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TION.

currence.

and W. S. Rossiter ; "Economic Theorizing and in 1913, $8,836,689 and $15,789,367; in 1914, Scientific Progress," by J. H. Hollander. Papers $8,402,767 and $13,061,566. The principal imor speeches were also given by G. Hunt, B. F. ports are cotton and woolen fabrics, foodstuffs, Shambaugh, Waldo G. Leland, Leo F. Stock, hardware, machinery, wines and liquors, readyLouis A. Simon, W. M. Stephens, B. H. Meyer, made clothing, etc. The chief export is cacao; W. C. Mitchell, Willard Straight, and G. E. Rob- other exports of some importance are Panama erts. The officers of the association for 1915: hats, ivory nuts, rubber, gold, and cattle hides. Walter F. Wilcox, of Cornell University, presi- Trade by principal countries, in thousands of dent, and Allyn A. Young, of Cornell University, dollars: secretary and treasurer. ECONOMICS, HOME. See Food AND NUTRI

Imports

Exports 1912 1913 1912

1913 ECONOMICS, SOCIAL. See Social Econom- United Kingdom

3,058 2,618 2,042 1,620 United States

2,687 2,818 3,957 3,834 ICS.

Germany

2,105 1,563 1,523 2,627 ECUADOR. A South American republic be- France

616 435 4,097 5,382 tween Colombia and Peru. Capital, Quito. AREA AND POPULATION. The eastern limits of

Total, including other 10,355 8,837 13,690 15,789 the republic are not definitely established, but, pending a settlement of the boundary disputes operation in 1912 was about 370 miles; of this,

COMMUNICATIONS. The length of railway in with Colombia and Peru, the area is stated at 297 miles are comprised in the line from Durán 299,600 square kilometers (115,676 square (opposite Guayaquil) to Quito. This line was miles) ; or, including the Galápagos (about 730 miles off the coast), 307,243 square kilometers opened in June, 1908, and since has been worked (118,627 square miles). The republic is di. at a heavy loss, in fact not earning interest vided into 17 provinces. The population in 1903 upon its bonds, so that the track cannot be mainwas placed at 1,272,000; an estimate of 1910 is tained in a proper state of repair, and break1,500,000. The majority of the people are In- downs and serious accidents are of frequent oc

Previous to the outbreak of the Eudians, and there are perhaps 400,000 mestizos; the proportion of pure white inhabitants is very

ropean war a German firm secured a contract small . Much uncertainty exists in respect of to Cuenca, and this would have had considerable

from the government to build a line from Huigra urban population; Guayaquil is supposed to have effect on the prosperity of the country. A railupwards of 80,000 inhabitants; Quito, about 70,000; Cuenca, over 40,000; Riobamba, about way, (19 miles) extends from Puerto Bolívar to 18,000; Puertoviejo, Ambato, Loja, and Ibarra, construction: a line from Manta, on the coast, to

Machala, Pasaje, and Guabo. There are under each about 10,000. EDUCATION. Illiteracy is prevalent, though Quito; a line from Ambato to Curraray; and a

Santa Ana; a line from Bahía de Caraquez to primary instruction is free and nominally compulsory. A report of the minister of public in: end of 1912, there were 3318 miles of telegraph

coastal line from Guayaquil to Salinas. At the struction, published in 1915, gave the number of primary schools as 1231, with an enrollment of line, with 188 offices. There are six radiotele95,019. State schools numbered 1054, with 72,

graph stations. Post offices, 151. 655 pupils; municipal schools, 92, with 12,009 The sucre is the monetary unit; it has a par

FINANCE Gold is the standard of value. pupils; and private schools, 85, with 10,355 pu: value of 48.665 cents, being one-tenth of the pils. For secondary instruction there are 12 institutes supported by the government, be Ecuadorean condor or of the British sovereign. sides commercial and technical schools at Quito in thousands of sucres (the figures for 1915 are

Revenue and expenditure are reported as follows, and Guayaquil. For higher and professional education there are universities at Quito, Guaya

estimated): quil, and Cuenca. There is also a law college at Loja. The state religion is Roman Catholicism.

