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Method of Scientific Pedagogy Applied to Infant tion acquired, shall control the classification of Education. Her training in medicine and psy- the pupils. Division into groups is made where chiatry enabled her to apply the method of ex- it is found that the children naturally divide perimental science to the study of education. themselves. These groups are called 'Life The following quotation presents in brief form Classes' instead of grades. The first life class her method : "Give the best conditions of life, ends between the 8th and 9th years; the secand then, as is done with other living organisms, ond between the 11th and 12th, and since an give freedom for development, disturbing as lit- even more marked change of interests and tastes tle as possible, observing, certainly helping, by occurs at the period of adolescence, there are every means, in this development." The dis distinct high-school classes. The work within tinctive features of the method are an insistence the group is then arranged to give the pupils upon sense education and muscular training. the experiences which are needed at that age She emphasizes freedom for the children and de- for the development of their bodies, minds, and mands that the teacher shall observe them and spirits.” assist them but not prescribe what shall be done. In place of the typical primary curriculum she By the use of various materials which can be has the following activities: Physical exercise, used in only one way the child is led to correct nature study, music, hand work, field geography, himself. This, according to Madame Montessori, story telling, sense culture, fundamental conprovokes "auto-education" and because the ma- ceptions of number, dramatizations, and games. terial does the teaching she calls it “the didactic As much as possible of this work is conducted material.” It is claimed that children learn out of doors. In the ordinary school the gymthe ordinary school subjects rapidly and easily nasium work comes at a time when the child is after the preliminary training afforded by this fatigued with his study. In Mrs. Johnson's method.

school the gymnasium work, which is informal, The Montessori movement in America began may come the first thing in the morning. In in 1911. From that time on many American place of being forced to learn the "three R's," teachers and others interested in education vis- the child is led into reading, writing, and arithited the Montessori schools in Italy and Swit- metic by his own desire to know. Mrs. Johnson zerland. Miss Anna E. George, who had pre- is not disturbed if a child does not learn to read viously studied and observed in the Montessori until he is eight or nine years old. schools, translated Madame Montessori's book, Mrs. Johnson has not formulated her work and opened a Montessori class in Tarrytown, N. into any system, so it is impossible to state the Y., in October, 1911. In 1912 the Montessori principles by which she works. The best deAmerican Committee was formed. This com- scription of her work is found in Schools of Tomittee helped to arrange the first International morrow, by John Dewey. Teachers' Training course at Rome. Of the 100 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. There was no change students in attendance nearly 70 were Ameri- during 1915 in the number of States having syg. cans. In May, 1913, the National Montessori tems for organizing and supervising vocational Educational Association was formed with head- schools and for assisting local communities in quarters in Washington. The purpose is "to the maintenance of such schools through grants promote and develop in America the educational of State aid. The States having such systems movement based on the principles and theories of are: Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Dr. Montessori, and to assist in the establish- Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Indiana. In each ment and maintenance of schools for children of these States administration is effected and schools of observation and practice con- through the office of a special deputy or expert ducted according to said principles.” The as- assistant attached to the staff of the State Susociation now has a membership of more than perintendent of Public Instruction or Commis700.

sioner of Education. Dr. Montessori visited the United States in Federal Aid for Vocational Training. The 1913 and again in 1915. During her last visit Smith-Lever Act, approved by the President she conducted a teachers' training institute in on May 8, 1914, provides for "coöperative agriconnection with a model class at the Panama cultural extension work which shall consist of Exposition. No available data concerning the the giving of instruction and practical demonnumber of Montessori schools in America are strations in agriculture and home economics to available. It is certain that a considerable num- persons not attending or resident" in the agriber of teachers have been influenced by her cultural colleges. The appropriations provided method and in their own work, largely in private by this act go to the State agricultural colleges schools, have modified their practice in accord. which are required to make plans for the work ance.

