429,094 florins (1914, 295,229,458); expenditure, poration, supplying light and power throughout 338,440,625 (338,774,555). A, W. F. Idenburg a large territory in that part of the State, was was appointed governor-general, Aug. 20, 1909. completing during the latter part of the year a

DUTCH GUIANA, OB SURINAM. A colony power station in which the initial installation of the Netherlands (between 46,000 and 49,000 comprised two 25,000 kilowatt sets. The Desquare miles) on the northern coast of South troit, Mich., Edison Company was building a America. Population (1910): 913 Europeans, power plant at Conners Creek, designed to com7894 Dutch East Indians, 19,683 British East prise six 25,000 kilowatt units. In Toledo, Ohio, Indians, 52,369 indigenous, 3643 other; total the Toledo Street Railways and Light Company (exclusive of negroes in interior forests), 86,- started the operation of a 20,000 kilowatt gen233. Of these, 36,480 are classed without occu- erator in the Water Street station. This compation. Total at the end of 1913, 86,134. Im- pany also began the remodeling of its Detroit migrants employed under contract on planta Avenue station, substituting turbo-generator tions, Dec. 31, 1910, 11,561. Sugar production, units for engine-driven sets so as to secure a 1912, 9,634,400 kilos (1910, 12,015,100); mo- larger power output from the same floor space. lasses, 197,100 litres (164,100); rum, 989,900 The Chicago Edison Company ordered a turbolitres (797,800); cacao, 864,000 kilos (1,683, generator set of 35,500 K. V. A. capacity of a 000); coffee, 196,900 kilos (202,300); corn, 1, type similar to those installed by this company 290,600 kilos (1,323,000); rice, 2,659,300 kilos recently, consisting of a Parsons type steam tur(1,993,700). Gold yield, 743,199 grams (1,081, bine directly connected to a three-phase 60-cycle 476), valued at 1,081,183 florins (1,481,622); alternating_current generator. “At Detroit, gold export, 981,588 florins (1,446,073). To- Mich., the Ford Motor Car Company put into tal imports, 1912, 7,494,063 florins (1910, 424,- use early in the year the largest continuous cur698); exports, 6,619,937 (8,345,447). Tonnage rent generator ever built. It had a normal entered, 211,214. Revenue and expenditure rating of 3750 kilowatts with a maximum ca(provisional), in 1914, 6,262,000 and 7,052,000 pacity of 4500 kilowatts. Its armature was florins, respectively; subvention, 790,000. about 16 feet in diameter, and weighed 4243

DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH. See RE- tons. The largest generators ever built for opFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA,

eration by water turbines were those installed DUTCH WEST INDIES. See CURAÇAO and during the year at Rjukan, Norway, and near DUTCH GUIANA,

Spokane, Wash., the former being rated at 17,DYCHE, LOUIS LINDSAY. American zoolo- 000 K. V. A., and the latter at 13,900 K. V. A. gist, educator, and explorer, died Jan. 20, 1915. There was little change in the design or size He was born at Berkeley Springs, W. Va., in of alternating current motors installed for in1857, and graduated from the University of Kan dustrial uses during the year, and while for mill sas in 1884.

After post-graduate studies at that and factory purposes the induction motor was university, he was appointed assistant professor the commonest type, there were many cases of zoology in 1885, becoming in the following where the synchronous machine was preferred year professor of comparative anatomy, in 1890 by engineers. A new field for the application of professor of zoology and curator of birds and induction motors was opened by the satisfactory mammals, and in 1900 professor of systematic performance in service of motors of this kind for zoology and taxidermy. He made over twenty the "split phase" system on the Norfolk and scientific expeditions; hunted all over North Western Railway electric locomotives. (See America from Mexico to Alaska; and was a ELECTRIC RAILWAYS.) nimrod also, in Greenland and the Arctic re- The United States Navy Department began the gions. These activities resulted in one of the installation in the superdreadnought California largest and finest collections of North Ameri- of two steam turbo-generator units for furnishcan mammals in the world. It became the prop- ing energy to four electric propelling motors, the erty of the University of Kansas. He was the largest electric ship propelling plant ever built. author of many articles on the subjects that The two generating sets were designed for a cachiefly interested him in scientific publications pacity of 37,000 horse power in order to furnish and other periodicals.

energy for operating the ship at 22 knots speed. DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINERY. The propeller motors were rated normally at While there was only a slight increase in the 7500 horse power and were to operate at 4000 capacity of the largest electric generators built volts with 25 cycle, quarter phase alternating in 1915 over those constructed in the previous current, being so wound that connection can be years, large, high capacity machines were built made for using either 24 or 36 poles. The ob






ject of this was to secure more economical oper- leased from the Sultan of Zanzibar. The popuation at cruising speeds of 15 knots or less, as lation is estimated at about 4,000,000, including under these conditions only one generator will about 25,000 Asiatics and 3500 Europeans. be required and the motors will be on the 36-pole Mombasa, the largest town and chief port, has a connection, and it was expected that even under population of about 30,000 (230 Europeans). these conditions the ship would be able to make Nairobi (14,000 inhabitants, of whom about 800 18.5 knots per hour. The exciting generator are Europeans, and over 3000 Indians) is the units of 300 kilowatts each were also to be tur- administrative headquarters and the central stabine driven. See also BATTLESHIPS.