Revenue

13,264 19,973 20,140 20,996 20,880 PRODUCTION AND COMMERCE. The most im- Expenditure .15,836 19,950 21,503 20,760 20,880 portant crop is cacao, for which Ecuador supplies a large part of the world's demand, though The chief items of revenue are import duties the proportion is smaller than formerly; the (8,155,620 sucres in 1912) and export duties average Ecuadorean output has not declined, but (4,598,408). The larger disbursements in 1912 that of other countries, notably Brazil, has in were: for the public debt, 6,927,348 sucres; war recent years increased. In 1913, 85,908,495 and marine, 3,411,810; public instruction, 1,pounds of cacao were delivered at the port of 844,698; interior and police, 1,561,325. Public Guayaquil; the quantity sent to other ports for debt, Jan. 1, 1914: foreign, 28,027,400 sucres; shipment is comparatively small. Other prod- internal, 14,114,420; total, 42,141,820. ucts of account are coffee, rice, sugar cane, to- GOVERNMENT. The executive authority is bacco, ivory nuts, and rubber. The rubber in- vested in a President elected by direct vote for dustry has suffered from the thriftless exploita- four years. He is assisted by a cabinet of five tion of the trees. A large part of the ivory nuts ministers. The Congress consists of two houses, was taken by Germany, and the export of that the Senate (32 member, elected for four years) product declined upon the outbreak of the great and the Chamber of Deputies (48 members, German war.

Ecuador has valuable mineral re- elected for two years). For the term beginning sources, but they have not been largely ex- Aug. 31, 1911, Emilio Estrada was inaugurated ploited. Manufactures have little commercial President in succession to Gen. Eloy Alfaro. importance, except Panama hats, which are pro- The death of Estrada, Dec. 21, 1911, was folduced in large numbers.

lowed by a revolutionary outbreak headed apThe reported value of imports and exports, re- parently by friends of Alfaro (who was killed). spectively, in 1911, was $11,489,104 and $12,- On March 31, 1912, the commander of the gov692,237; in 1912, $10,354,564 and $13,689,696; ernment forces, Gen. Leonidas Plaza, was elected

1911

1912

1913

1914

1915

emwomen as

President, and on the 31st of August following days in California. The average for the whole was inaugurated for a four-year term. Plaza country was 84 days. All but three States, was President in 1901-05.

Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama, now have HISTORY. End of the Revolution. The revo- compulsory school attendance laws. In Idaho lution in Ecuador which began in December, the compulsory attendance age is from 8 to 17 1913, under the leadership of Col. Carlos Concha years inclusive. In a few States the limits are was thought to have reached an end late in Feb- from 7 to 15 years, in others from 8 to 15. The ruary, when Colonel Concha was captured near minimum period of compulsory attendance each Esmeraldas. A report to the State Department year varies from 24 weeks to the full school year. in Washington stated that the government "con- Of each thousand pupils in the elementary siders this of great importance and that it means school 235 were in the first grade, 150 in the secthe collapse of the revolutionary movement.” ond, 139 in the third, 133 in the fourth, 112 in (See YEAR BOOK, 1914.)

the fifth, 92 in the sixth, 76 in the seventh, and Political and Economic Conditions. Ecuador 63 in the eighth. The number registered in the was represented at the Pan-American Financial first grade does not represent the number who Conference, in Washington, in May, by E. Gal- are beginning school. It is usually estimated lardo and V. Gonzales. The principal duty of that one-half of the first grade enrollment is these delegates was to acquaint the members of composed of those who repeat the grade or are the Conference with facts concerning the Guaya: retarded. Taking this assumption as the basis, it quil and Quito Railroad, an American-owned would seem that less than one child in four who line, which had failed to make several payments enters the first grade reaches the high school and of interest on bonds. These bonds were owned that only about 109 out of every thousand who mainly by European investors who, as security, enter first grade graduate from the high school. held å lien on the entire customs receipts of the Teachers in Elementary Schools and High country. Ecuador claimed that it was experi- Schools. The public elementary schools encing difficulty with the line and could not ployed 89,801 men and 421,944 make it pay the interest. The committee ap- teachers. The public high schools employed 23,pointed by the conference to consider the mat- 412 men and 30,326 women. In addition it is ter accepted the report made by the Ecuadorean estimated that 41,831 teachers were employed in delegates. The war in Europe brought about a private elementary schools and 13,358 in private deficit in the revenues of Ecuador estimated at high schools. In three years—1910 to 1913— $2,000,000. In order to make up this deficit the the number of public elementary school teachers government endeavored to establish a market in