subject to the approval of the Secretary of AgriORGANIC EDUCATION. Mrs. John F. Johnson culture. During the current fiscal year each is developing a method of school instruction and State had $10,000 from this fund. The general organization at Fairhope, Ala., that is now com- plan for conducting the extension work consisted manding the attention of the school authorities. in, first, locating extension agents in several Schools similar to hers have been established in counties of the State to carry on demonstrations, various parts of the United States. Each sum- advise the agricultural people and stimulate mer she conducts a teachers' training course in them to better methods; second, the organizaconnection with a model school at Greenwich, tion of boys and girls' clubs, largely in connecConn. “She calls her methods of education 'or- tion with the rural schools, to conduct some ganic' because they follow the natural growth simple agricultural or home economics project; of the pupil. The school aims to provide for the third, the organization of a staff of specialists child the occupations and activities necessary at in agriculture and home economics as a part of each stage of development for his unfolding at the faculty of the agricultural college." These that stage. Therefore, she insists that general specialists go about the State and assist the exdevelopment, instead of the amount of informa- tension agents. Agents are now located in more

Y, B,-7

than 1000 counties out of the 3000 in the United his sole control. This theatre was given over to States.

the lighter comedies and burlesques. With the The Smith-Lever Bill provides “$10,000 an- production of The Gaiety Girl Mr. Edwardes nually to each State for its Agricultural College first introduced that form of entertainment now beginning July 1, 1914. For the year beginning known as musical comedy. This was followed July 1, 1915, it provided $600,000 additional to by a long series of comedies of a like kind, inbe allotted to the various States in the propor- cluding The Shop Girl, The Artist's Model, San tion which the rural population of each State Toy, The Country Girl, and The Geisha. These bears to the total rural population of the United musical plays were produced in conjunction States; and for each succeeding year for seven with Charles Frohman, and other partners, years an additional amount of $500,000 allotted and were successful in the United States and on the same basis. By July 1, 1923, this will England. Mr. Edwardes was one of the most amount to an annual appropriation of $4,100,- widely known managers in England at the time 000 in addition to the $10,000 to each State of his death. None of this amount will be paid to any State EGGS. See AGRICULTURE, sections The War (excepting the $10,000 annually) unless the and Agriculture and Eggs. State makes an equal appropriation. Both the EGYPT. A khedivate of northeastern Africa, fund received from the Federal government and virtually under the control of Great Britain and the equal fund from the State government to nominally under Turkish suzerainty until 1914, balance it must be expended on extension when it became a British protectorate. Cairo is schemes approved by the United States Depart. the capital. ment of Agriculture.”

AREA AND POPULATION. The area, exclusive The Smith-Hughes Bill for national aid to vo- of the Sudan, is given as 363,181 square miles, cational education was before the Sixty-third of which only 12,013 square miles are settled and Congress and has been reintroduced in the under cultivation. The population in 1907 numSixty-fourth Congress. This bill would "provide bered 11,189,978, not including nomadic BedouFederal aid to coöperate with the various states ins, estimated to number over 97,000. By nain the maintenance and support of vocational tionalities the population was made up as folschools of agriculture, home economics, and the lows: 10,903,677 (10,366,046 sedentary, 537,trades and industries for persons 14 years of age 631 nomadic) Egyptians, and 286,381 foreigners, and over, and in the maintenance and support of of whom 69,725 Turks, 62,973 Greeks, 34,926 schools for training teachers for the vocational Italians, 20,853 British including Maltese, 14,subjects in these vocational schools. This would 591 French including Tunisians, 7704 Austrians provide vocational education in regular day and Hungarians, 2410 Russians, etc. Mohamschools of high school grade and part-time day medans numbered 10,366,826; Copts, 706,322; schools for youths not employed, and in con- Jews, 38,635. In 1907 Cairo had 654,476 intinuation courses in evening schools for youths habitants; Alexandria, 332,246; Tanta, 54,437; and adults regularly employed." The following Port Said, 49,884; Mehala el Kobra, 47,955; table presents a summary of the proposed grants Mansura, 40,279; Assiut, 39,442; Damanhur, to be given to the States by the Smith-Hughes 38,752; Fayum, 37,320; Zagazig, 34,999; DamiBill:

etta, 29,354; Minieh, 27,221; Sherbin, 25,473;

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The maximum in each case above is con- Akhmim, 23,795; Beni-Suef, 23,357; Menuf, 22,tinued annually after 1923–24.

