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owing to his activity in municipal Socialism of the week. The citizens' lectures given in was one of the most prominent civic officials in Manchester and other towns in the neighborhood Germany. Perhaps his most notable achieve attracted large audiences. They were on the ment was the establishment of the University following subjects: “Education and War," by of Frankfort in 1914. See UNIVERSITIES AND Prof. F. W. Gamble; “The Strategic Geography COLLEGES. He resigned as mayor of Frankfort of the War," by Dr. Vaughan Cornish; "The in 1912.
Making of a Big Gun,” by Dr. W. Rosenhain; ADULTERATION. See FooD AND NUTRI- “Daily Uses of Astronomy," by A. R. Hinks; TION, passim.
"Health Conditions in the Modern Workshop," ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, AMERICAN by Prof. B. Moore; “Formation of the Sun and ASSOCIATION FOR THE. The 67th annual meet. Stars," by Rev. A. L. Cortie; “Some Lessons ing of the association was held in Columbus, from Astronomy," by Prof. H. H. Turner; and Ohio, Dec. 27, 1915, to Jan. 1, 1916. There were “Curiosities and Defects of Sight,” by Dr. W. 750 members in attendance. At the same time Stirling. Grants of money amounting to £968 the following societies affiliated with the Asso- were appropriated for scientific purposes on beciation held their meetings: American Associa- half of the general committee to members in the tion of Economic Entomologists; American following sections: Mathematical and physical Mathematical Society; American Microscopical science, chemistry, geology, zoology, geography, Society; American Nature Study Society; Amer- economic science and statistics, engineering, an. ican Physical Society; American Phyto-patho thropology, physiology, botany, and education. logical Society; American Society of Natural. Notable addresses were made during the meetists; Association of Official Seed Analysts of ing by Sir Thomas H. Holland, on "The OrganNorth America; Botanical Society of America; ization of Science"; Prof. W. M. Bayliss, on Entomological Society of America; Society for “The Physiological Importance of Phase BoundaHorticultural Science; Southern Society for ries”; Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, on "Educational Philosophy and Psychology; Students and Col- Science”; Prof. Grenville Cole, on “Geology”; lectors of Ohio Archæology; Wilson Ornithologi- Major H. G. Lyons, on “The Importance of Geocal Club. The opening meeting was held in the graphical Research"; Dr. H. S. Hele-Shaw, on college chapel of the Ohio State University, over "Organization to Meet German Competition at 1200 persons being present. The total number the End of the War"; and Prof. Charles G. Se. of registered members of the association was ligman, on “The Early History of the Anglo750. Dr. Charles W. Eliot, the retiring presi- Egyptian Sudan from the Point of View of the dent, gave an address on "The Fruits, Prospects, Ethnologist.” The next meeting will be held at and Lessons of Recent Biological Science." Newcastle. Three public lectures were delivered: by Dr. ADVENT CHRISTIANS. See ADVENTISTS. Douglas W. Johnson, on "Surface Features of ADVENTISTS. The largest branch of the Europe as a Factor in the War”; Dr. Raymond denomination, the Seventh Day Adventists, had F. Bacon, on “The Industrial Fellowships of the in the United States at the close of 1914, 68,203 Mellon Institute”; and Dr. Frank K. Cameron, communicants, 1913 churches, and 528 minon "The Fertilizer Resources of the United isters. The members of the denomination conStates.” The council of the association decided tribute for evangelistic work about $3,000,000 that members of the affiliated societies not now annually. Of this amount about 60 per cent is members of the American Association be invited raised in tithes, which is the main source of to join it in 1916 without payment of the usual revenue. The church buildings and property entrance fee. The following officers were are valued at about $13,000,000. There are elected: President, C. R. Van Hise; vice-presi- nearly 800 schools with an enrollment of about dents-mathematics, L. P. Eisenhart; physics, 30,000. The denomination maintains 37 pubH. A. Bumstead; engineering, E. L. Corthell; lishing houses and branches under its control. geology and geography, R. D. Salisbury; zool. Over 1600 missionaries are maintained in 67 ogy, G. H. Parker; botany, T. J. Burrill; an- different countries. About $1,000,000 is exthropology and psychology, F. W. Hodge; social pended in the support of this work. The other and economic science, Louis I. Dublin ; educa- branches of the denomination are the Advent tion, L. P. Ayres; agriculture, W. H. Jordan. W. Christians, with about 26,000 communicants, E. Henderson