was increased 6 per cent. The increase in numthe Western Hemisphere for Ecuadorean prod- ber of children enrolled was 5 per cent. During ucts. In July an effort was made to encourage the same time the number of high school stutrade between Chile and Ecuador by an exhibit dents increased 21 per cent but the number of of Chilean goods at Quito. An executive de- high school teachers increased 29 per cent. cree convened Congress on August 10th. The Costs of State Common Schools. The total session was chiefly concerned with measures to expenditure for the common schools in 1913 was improve the economic condition of the country. $521,546,375, or $5.37 per capita of total popu

ÈDISON BATTERY. See ELECTRIC BAT- lation. Of each $100 secured for school purTERIES.

poses $4 came from income of permanent funds EDUCATION. See section so entitled under or rents, $15 came from State taxes, $74 from various foreign countries and under States of local taxes, and $7 from other sources. It cost the United States.

an average of $38.31 for each pupil in average EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. attendance. Of this amount $6.14 was used for STATISTICS. Attendance in Elementary and Sec. sites and buildings, $22.36 for salaries, and $9.81 ondary Schools. The latest report of the United for all other purposes. The per capita cost for States Commissioner of Education gives the sta- high school students during the year ending tistics for the year 1913. It shows that there June, 1914, was $57.02. were in the elementary schools, including kin- In a recent report of a survey of the San dergarten, primary, and grammar grades, a total Antonio school system Prof. J. F. Bobbitt preof 19,064,787 pupils. Of this number, 17,474,269 sents as an "index of community valuations" were in public, and 1,590,518 in private, schools. some tables which give the costs of teaching There were 1,134,771 secondary students in pub- various high school subjects. The following lic institutions, and 148,238 in private schools. table is compiled from data which he presents: There were also 83,813 secondary students in the preparatory departments of higher institutions.

Cost of

Cost of In miscellaneous schools of elementary and sec

per student ondary rank there were 839,634 students. A total of 21,271,243 students received formal in English Composition and Litstruction in elementary or secondary subjects

20,4

6.7 during 1913. Compared with the total popula- Higher Mathematics tion of the country, in each thousand persons History and civics. 196 were in the elementary school and 14 were Modern Languages

10.3

8.3 in the high school. The public provided instruc- Household Occupations

Shopwork

Mechanical tion for 180 of the 196 elementary pupils and

Drawing for 12 of the 14 high school students.

Commercial Subjects The length of school term varied from 91 Latin

Public Speaking days to 194 days. The average for all of the States was 158 days. The average number of Physical Training days' attendance in public schools for each child Drawing and Design (not Mebetween the ages of 5 and 17 years inclusive Training of Elem. Teachers... varied from 41 days in South Carolina to 112

instruction

instruction

in per cents

hour

erature

17.0 13.1 10.6

6.9 6.8 8.3

11.4

9.7

and

6.3 5.3 5.2 1.9 .4 .0

10.3
10.3
10.3
9.8
4.0

Music

1912

1913

1912

1913

United States

ICS.