316; Shebin el Kom, 21,576; Mellawi, 20,249; EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL. See EDUCATION Qena, 20,069. IN THE UNITED STATES, section Vocational Edu- EDUCATION. In 1910 an important and very cation.

interesting experiment was begun, viz., the handEDWARDES, GEORGE. English theatrical ing over of local education to the recently conmanager, died Aug. 4, 1915. He was born in stituted provincial councils. This new depar1852. In his early years he intended to enter ture introduced a much-needed elasticity and dithe army, but his associations with the theatre versity into the system. The provincial counprovided the stronger attraction, and he went cils became entirely responsible for elementary into the theatrical business. For 10 years, be- vernacular education in their districts, and all ginning with 1875, he worked under the direc- schools maintained by them are inspected by the tion of D'Oyley Carte, then manager of the Sa- ministry of education. The ministry still revoy Theatre. He then bought out a half interest tains, under its direct control, certain elemenin the Gaiety Theatre, which soon passed under tary schools belonging to trusts controlled by

1366

the ministry of Waqfs (pious foundations); these schools, or maktabs, numbered 142 at the

1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 end of 1913. with an attendance of 14.027. Imports ...23,553 27,227 25,908 27,865 21.725

Exports ...28,944 28,599 34,574 31,662 24,092 Higher primary schools, 34, with 7610 pupils; provincial council maktabs, 911, with 57,175; private maktabs (grant-in-aid), 3394, with 174,

Trade with the principal countries of origin 282; provincial council higher primary schools,

and destination is shown in the following table 78, with 10,493. Total number of establish

in thousands of pounds Egyptian (£E = ments under direct management of the ministry

$4.943): of education, 198, with 27,864 pupils; total number of establishments under inspection by the

1910 1911 1912 1913 1914

Imports: ministry, 4493, with 253,295 pupils. Of the lat

United Kingdom. 7,311 8,557 7,991 8,496 7,061 ter total, 227,434 were boys, and 25,861 were British pos.*....

169 257 253 207 192 girls. A free primary school has been estab- British pos.t.... 967 1,095 1,314 1,762 1,277

France $ .......

2,703 lished in Cairo.

2,839 2,411 2,513 1,640 Turkey ......

2,905 2,808 2,754 2,724 1,911 AGRICULTURE. The area planted to cotton in Austria-Hungary.

1,941 1,127 1910 was stated at 1,642,610 feddans, and in Germany ...... 1,262 1,500 1,421 1,609 1,375 1911 at 1,711,228-an increase of 68,618 feddans.

Italy ..... .. 1,169 1,461 1,243 1,473 1,450 Production, in 1911, of cleaned cotton, 3,318,529 metric quintals. In the table below are shown

United Kingdom. 14,343 13,958 16,022 13,648 10,450
British pos.* ....

10
10

14 areas under main crops in feddans (1 feddan = British pos.* .... 82 111 118 103 168 1.038 acres) in 1913, as distributed in Lower France ....... 2,480 2,31 2,707 2,787 1,571

Austria-Hungary. 1.435 1.443 1.431 Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the Suez governorate;

1.757 960

Germany ...... 3,088 3.1173,886 4.066 with the total area for Egypt, and the total United States...

2.299

1,892 2,071 4,121 2,485 2,917 yield (cotton and sugar in kantars, other crops Russia

os Russia ........ 1,659 1,789 2,056 2,242 1,600 in ardebs of 5.44 bushels) :

* British possessions in the Mediterranean,
† British possessions in the Far East.