was elected general secretary, and 550 churches, and 528 ministers; The Church of C. Stuart Gager secretary of the council. The God, with about 600 communicants, 20 churches, Pacific Coast meeting of the association, held in and 32 ministers; The Life and Advent Union, connection with the Panama International Ex- with 509 communicants, 12 churches, and 12 position, took place in San Francisco during ministers; and The Church of God in Jesus August 2-9. The president, W. W. Camp. Christ, with 2224 communicants, 68 churches, bell, gave an address on "Science and Civiliza and 61 ministers. tion." Three public evening addresses were ÆGEAN ISLANDS. See GREECE. made, respectively, by R. A. Daly, W. B. Scott, AERONAUTICS. The year 1915 marked the and P. S. Reinsch. Over 90 sessions of the asso- point where the construction of aëroplanes ciation were held during the week. The total passed beyond the experimental stage and beregistered attendance of members was 606. came an industry. Every detail of their struc
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, BRITISH ture and equipment was tested in the great ASSOCIATION FOR THE. The annual meeting of the war. The raids of the Zeppelins, largely futile association was held at Manchester in the early and causing little damage, the destruction of part of September. The number of members and men and property, the various services on the associates (1438), although not disappointing, Continent rendered by the aviators of the fightconsidering the war, was small as compared with ing armies, and the actual combats between air previous meetings. The reception by the Lord craft, were all features of the great war which Mayor in the School of Technology on Wednes- will be found discussed elsewhere in the YEAR day evening was the only general social function Book under WAR OF THE NATIONS, NAVAL PROGRESS, and MILITARY PROGRESS. Naturally the machines were being better equipped with varimilitary developments led more to wholesale ous adjuncts that would relieve the pilot of manufacture than to experimentation, which, strain and effort, and better enable him to when it did take place, was practical rather observe, reconnoitre, drop bombs, or engage in than scientific. The details of new work and offensive combat with other craft. In the best actual construction and performance, so far as military aëroplanes the aviator's hands and the belligerent countries are concerned, are feet could be taken off the controls long enough meagre and unreliable. In the United States for the aviator to use a camera, release a bomb, the manufacture of aëroplanes vastly increased, examine or mark a map, or aim and fire a rifle and by the close of 1915 America was reported or pistol. to be the largest manufacturer of aëroplanes The year's progress in engine construction and their parts, its sales being estimated at al- was largely towards more powerful plants. most $5,000,000.
Many 12-cylinder engines were being made in The result of this activity was the organiza- sizes ranging from 100 to 250 horse power, and tion of large factories by American manufac- it was observed that the stationary cylinder turers either in the United States or in Canada. type was in many places supplanting the rotary Thus, the Curtiss Company at the end of the engine which previously had the preference. year was occupying a large plant in Buffalo, The stationary cylinder engine was found more and was said to have contracts for about $15, simple, easier to repair, and of greater reli000,000 worth of aëroplanes, to be able to turn ability, following as it did lines laid down by out daily a complete America, the largest size automobile designers. of aëroplane, and to be preparing to turn out In America, Great Britain, France, and Gerdaily five so-called Canadas—this in addition many, the type favored was the twin-six with to the wholesale manufacture of the standard stationary cylinders of the V form. The motypes of the concern. The Wright Aëroplane tor with stationary cylinders demonstrated itCompany of Dayton, Ohio, changed hands and self as the most efficient, and in fact such an was capitalized at $5,000,000. Other works in engine of the stationary water cooled type was the United States were the Glenn L. Martin used in the duration record flight of 24 hours Company, of Los Angeles, the Sturtevant Aëro- made in 1914 by Reinhold Boehin. Of course plane Company, of Massachusetts, the Burgess for military aviators record breaking was not Company, of Marblehead, Mass., the Thomas so much an object as reliability and great Company, of Ithaca, N. Y., and a large number horse power to carry the weights-observers, of smaller concerns which were getting ready bombs, and other apparatus-required. The Vfor increased business.