616

435

currence.

and W. S. Rossiter; “Economic Theorizing and in 1913, $8,836,689 and $15,789,367; in 1914, Scientific Progress,” by J. H. Hollander. Papers $8,402,767 and $13,061,566. The principal imor speeches were also given by G. Hunt, B. F. ports are cotton and woolen fabrics, foodstuffs, Shambaugh, Waldo G. Leland, Leo F. Stock, hardware, machinery, wines and liquors, readyLouis A. Simon, W. M. Stephens, B. H. Meyer, made clothing, etc. The chief export is cacao; W. C. Mitchell, Willard Straight, and G. E. Rob- other exports of some importance are Panama erts. The officers of the association for 1915: hats, ivory nuts, rubber, gold, and cattle hides. Walter F. Wilcox, of Cornell University, presi. Trade by principal countries, in thousands of dent, and Allyn A. Young, of Cornell University, dollars: secretary and treasurer. ECONOMICS, HOME. See FOOD AND NUTRI

Imports

Exports TION. ECONOMICS, SOCIAL. See SOCIAL ECONOM- United Kingdom

3,058 2,618 2,042 1,620

2,687 2,818 3,957 3,834 Germany

2,105 1,563 1,523 2,627 ECUADOR. A South American republic be- France

4,097 5,382 tween Colombia and Peru. Capital, Quito. AREA AND POPULATION. The eastern limits of

Total, including other 10,355 8,837 13,690 15,789 the republic are not definitely established, but,

COMMUNICATIONs. The length of railway in pending a settlement of the boundary disputes with Colombia and Peru, the area is stated at operation in 1912 was about 370 miles; of this, 299,600 square kilometers (115,676

297 miles are comprised in the line from Durán miles); or, including the Galápagos (about 730

square (opposite Guayaquil) to Quito. This line was miles off the coast), 307,243 square kilometers opened in June, 1908, and since has been worked (118,627 square miles). The republic is di- at a heavy loss, in fact not earning interest vided into 17 provinces. The population in 1903 upon its bonds, so that the track cannot be main

tained in a proper state of repair, and breakwas placed at 1,272,000; an estimate of 1910 is

downs and serious accidents are of frequent oc. 1,500,000. The majority of the people are In

Previous to the outbreak of the Eudians, and there are perhaps 400,000 mestizos; the proportion of pure white inhabitants is very

ropean war a German firm secured a contract

from the government to build a line from Huigra small. Much uncertainty exists in respect of urban population; Guayaquil is supposed to have effect on the prosperity of the country. A rail

to Cuenca, and this would have had considerable upwards of 80,000 inhabitants; Quito, about 70,000; Cuenca, over 40,000; Riobamba, about way, (19 miles) extends from Puerto Bolivar to 18,000; Puertoviejo, Ambato, Loja, and Ibarra, construction: a line from Manta, on the coast, to

Machala, Pasaje, and Guabo. There are under each about 10,000. EDUCATION. Illiteracy is prevalent, though Quito; a line from Ambato to Curraray; and a

Santa Ana; a line from Bahía de Caraquez to primary instruction is free and nominally compulsory. A report of the minister of public in

coastal line from Guayaquil to Salinas. At the

end of 1912, there were 3318 miles of telegraph struction, published in 1915, gave the number of primary schools as 1231, with an enrollment of line, with 188 offices. There are six radiotele95,019. State schools numbered 1054, with 72, graph stations. Post offices, 151.

FINANCE Gold is the standard of value. 655 pupils; municipal schools, 92, with 12,009 The sucre is the monetary unit; it has a par pupils; and private schools, 85, with 10,355 pu; value of 48.665 cents, being one-tenth of the pils. For secondary instruction there are 12 Ecuadorean condor or of the British sovereign. institutes supported by the government, besides commercial and technical schools at Quito in thousands of sucres (the figures for 1915 are

Revenue and expenditure are reported as follows, and Guayaquil. For higher and professional

estimated): education there are universities at Quito, Guayaquil, and Cuenca. There is also a law college at Loja. The state religion is Roman Catholicism. Revenue