* Including Algeria.
Lower Upper S.G. Total Yield
Cotton . 1,339,565 383,485 44 1,723,094 7,554,000
Wheat .. 678,747 626,634 197 1,305,578 6,972.000 By decision of the president of the council of
Barley.. 165,785 203,300 73 369,158 2.078.000

ministers, the export of foodstuffs and products Rice... 229,149 13,218 ... 242,367 1,280,000 Corn ...1,173,716 458,471 369 1,632,556 10,350,000

(except for necessary supplies to ships leaving, Millet.

• 220,204 ... 220,204 1,363,000 which demand them) was prohibited after Aug. Sugar .. 2,199 46,241 28 48,468 21,629,000 3, 1915.

.

The total export of cotton decreased from Of the 1,723,094 feddans reported as planted £E27,529,300 in 1912 to £E25,513,100 in 1913, to cotton in 1913, 486,600 feddans were attacked and from £E24,241,000 in 1910 to £E22,988,000 by the cotton worm, as compared with 980,300 in in 1911, the United Kingdom taking over £El,1912. Area reported as planted to cotton in 000,000 less than in the previous year. In 1913 1914, 737,354 hectares; yield, 3,144,960 metric the United Kingdom took £E10,996,700, as quintals. Lower Egypt suffered from pink boll- against £E12,572,200 in 1912; the United States, worm a ttacks, but Upper Egypt yielded a good £E2,442,500, as against £E4,072,200 in 1912. crop.

Total export of cotton seed was £E3,294,800, of The area under sugar cane in 1915 was 21,921 which the United Kingdom took £E1,698,700, hectares, or 108.2 per cent of the area in 1914, and Germany, £E1,480,704. The cigarette exwhich amounted to 20,252 hectares and gave a port was £E395,000. Coal arrived to the amount production of 9,248,429 metric quintals of cane. of 1,686,700 tons, valued at £E2,010,000, of The amount of sugar cane treated in 1913 was which the United Kingdom contributed 1,605,000 741,000 tons, as compared with 537,000 in 1912. tons, valued at £E1,909,700. Amount of sugar cane treated in 1909–10, 515,- The withdrawals of leaf tobacco decreased 839 tons (sugar yield, 553,346 metric quintals); from 8,206,000 kilograms in 1912 to 8,177,000 in 472,344 in 1910–11 (493,942).

1913. Russian tobacco advanced from 1,027,000 Area planted to wheat, 1913–14, 526,453 hec kilograms in 1911 to 1,511,000 in 1912, and tares (preliminary figures for 1914–15, 640,118 1,853,000 in 1913. Tobacco in bond decreased hectares), yielding 8,935,297 metric quintals from 186,000 bales Dec. 31, 1912, to 167,000 (10,654,389); barley, 161,035 (187,206) hec- bales Dec. 31, 1913, from the fact that, owing tares, 2,412,234 (2,993,027) quintals; corn, 713, to the disturbed political conditions in eastern 550 (771,904) hectares, 16,954,119 quintals; rice, Europe, merchants transferred their stocks to 14,967 (133,925) hectares, 598,991 quintals. Alexandria in 1912

Much hardship has resulted from the dearth Steamers entered at Alexandria in the 1913 of cattle for plowing in the Delta, disease having trade, 1932, of 3,718,660 net registered tons; carried off a quarter of a million of these ani- cleared, 1927 steamers, of 3,698,396. There mals in seven years. Increase of cotton pests, passed through the Suez Canal in 1913, 4979 vesdue to improper drainage and the wholesale de- sels, of 19,758,040 net tons. struction of birds, has wrought havoc. Legisla- COMMUNICATIONS. There were 1512 miles of tion has been enacted for the protection of bird state railway in operation Jan. 1, 1913. In adlife, and a commission appointed to devise means dition there were 795 miles of light railwaysfor the suppression or better control of the cot- the Egyptian Delta Light Railways, the Cheming ton worm and bollworm. The government has de Fer de la Basse-Egypte, and the Fayum Light taken measures for the distribution of improved Railway. There is an increase of 20 miles, as cotton seed.