type motor also showed economy in fuel conMany of these manufacturers and aëroplane sumption and a greater radius of action, while engineers late in December assembled in con- in its larger size it had less weight and less ference with members of the Naval Consulting bulk than the vertical cylinder engine, and Board and the Society of Aëroplane Engineers might offer less resistance to the air in flight. to consider the standardization of aëroplanes on The twin-six or twelve-cylinder V-type of motor a basis similar to that followed so successfully seemed to be not only a development but the acin the American automobile industry. It was cepted form during the year 1915, and many urged at this meeting that there be engineering authorities thought that the 8-cylinder motor coöperation and standardization of materials, would be supplanted by the 6- or 12-cylinder designs, and methods of specification and test, motor, as the latter balanced better, had more and it was the sense of the various representa torque, and ran smoother. tives at the conference that the adoption of In France, the Renault Company, which desuitable standards would lay a real commercial veloped an air-cooled 12-cylinder motor of 100 foundation for the aëroplane industry in Amer- horse power, was manufacturing these machines ica for future years. Committees of the So- at the Schneider Automobile Works at Lyons ciety of Aëroplane Engineers were appointed to and elsewhere, so that about ten motors a day consider the problems of nomenclature and were turned out for government use, while Eng. standardization, and these committees were to land, the United States, and other countries work in harmony with the engineers of the were using these motors experimentally. In army and navy.
Great Britain, a notable engine development Gradually the size and strength of aëroplanes during the year was the British Sunbeam, a had increased, and machines were constructed 12-cylinder V-type motor built for the great by the fighting nations in Europe on a scale fighting biplanes of the Royal Air Craft Facthat probably never would have been attempted tory. This motor weighed 1085 pounds complete, in more pacific times. Biplanes and triplanes was water cooled, and could develop 225 horse spreading over 100 feet were in service, and power. Two such motors were installed on one were being built, while power plants in dupli- of the big tractor biplanes which had a wing cate and triplicate were being installed on these spread of 70 feet. The motor had a speed of as well as on smaller machines. One German 2000 revolutions per minute, which was reduced triplane was stated to have eight Maybach mo. to 1000 revolutions for the propeller. Another tors coupled in pairs, each pair driving one of British engine, somewhat lighter, was built for four propellers, two of which will drive the British experiment by the Rolls-Royce Complane under ordinary conditions. Provision pany, which was a twin-six of 250 horse power was being made for larger crews, of six or more and weighed 800 pounds, while a number of men, 20 in the German machine just mentioned, American motors were being tested by the Britand the weight of bombs, ammunition, fuel, and ish government at the Royal Air Craft Factory provisions was far in excess of the most san- at Farnborough guine hopes entertained by designers and avia- Among other engines brought out in 1915 was tors a few years previously. In addition much a 12-cylinder V-type water cooled motor weighattention was paid to stabilizing, and military ing 720 pounds, designed by L. E. Rausenberger,
CUR TSS MODEL "R-2" MILITARY TRACTOR A type o machine made in America and supplied to the armies of the allies. In 1915 it made a notable flight from Torontot New York, and with three passengers in addition to the pilot made an altitude record of 8024 feet
and planned to give 150 horse power at a nor- most practical defense against submarines, inmal speed of 120 revolutions per minute. The asmuch as they had a much greater speed and cylinders are staggered so that the connecting a deep sea vision, so that they could hunt down rods of opposite cylinders are placed side by the submarines and either capture or destroy side on the same crank pin. Another notable them with their own bombs, or indicate their engine, the Ashmusen 105 horse power motor, position to the protective fleet of fast motor water cooled, with cylinders horizontally op- boats. posed and weighing 345 pounds, was being devel. This battleship aëroplane, as it was termed, oped during the year. The bore and stroke building at the end of the year 1915 at the Curwere 3.75 inches and 4.5 inches respectively. tiss Company, was a triple screw triplane Another 12-cylinder motor of the year was the weighing, fully equipped, 21,450 pounds. It had Johnson 2-cycle type of the 90° V-form with a hull of cedar planking, sheathed with copper a bore of 5 inches and a stroke of 4 inches, with on the under side and riveted to stout ash ribs. a rating of 150 to 180 horse power, at a speed The boat was 68 feet long, with a beam of 20 ranging from 1150 to 1400 revolutions per min- feet. It had a V-shaped bottom ending in a ute. This engine weighed 598 pounds.