13,264 19,973 20,140 20,996 20,880 PRODUCTION AND COMMERCE. The most im- Expenditure ....15,836 19,950 21,503 20,760 20,880 portant crop is cacao, for which Ecuador supplies a large part of the world's demand, though The chief items of revenue are import duties the proportion is smaller than formerly; the (8,155,620 sucres in 1912) and export duties average Ecuadorean output has not declined, but (4,598,408). The larger disbursements in 1912 that of other countries, notably Brazil, has in were: for the public debt, 6,927,348 sucres; war recent years increased. In 1913, 85,908,495 and marine, 3,411,810; public instruction, 1,pounds of cacao were delivered at the port of 844,698; interior and police, 1,561,325. Public Guayaquil; the quantity sent to other ports for debt, Jan. 1, 1914: foreign, 28,027,400 sucres; shipment is comparatively small. Other prod- internal, 14,114,420; total, 42,141,820. ucts of account are coffee, rice, sugar cane, to- GOVERNMENT. The executive authority is bacco, ivory nuts, and rubber. The rubber in- vested in a President elected by direct vote for dustry has suffered from the thriftless exploita- four years. He is assisted by a cabinet of five tion of the trees. A large part of the ivory nuts ministers. The Congress consists of two houses, was taken by Germany, and the export of that the Senate (32 member, elected for four years) product declined upon the outbreak of the great and the Chamber of Deputies (48 members, German war. Ecuador has valuable mineral re- elected for two years). For the term beginning sources, but they have not been largely ex- Aug. 31, 1911, Emilio Estrada was inaugurated ploited. Manufactures have little commercial President in succession to Gen. Eloy Alfaro. importance, except Panama hats, which are pro- The death of Estrada, Dec. 21, 1911, was folduced in large numbers.

lowed by a revolutionary outbreak headed apThe reported value of imports and exports, re- parently by friends of Alfaro (who was killed). spectively, in 1911, was $11,489,104 and $12,- On March 31, 1912, the commander of the gov. 692,237; in 1912, $10,354,564 and $13,689,696; ernment forces, Gen. Leonidas Plaza, was elected

1911

1912

1913

1914

1915 emwomen as

men

President, and on the 31st of August following days in California. The average for the whole was inaugurated for a four-year term. Plaza country was 84 days. All but three States, was President in 1901-05.

Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama, now have HISTORY. End of the Revolution. The revo- compulsory school attendance laws. In Idaho lution in Ecuador which began in December, the compulsory attendance age is from 8 to 17 1913, under the leadership of Col. Carlos Concha years inclusive. In a few States the limits are was thought to have reached an end late in Feb- from 7 to 15 years, in others from 8 to 15. The ruary, when Colonel Concha was captured near minimum period of compulsory attendance each Esmeraldas. A report to the State Department year varies from 24 weeks to the full school year. in Washington stated that the government "con- Of each thousand pupils in the elementary siders this of great importance and that it means school 235 were in the first grade, 150 in the secthe collapse of the revolutionary movement.” ond, 139 in the third, 133 in the fourth, 112 in (See YEAR BOOK, 1914.)

the fifth, 92 in the sixth, 76 in the seventh, and Political and Economic Conditions. Ecuador 63 in the eighth. The number registered in the was represented at the Pan-American Financial first grade does not represent the number who Conference, in Washington, in May, by E. Gal- are beginning school. It is usually estimated lardo and V. Gonzales. The principal duty of that one-half of the first grade enrollment is these delegates was to acquaint the members of composed of those who repeat the grade or are the Conference with facts concerning the Guaya retarded. Taking this assumption as the basis, it quil and Quito Railroad, an American-owned would seem that less than one child in four who line, which had failed to make several payments enters the first grade reaches the high school and of interest on bonds. These bonds were owned that only about 109 out of every thousand who mainly by European investors who, as security, enter first grade graduate from the high school. held a lien on the entire customs receipts of the Teachers in Elementary Schools and High country. Ecuador claimed that it was experi- Schools. The public elementary schools encing difficulty with the line and could not ployed 89,801 and 421,944 make it pay the interest. The committee ap- teachers. The public high schools employed 23,pointed by the conference to consider the mat- 412 men and 30,326 women. In addition it is ter accepted the report made by the Ecuadorean estimated that 41,831 teachers were employed in delegates. The war in Europe brought about a private elementary schools and 13,358 in private deficit in the revenues of Ecuador estimated at high schools. In three years—1910 to 1913— $2,000,000. In order to make up this deficit the the number of public elementary school teachers government endeavored to establish a market in

was increased 6 per cent. The increase in numthe Western Hemisphere for Ecuadorean prod- ber of children enrolled was 5 per cent. During ucts. In July an effort was made to encourage the same time the number of high school stutrade between Chile and Ecuador by an exhibit dents increased 21 per cent but the number of of Chilean goods at Quito. An executive de- high school teachers increased 29 per cent. cree convened Congress on August 10th. The Costs of State Common Schools. The total session was chiefly concerned with measures to expenditure for the common schools in 1913 was improve the economic condition of the country. $521,546,375, or $5.37 per capita of total popu