compared with 1912, due to the completion of a COMMERCE. In the following table are given new line from Salhib to Baltim, constructed by imports and exports of merchandise in thousands the Delta Light Railway Co. Capital value of of pounds Egyptian :

railways, 1913, £E27,291,943; interest on capital, 5.97 per cent. Capital expenditure on State deemed it necessary to issue a proclamation railways in 1913 amounted to £E446,000. For ordering every person having knowledge of any 1914, expenditure on capital works, £E443,000 plot to report it under pain of summary punishwere granted.

ment by martial law; nevertheless in September FINANCE. The alteration of the date of the a member of the cabinet was thrice stabbed by financial year involved the preparation of an in- an employee of the ministry of finance. The tercalary budget for the first quarter of 1914, regular November session of the Legislative Agwhich estimated for a surplus of £E155,000. All sembly and the elections which should have been unused balances lapsed on March 13, 1914, with held in January, 1916, were postponed by a dethe inception of the new system. The budget for cree of the government, October 27th. See also 1914–15 was estimated to balance at £E18,162, ARCHÆOLOGY and WAR OF THE NATIONS. 000. Revenue and expenditure for three years EHRLICH, PAUL. German scientist, died are shown in the table below :

Aug. 20, 1915. He was born in Strehlen, in the
Province of Silesia, in 1854, and attended school

in Breslau, and later studied medicine in that
1911
1912

1913

city and at Strassburg, Freiburg, and Leipzig. Revenue ...£E16,792,750 £E17,515,743 £E17,368,616 Expenditure 14,414,499 15,470,584 15,728, 785

His first studies were of the cellular elements of the blood, and his experiments in this work for.

tified him for his practical triumphs over cerThe total outstanding debt Jan. 1, 1914, tain blood diseases. About the same time he amounted to £E94,202,540, and the annual standardized his diphtheria antitoxin, which was charge for interest and sinking fund to £E3,551, adopted by the German government and which is 266.

used almost everywhere to-day. After the publiGOVERNMENT. The reigning Khedive at the cation of this discovery, he took over the direcdate of the establishment of the British pro- tion of a government institution founded at Stegtectorate was Abbas (II) Hilmi. By associat litz, but its activities grew to such an extent ing himself with the Turkish military operations that in 1899 the Royal Institute for Experiagainst Egypt he incurred the resentment of the mental Therapeutics was established at Frank British government and was superseded by his fort-on-the-Main, and Dr. Ehrlich was made its father's brother, Hussein Kemal Pasha, with the director. Here he carried on many experiments revived title Sultan of Egypt. The Sultan is a in the treatment of cancer, and in 1912 produced man over 60 years of age, experienced in ad- his cancer specific, nigrosin, which he had used ministrative functions, and educated in the Paris on mice with great success. His most important of the Second Empire. Sir Arthur Henry discovery was salvarsan, widely known at first McMahon was appointed high commissioner for as "606" specific, for the cure of blood diseases. Egypt.