straight stem forward, while its rear was cut While extensive manufacturing work was be- off sharply, so as to facilitate rising from the ing carried on, at the same time the mechanical sea. The lines of the hull were carefully deengineering features were investigated, and veloped in the light of marine experience, and Prof. Charles E. Lucke, of Columbia Univer- the hull itself was divided into 12 water-tight sity, was testing modern aëroplane engines for compartments, one-third of which could keep the National Aeroplane Advisory Board, and it the machine floating should the hull be pierced was hoped that there would be a contest for and several compartments flooded. The boat aëroplane motors to be held by the United contained a conning tower for the control apStates navy, in which a large number would re paratus and the navigating instruments, a ceive exhaustive scientific tests.
cabin for the crew of eight, containing the fuel MISCELLANEOUS DEVELOPMENTS. In the va- tanks, ammunition, and stores. The fuel suprious machines turned out during the year from ply was 700 gallons of gasolene, 80 gallons oil, the Curtiss works in Buffalo a number of tech- sufficient to give the machine (at a speed of 75 nical advances were to be noted. In one ma- miles an hour) a cruising radius of 675 miles. chine built specially for war purposes, and The superstructure consisted of three supporting capable of carrying three passengers besides the planes, with a span of 133 feet, and a chord pilot, tested during the summer, an American of 10 feet, with a gap of 10 feet between each two record for climbing with considerable weight planes, the total area of support being about was made, as well as a capacity of great speed 4000 square feet. The tip of each lower wing in ordinary flying demonstrated. With two was fitted with a pontoon to prevent digging into passengers, an ascent of 8200 feet was made in the water when running on the surface or when 27 minutes, and with three passengers a con- at anchor. The propelling engines consisted of siderably greater elevation was attained in a six 160 horse power water cooled V-type engines, proportionate time. Here the total live load was which were coupled in twin units of 320 horse 800 pounds and 8300 feet was reached when the power, each unit driving an air screw about 15 barograph ceased recording, and the ascent was feet long. One unit was placed amidships and continued for another five minutes. The Amer- drove a central pusher screw, and the two ican record for height with two passengers pre others were mounted on the edges of the centre vious to this was 5187, and the world's record plane on either side and above the cabin, so as with three passengers, 15,650 feet, was made by to drive a tractor air screw. There was an elecan Austrian aviator in 1914. This Curtiss ma- tric starter auxiliary engine of 40 horse power chine was of the tractor type where the pas- which generated the current required for the sengers were placed in a cockpit in front of the automatic stabilizer, the drift indicator, and pilot, who is located behind the planes. The the minor apparatus. This auxiliary engine 160 horse power engine was capable of carrying also drove a water propeller for water navigaa load of 1500 pounds dead weight. The control tion. of the machine was said to be perfect and a This new flying boat took into consideration speed of 94 miles an hour was made without the every device known for safety and for the repilot's touching the wheel.
mote contingencies of engine failure, as with even At the end of the year there was building at one engine running the pilot could climb out of the yard of the Curtiss Company of Buffalo reach of gun fire as well as keep on any desired what was considered to be the largest and most course. The steering apparatus consisted of a powerful flying boat aloft. This craft was a balanced rudder of 54 square feet area, with a development of the America which was designed keel-fin of 46 square feet area. Longitudinal and constructed to cross the Atlantic in 1914, stability was secured by a tail-fin of 126 square and which was discussed in the 1914 YEAR feet area, and an elevator of 96 square feet area. Book. The America late in 1914 was pur- Transverse stability was provided by interconchased by the British Admiralty, and was put nected ailerons hinged to supporting planes. in commission with the Coast Defense Aéro. Nothing definite was revealed as to the armaplane Squad in connection with the troop trans- ment of this flying boat, but it was stated that ports crossing the English Channel, as she was it was possible that even a six-pounder might able to warn such craft against submarines, be carried in place of the usual one and one-half and it was stated that she destroyed three pound aircraft gun. While American authorGerman submarines and prevented attacks on ities were not entirely conversant with the most British transports in the Channel. Accord- recent practice of European design and coningly the British Admiralty gave orders dur- struction, yet it was believed that the Curtiss ing the year, first for 12 and then for 20 flying triplane represented a recent and extraordinary boats of the America class, as they seemed a development.