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sides his general geological map of western valley of the Lower Yenesei, under Miss CzapAfrica, this scientist has completed geological licka, Oxford University, and Mr. Hall, Univermaps of colonies in Senegal, Guinea, Dahomey, sity of Pennsylvania. Studying first the SamoUpper Senegal, and Niger. Great extensions of yeds, the party wintered with the Tungus, a railway systems will facilitate future explora- very primitive folk, and subsequently made retions. Notable is the completion of the Trans- searches among the Tartars. African Railroad from Kabolo, on the Congo, to Sir Aurel Stein's recent discoveries in East Lake Tanganyika, which already had rail con- Turkestan have been extensive and important. nection with the port of Ujiji.

He began his explorations from Tun-huang, NORTH AMERICA. (For the explorations of southeast of the Gobi Desert, where he visited the Bernier, McMillan and Stefansson, see POLAR temple of the Thousand Buddhists. Thence he RESEARCH. For Alaskan work, see ALASKA.) traced for 250 miles, across a sterile desert, an With its strictly limited regions of unknown ancient wall of China which was erected at least territory, North America has been comparatively a century before the beginning of the Christian neglected, except in the Dominion of Canada. era. This wall was built with great engineering The most interesting work in that country is skill of reed and brushwood fascines, filled with the rediscovery in Hudson Bay of the lost clay or gravel. It was surmounted with watchislands of Gerritz' chart (1612), discovered by towers, etc., and abundant remains were found Hudson in his last voyage (1610-11), concern of the soldiers who occupied it as a defensive ing which there have been much doubt and dig force. It appears that the adjacent sterile cussion. R. J. Flaherty has skirted this group, regions had been made habitable by extensive which lies to the north of James Bay, between irrigation systems. Stein explored thoroughly 55° and 60° north latitude. The largest of the the ruins of Khara Koto, which he identifies with three islands is 100 miles in length, and the area Marco Polo's city of Etzina, the ancient outof the group is about 4000 square miles. The fitting station of merchants making the 40-day most notable discovery in the United States is march across the desert to Karakoram, the old the Sun Temple, unearthed in the Mesa Grande capital of Mongolia. Among the ruins were Park by Dr. J. W. Fewkes. Built as early as found Buddhist manuscripts and prints, frescocs, 1300, for religious and ceremonial purposes, it is stuccos, reliefs, records on paper, coins, ornathe most striking prehistoric ruin in America. ments, etc. He also explored the region around Its 25 rooms are enclosed by walls 4 feet thick Turfan, mapped large areas of the Dry Mounand over 1000 feet in length.

tains, and portions of the former bed of the SOUTH AMERICA. The Bolivian-Brazilian Oxus. Although turned back by the war, the Boundary Commission has completed its ex- Voisins, Segalen, Lartigue (French) expedition ploration and delimination of the boundary of succeeded in reaching as far west as Li-kiangthe two countries along the Abuma, the Madeira fou, on the Yangtse in Yunnan, Western China. and the Raquirran rivers. Between July and The Smithsonian expedition for biological reOctober, 1914, Dr. Farabee explored portions of search along the Siberian coast, under Koren, obthe valley of the Upper Amazon, giving special tained a large collection of birds and of Arctic attention to the tribes living in the watersheds fossils. of the Ucayale and adjacent streams. In March, EUROPE. Some additions have been made to a 1915, he began a journey from the Upper Purus knowledge of the Kola Peninsula, by the survey River for the purpose of skirting the unknown and construction by the Russian government of frontiers of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru. Among a railway from Vologda, on the Petrogradadditions to the geographic literature of 1915 Archangel Railroad, northward to Kola on the is the astonishing report of Maj. P. H. Fawcett Northern Coast, thus affording an ice-free haron his explorations of extensive and hitherto un- bor. visited forest areas of Bolivia. He states that OCEANIC. The Coast and Geodetic Survey, in regions distant from the navigable rivers, continuing its work of offshore exploring, has there are numerous large tribes, aggregating "at located the edge of the continental shelf along a least 100,000 savages," who have had no contact large part of the South Atlantic Coast. The with white men. These tribes are for the most 100-fathom curve lies quite far seaward, extendpart anthropophagus, wage continuous wars, and ing in some instances into the Gulf Stream. The generally live in communal fashion. Within 15 wire-drag operations of the Survey have covered leagues of the provincial capital of Santa Cruz 214 square miles in Alaskan waters and 250 in there are hostile savages yet living under Stone the Atlantic Surveys in the Philippines disAge conditions. Savage tribes have also barred close the existence of a submerged range of coral from travel the Mamore and Heat rivers. Pro- mountains, extending southwesterly for 200 miles fessor Bingham made in 1915 his fifth expedition from the south end of Panay. The Cagayenes to South America. His Peruvian researches and other small islands are the summits of the were pursued in the valleys of the Apurimac and coral range. The Sulu Sea is divided into two Urubamba rivers. In addition to geographic and deep basins, wherein a maximum depth of 18,294 archæological work, large collections were made feet was found. Hydrographic surveys of the of new and of ancient food plants.

delta of the Obi resulted in the discovery of a ASIA. During Dr. Filippi's recent explora- deep channel through which sea-going ships of tions, he discovered that the Remo Glacier, on deep draught can ascend the river, thus opening the crest of the Karakoram Range between interior Siberia to sea-traffic. Exploration in Cashmir and Afghanistan, drains both into the the field of terrestrial magnetism has been coninterior of Asia and also into the Indian Ocean. tinued during 1915 under the direction of Dr. It proves to be the source of the Yarkand, an Bauer of the Carnegie Magnetic Institute. The affluent of the Tarim River to the northeast, and Carnegie Institute's work included observations of Stryok, the main tributary of the Indus to at more than 200 sea-stations, and extended from the southwest. An English-American expedition 60° N. latitude, in Bering Sea, to Port Lyttlehas made an ethnological exploration of the ton, N. Z., in the Southern Hemisphere.