His experiments led him to the discovery of this HISTORY. The first Sultan of Egypt, Hussein remedy in 1910. Several years before his death Kemal, appointed in December, 1914 (see YEAR he began experiments on the sleeping sickness. BOOK, 1914, EGYPT), chose the following min- In 1906 Mrs. Georg Speyer endowed an institute isters to form his first cabinet: Premier and for chemical therapeutics for Dr. Ehrlich. This minister of the interior, Hussein Rushdi Pasha; was known as the Georg Speyer House. About agriculture, Adli Yeghen Pasha; pious founda- the same time John D. Rockefeller learned of the tions, Ismail Sidki Pasha; public works, Ahmed contributions made by Dr. Ehrlich to medical Hilmi Pasha; finance, Yussuf Wahba Pasha; science, and authorized the board of the Rockejustice, Abdul Khalek Sarwat Pasha. Almost feller Institute to place $10,000 at his disposal. from the outset the newly created Sultan was In 1904 he visited the United States, and deconfronted by foreign and domestic dangers. livered lectures in several large cities. He reFrom without, Egypt was menaced by the ex- ceived the degree of LL.D. from the University Khedive, Abbas Hilmi, who had been given the of Chicago. In 1907 he delivered the Harben title "King of Syria and Arabia" by the Sultan lectures in London, receiving the degree of Sc.D. of Turkey by way of consolation for the loss of from the University of Oxford. He was the Egypt, and was rumored to be engaged in mus. greatest exponent of modern pathology. He tering forces for an attack upon the usurping with Dr. Metchnikoff was, in 1908, the recipient Hussein Kemal. More serious was the danger of the Nobel prize for research work in medicine. from the army which the Turks sent to attack He was the author of many works on medical the Suez Canal and invade Egypt. Thanks to science. the warships stationed in the canal and to the ELECTION LAWS. See ELECTORAL REFORM. loyal British colonial troops encamped on the ELECTION OF SENATORS, DIRECT. See banks of the canal, all Turkish assaults were re- ELECTORAL REFORM. pulsed. (For details see article WAR OF THE ELECTORAL REFORM. The State LegislaNATIONS, The Suez Canal.) Within Egypt it tures in session in 1915 enacted many important self constant conspiracies were being formed measures relating to changes in electoral laws of against the Sultan's life. Sir Arthur McMahon, the States. In several States changes were the new high commissioner, who arrived in made in the residence qualifications of the voters. Egypt Jan. 9, 1915, took prompt measures to In Vermont the voter who changed his residence insure domestic tranquillity; and care was taken within 15 days prior to the election might vote to impress the populace with a sufficient display in the town to which he moved. The Connectiof British colonial troops; but in spite of all cut Legislature authorized a voter to retain, for precautions, an attempt to assassinate the Sul- the purpose of voting, residence in the town from tan almost succeeded April 8. A few months which he moved. Meanwhile he was regarded as later another attempt was made. A bomb was a resident of the town to which he moved, for the thrown at Hussein as he passed through the purpose of voting there at the following election. streets of Alexandria on his way to prayers, À similar provision was passed by the California July 10. After this attack, the government Legislature. In Colorado, Michigan, Montana, Washington, Wisconsin, and Iowa, qualified vot. TRIO POWER, TRANSMISSION OF; ELECTRIC RAILers, absent from their resident precincts, were WAYS; RAILWAYS; WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY AND permitted to vote elsewhere in the State. In TELEPHONY; etc. Texas a constitutional amendment was proposed ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES. The Euroauthorizing absentee voting for State officers or pean war continued to have its retarding effect on referendum.

on the development of electrical industries durREGULATIONS OF ELECTIONS. Separate bal- ing the first part of 1915, but later on under lots for judicial candidates in cities of 200,000 improved business conditions there was a larger or over were required in Illinois and Wyoming demand in most lines of activity, although not In these States judges had to be nominated re- great enough noticeably to alter the financial regardless of political affiliation on judicial bal. sults as compared with 1914. The accompany. lots at the general primaries. The Legislature ing table, compiled by a well-known authority of Indiana passed measures providing for the in such matters, giving the gross earnings of the election by public vote of party committees of all various electrical industries of the United States kinds. It further provided that candidates for for 1915, shows a very slight increaseless than all offices, except State offices, and for presi: one-half of 1 per cent–in the result of operadential electors, should be chosen by direct pri- tions as compared with the preceding year: maries, but preferential voting for candidates for President, Vice-President, United States Sen

1914

1915 ator, and Governor was authorized. Provision

Electric railways .. 730,000,000 $ 700,000,000 was made in West Virginia for nomination by

Central stations ... 400,000,000 425,000,000 direct primaries for all candidates for office, ex Telephone service .... 350,000,000 350,000,000 cept specified judicial officers, presidential can

Telegraph service .... 85,000,000 100,000,000

Electrical mfg. ... 450,000,000 450,000,000 didates and electors, and officers in small cities. Isolated plants

125,000,000 125,000,000 The Legislature of South Dakota repealed the e Miscellaneous ...