tion of the Uganda Railway. At Kilindini imDYESTUFF. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL. provements are in progress that will make it the EARTH, AGE OF. See GEOLOGY.

finest harbor on the east African coast and the EARTHQUAKES. Central Italy was vis- centre of trade for equatorial Africa. In 1912, ited by a heavy earthquake on Jan. 13, 1915, of the 338,033 acres (9844 freehold, 328,189 which proved to be one of the most disastrous lease) classed as productive, 310,145 were deoccurrences of recent record, as measured by the voted to grazing, 27,888 to crops. Cattle, sheep, loss of life, which was placed at over 30,000. and ostriches are raised. The crops include The devastated region included the mountain dis- grains, coconuts, cotton, sisal, rubber, tobacco, tricts of the Abruzzi, with the epicentral tract coffee, and fruits. The worked mines yield carclose to the city of Avezzano, where about 90 bonate of soda, limestone, graphite, and gold. per cent of the 11,000 inhabitants were reported The cost of construction of the Uganda (Momto have been killed. Pescina had 4500 victims, basa-Victoria) Railway (602 miles) to March and some of the villages in the vicinity were 31, 1914, was approximately £6,289,917. Four literally wiped out, only piles of debris remain- steamers are operated on Victoria Nyanza in ing to mark their sites. In completeness of connection with the railway. Railway passendevastation the earthquake probably has had no gers carried (1913–14), 616,197; tons of goods, equal within recent times, although the loss of 189,556; revenue, £546,345; expenditure, £322,life was not so large by half as in the Messina 861. The telegraph system, exclusive of the disaster. The area of damage extended across lines in Uganda, has 2302 miles of line (the railthe peninsula from Rome on the west, to Chieti way line has three wires). Commercial and on the Adriatic side, a distance of 110 miles, financial figures follow: and from Ancona, Perugia, and Grosseto on the north, to Naples and Potenza on the south, in all an area of 56,000 square miles. The main shock

Imports . .£ 797,158 £ 775,246 £1,000,346 £2,147,937 was followed by two lighter ones in rapid suc- Exports 436,313 590,057 962,911 1,482,876 cession; and minor disturbances were felt for

485,668 503,039 609,585 1,123,789

669,404 several days, as many as 120 having been re- Expenditure 703 103

682,041 1,115,899 corded at Rome in the first 48 hours. Despite Shipping *.1,838,159 1,914,153 1,364,740 1,791,081

133,500 130,000 its destructiveness, the disturbance was not of extraordinary violence in the estimation of seis

* Tonnage entered at Mombasa and Kilindini. mologists; the great loss of life was rather the result of the poor type of construction of the The import figures are exclusive of railway buildings in that part of Italy, the houses being material, government stores, and specie. The built mainly of stones joined with a little ce- United Kingdom supplied imports to the value ment. Heavy shocks have not been common (1913-14) of £907,410, and received exports there, as the region lies to the north of the main valued at £686,643; British possessions, £433,seismic zone in which they usually originate. 337 and £118,451; Germany, £194,514 and £219,

Otherwise the year's record was uneventful, 523; the United States, £170,864 and £95,976 ; although mention may be made of one or two the Netherlands, £101,050 imports; France, occurrences that possessed local interest. A £207,414 exports. moderate shock was felt in Southern California, EASTLAND DISASTER. See SAFETY Western Arizona, and the adjacent part of Mex- SEA. ico, arousing some apprehension for the safety

ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION, AMERICAN of the great irrigation system of the Imperial The twenty-eighth annual meeting of the associaValley, which, however, was only slightly dam- tion was held at Washington, D. C., from Dec. aged. The few fatalities were confined to the 27 to 30, 1915. The American Historical AssoMexican town of Mexicali and were incident to ciation, the American Statistical Association, the the collapse of buildings. Current opinion American Sociological Society, the American Poseemed to have connected the disturbance with a litical Science Association, the American Associreopening of the San Andreas fault, in the same ation for Labor Legislation, the Nineteenth Inway as the San Francisco disaster may be traced ternational Congress of the Americanists, the to a slipping of the earth on opposite sides of American Society of International Law, the Nathat fracture. There was really no basis for val History Society, the American Folk-Lore Sosuch a view, however, for the fault, so far as can ciety, the American Anthropological Association, be seen, terminates in Ventura County and lies the Archæological Institute of America, and the close to the coast throughout its extent. Slight Mississippi Valley Historical Association also tremors were reported on December 7th from va- held their annual meetings at the same place and rious parts of the Mississippi Valley from Illi- time. Among the papers and addresses were the nois south to Tennessee and Arkansas.

following: “Probable Changes in the Foreign EAST AFRICA PROTECTORATE. The Trade of the United States Resulting from the territory lying between the Umba and Juba European War," by Emory R. Johnson; "The rivers, from German East Africa to Italian So- Value of Archives to the Student of Economics,” maliland and Abyssinia, and inland to Uganda; by Frank W. Taussig; “The Apportionment of a British dependency. Estimated area, about Representatives,” by Walter F. Wilcox; “The 200,000 square miles, inclusive of coast territory Economic Costs of War,” by John Bates Clark


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