ÈDISON BATTERY. See ELECTRIC BAT- lation. Of each $100 secured for school purTERIES.

poses $4 came from income of permanent funds EDUCATION. See section so entitled under

or rents, $15 came from State taxes, $74 from various foreign countries and under States of local taxes, and $7 from other sources. It cost the United States.

an average of $38.31 for each pupil in average EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. attendance. Of this amount $6.14 was used for STATISTICS. Attendance in Elementary and Sec- sites and buildings, $22.36 for salaries, and $9.81 ondary Schools. The latest report of the United for all other purposes. The per capita cost for States Commissioner of Education gives the sta- high school students during the year ending tistics for the year 1913. It shows that there June, 1914, was $57.02. were in the elementary schools, including kin- In a recent report of a survey of the San dergarten, primary, and grammar grades, a total Antonio school system Prof. J. F. Bobbitt preof 19,064,787 pupils. Of this number, 17,474,269 sents as an "index of community valuations” were in public, and 1,590,518 in private, schools. some tables which give the costs of teaching There were 1,134,771 secondary students in pub- various high school subjects. The following lic institutions, and 148,238 in private schools. table is compiled from data which he presents: There were also 83,813 secondary students in the preparatory departments of higher institutions.

Cost of

Cost of In miscellaneous schools of elementary and sec

instruction instruction

per student ondary rank there were 839,634 students. A total of 21,271,243 students received formal in- English Composition and Litstruction in elementary or secondary subjects during 1913. Compared with the total popula- Higher Mathematics

The Sciences tion of the country, in each thousand persons

History and Civics. 196 were in the elementary school and 14 were Modern Languages in the high school. The public provided instruc

Household Occupations
Shopwork

Mechanical tion for 180 of the 196 elementary pupils and

Drawing

10.3 for 12 of the 14 high school students.

Commercial Subjects The length of school term varied from 91

Public Speaking days to 194 days. The average for all of the States was 158 days. The average number of Physical Training days' attendance in public schools for each child Drawing and Design (not Mebetween the ages of 5 and 17 years inclusive Training of Elem. Teachers. varied from 41 days in South Carolina to 112

in per cents

hour

erature

20.4
17.0
13.1
10.6
10.3
9.7

6.7 6.9 6.8 8.3 11.4 8.3

and

6.3 5.3 5.2 1.9

Latin

10.3
10.3
9.8
4.0

Music

.

,0
.0

ences.

ex

The table should be read as follows: San An- ments of the school system in efforts to increase tonio devotes 20.4 per cent of all the expense of efficiency. instruction to English composition and litera- EDUCATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS AND SURVEYS. ture. For each student it costs 6.7 cents for The Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundaeach hour of instruction in English. Professor tion assisted by the Russell Sage Foundation Bobbitt implies that because the community is conducted a very thorough survey of the schools willing to pay 11.4 cents per student per hour of Cleveland, Ohio. The report of the survey is for instruction in modern languages and only contained in 25 small volumes which may be ob6.8 cents for the instruction in sciences they tained either from Cleveland Foundation or from value modern languages more highly than sci- the Russell Sage Foundation, New York. Pro