125,000,000 125,000,000 Richards Primary Law enacted in 1913, and restored the law of 1909, with amendments. New

Total ............$2,265,000,000 $2,275,000,000 direct primary laws were enacted in California and Alabama. In Oregon provision was made The exports of electrical machinery, applifor the election of delegates to national conven- ances, instruments, etc., from the United States tions, nomination of presidential electors, and for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, amounted for expression of choice of candidates for Presi- to $19,771,757, a decrease of $5,289,087, as comdent and Vice-President. In Minnesota and pared with the corresponding period of 1914. Wisconsin a second-choice provision of the pri- The iron and steel industry adopted electric mary laws was abolished. “In Vermont at the power on an increasing scale and for a great vaprimary a provision for referendum was enacted. riety of purposes. In steel works the arc furIf the law is approved by the people, it will take nace was apparently the most favored type, and effect in 1916; if rejected it will take effect in there was a continually wider use of electricity 1927. In Kansas provision was made for a sys- for welding in railroad and automobile shops, tem of individual declaration of intention to be. etc. The adoption of electric japanning ovens come a candidate as an alternative for nomina- for use in the automobile industry was making tion by votes. At the time of making this dec- rapid strides and it was estimated that applilaration the intended candidate must pay an ances of this sort having a total capacity of 12,entry fee of 1 per cent on his salary for the 000 k. w. were in use in or near the cities of first year. The expenditure of any party for Detroit and Toledo alone, besides an equal a single campaign is limited to $15,000.

amount in widely distributed service stations of INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM, AND RECALL. The the various automobile manufacturing comconstitutional amendment authorizing the in- panies. itiative and referendum was proposed in Min- A project for the construction of a dam near nesota and North Dakota Frauds in connection Queenston, at the lower end of the Niagara with initiative, referendum, or recall petitions Gorge, for developing 2,000,000 horse power of were penalized in California, and it was made a electrical energy, was under consideration during felony of 1 to 15 years' imprisonment to sub- the year. A plant at this location, and of such scribe a fictitious name or the name of another large capacity, would increase enormously the person to such petitions. In Nevada provision development of the electro-chemical industries was made for referendum on local and special in and near the city of Niagara Falls. The imlegislation to the voters of the county affected. portance of the matter alike to the industrial Improvement in the form of initiative bills is world and to all those interested in the preservaprovided for in California, which requires the tion of the scenic beauties of the State of New legislative council to coöperate in the passage York, was destined to lead to a bitter controof such measures on the request of 25 electors, versy. and requires also the Attorney-General to pre- At the close of the year it was the prevailing pare a title and summary for initiative im- opinion that the competition of the jitney auprovements.

tomobile that had made such serious inroads on PROVISION FOR AMENDMENT OF STATE Consti- the earnings of electric street railways had about TUTIONS. A constitutional convention for the reached its limit, and that owing to the growing provision of an amendment in New York State recognition of the cost of supplying jitney serywas in session in New York (see NEW YORK). ice on a scale satisfactory to the public, the efThe question of calling conventions in Louisiana, fect on the earnings of the traction companies New Hampshire, South Dakota, and Tennessee would be less severe. was submitted to the voters. If authorized the ELECTRIC BATTERIES. There was little New Hampshire Convention will meet in 1918, change in the design of storage batteries during and the Tennessee Convention in 1916.

the year. A modified type of cell was brought ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING. See ELEC- out by Thomas A. Edison, Inc., of larger size and

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