fessor John F. Bobbitt, of the University of ChiBUREAUS OF RESEARCH AND EFFICIENCY. In cago, investigated the schools of San Antonio, the past four years nine cities have established Texas. During December, 1915, the city of Bosdepartments or bureaus of research and effi- ton employed a group of educational experts to ciency in connection with their public schools. investigate the management of the city schools. These cities and the dates of the establishment The report of this investigation is not yet of the bureaus are as follows: Rochester, N. Y., printed. The Carnegie Foundation for the Ad1911; Baltimore, Md., 1912; New Orleans, La., vancement of Teaching is conducting an 1912; New York City, 1913; Boston, Mass., haustive survey of the teachers' training insti1914; Kansas City, Mo., 1914; Detroit, Mich., tutions of Missouri. During the month of May 1914; Oakland, Cal., 1914; Schenectady, N. Y., the public school system of Salt Lake City, tah, 1914. In each case the aim is to have a con- was surveyed by å staff under the direction of stant investigation of the school system. The Ellwood P. Cubberley, Leland Stanford Unifollowing quotation from the annual report of versity. the Superintendent of Schools of Kansas City There are evidences that interest in investigagives the aims and functions of the bureau es- tions such as have been conducted is decreasing. tablished in that city: “The purpose of this The recent investigations have failed to develop bureau is to assist in discovering better methods any new plans of procedure or to suggest specific of administering and supervising our schools, remedies for defects other than those found in and better methods of teaching the various sub- certain administrative matters. The outcome of jects of the curriculum. It is hoped that such many of the investigations has been the creation plans and methods may be discovered as will of a distrust on the part of the public for their secure the best results from the given factors. school officials and teachers. This may be whole

"The plan throughout will be coöperative. ... some in the end but the immediate results have It shall be the function of this bureau to bring in many cases been unfortunate. together the results of efforts at improvements INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SURVEYS. Several and so tabulate and arrange the data that those cities, notably Richmond, New Orleans, and Mininterested may know the facts that have been neapolis, have begun or completed very comprerevealed by any investigations that are under- hensive investigations of their industries as retaken and be able to judge in a better way the lated to industrial education. After considervalue of the conclusions reached. A further aim ing such questions as conditions of employment, will be to so democratize the school system and wages, hours of labor, entrance age, etc., the so plan the work that the humblest teacher in findings in the Richmond investigation present any grade may contribute the results of her the education requirements for operatives in the work to the advancement of the system.

various trades. It shows what the worker needs "While ill-advised and unorganized experi- to properly equip him for the trade, what trainmentation will not be undertaken, much libertying the industry gives, common deficiencies of will be allowed in working out problems along workmen, and ends with suggestions as to what safe and conservative lines.

the school ought to give. The industrial survey While the above statement describes in a gen- of Minneapolis seeks to find, first, to what ex. eral way the work of this bureau, we might tent the worker can "get on” in his job; second, enumerate specific functions as follows:

to what extent the city's industries may give First: To measure and tabulate the results special training which they do not now provide; that are now being secured in our schools. Dur- third, to what extent can the schools be a factor. ing the first year we hope to do some work in The National Society for the Promotion of Inmeasuring the results in writing and arithmetic dustrial Education is directing the survey. Dr. and possibly also in spelling and language. Charles A. Prosser, Director of the William

Second: To study the results of the work Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute of the city of similar bureaus in other cities and bring to of Minneapolis, is director. The Minneapolis Kansas City the best conclusions of those bu- School Board, the Dunwoody Industrial Insti

tute, the Minneapolis Art Institute, and the Third: To coöperate in the investigation of Civic and Commerce Association are coöperating. any problem that may confront the board of MONTESSORI SCHOOLS. Dr. Montessori began education, the superintendents, the supervisors, her experiments with normal children in Rome the principals, the teachers, or the people. in the Case dei Bambini (children's houses) in

Fourth: To tabulate and analyze all sta- one of the tenement sections. She had previ. tistical reports.

ously experimented with defective children and Fifth: To study methods of reducing waste found that by using methods that developed the in the school system.

senses and by following the child's development Sixth : To study with the principals and the she was able to accomplish almost as much with teachers plans for reducing elimination of pu- these children as was ordinarily accomplished by pils, non-promotion of pupils, and failures of the regular schools with normal children. In pupils.

1909 she published the outcome of her observaSeventh: To coöperate with all the depart- tions and experiments in a book entitled The

reaus.

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