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OPENING OF THE EXPOSITION ON JANUARY 1, 1915 Centre group from left to r ght: G Aubrey Davidson, President of the Exposition: William G. McAdoo, Secretary of the United States Treasury and personal representative of President Wilson; and Lyman J. Gage former Secretary of the United

ates Treasury, and Chairman of opening ceremonies

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© Panama-California Exposition

EXPOSITION GROUNDS FROM A SPANISH BALCONY OVERLOOKING THE SEA

PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION, SAN DIEGO

EXPLOSIVES AND MUNITION FACTO- during the life of the exposition. The financial RIES. See UNITED STATES AND THE WAR. results of the exposition were most satisfactory.

EXPLOSIVES. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL, In abbreviated form the data are as follows: cost section so entitled.

of exposition to opening, $18,365,193.69; income EXPOSITIONS. During the year two great to opening, $16,988,555.79; deficit on opening, international expositions have been held in the $1,376,637.90; operating surplus of exposition United States: the Panama-California Exposi- period, $2,571,807.79; estimated net profit on tion in San Diego, Cal., and the Panama-Pacific closing, $1,195,169.89; estimated net loss of Exposition in San Francisco, Cal.

wrecking period, $160,000; and estimated final PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION. This was net profit, $1,040,000. In addition to this surheld in San Diego, Cal., and the history of its plus the exposition has paid for and given to inception and development has been given in the the city the Municipal Auditorium, in the Civic YEAR Books for 1911, p. 247; 1912, p. 216; 1913, Center, at a cost of $1,086,000, and the $50,000 p. 236, and 1914, p. 235. It was opened on pipe organ now in Festival Hall. In January January 1st, with appropriate ceremonies, in Congress passed a law permitting the minting cluding an address by the Hon. William G. of special coins commemorative of the exposition McAdoo, who represented President Wilson on as follows: Three thousand 50-dollar pieces; that occasion. The beauty of the exposition has 10,000 212-dollar pieces; 25,000 l-dollar pieces, impressed those who have visited it and its in- all in gold, and 200,000 half-dollar silver pieces. fluence in bringing about a greater appreciation The law permitted the mint to deliver these of the possibilities of the Spanish Colonial archi: coins at their par value, and the exposition was tecture will be its lasting lesson. On December authorized to put its own selling price on the 4th, an official announcement was made that the coins. See also ARCHITECTURE; and PAINTING Panama Exposition, opened on Jan. 1, 1915, AND SCULPTURE. would continue throughout 1916 as the Panama OTHER EXPOSITIONS. Among minor and local California International Exposition. The 1916 expositions held in the United States may be ex position will open on January 1st, the day mentioned the First National Exposition of following the official closing of the 1915 fair. Chemical Industries held in New York City durForeign exhibits valued at several million dol. ing September 20–25. It is described under lars, from the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL (q.v.). The expositions Francisco, just closing, are to be brought to San held abroad during the year include the British Diego. Two of the largest exhibits at the San Industries Fair in London, England, during May Francisco Exposition-the Canadian and the 10-21; the Canadian National Exhibition in Italian-have been obtained, and other exhibits Toronto, Canada, during August 28-Sept. 13; promised are the French, Swiss, Spanish, Nether. the Swiss Exposition of Toys in Zurich, Switzerlands, and Russian See also ARCHITECTURE. land, during October; and a traveling exposition,

PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. (See YEAR the proceeds of which were designed for the BOOKS, 1912, p. 216; 1913, p. 236; and 1914, p. care of war cripples and invalids under the aus236.) This exposition was held in San Fran- pices of the Red Cross Society during the aucisco, Cal. The touching of a button by Presi- tumn in Berlin, Breslau, Budapest, Magdeburg, dent Wilson in the White House gave the electric and Cassel. In the Orient the second annual signal that opened the exposition exactly at exhibition of Siamese agriculture and domestic noon, Pacific time, on February 20th, which was manufactures was held in Bisanuloke, Siam, durmade a legal holiday throughout California. ing March 17-21; a Chinese National ExposiThe exercises included addresses by Hon. Frank- tion was opened in Peking on October 10th; an lin K. Lane, who represented President Wilson, Industrial Competitive Exhibition was held in Gov. Hiram W. Johnson, and Charles C. Moore, Seoul, Chosen, during September 10-October president of the exposition. The exposition con- 31, and a Japanese Exposition was held in tinued until midnight on December 4th, when Santiago, Chile, during September. President Moore closed the festivities by pressing COMING EXPOSITIONS. The opening of the Naa button that turned off the electric display. The tional Exposition of Panama has again been following words are from the message which postponed until Jan. 21, 1916. An International President Wilson sent to the formal closing ex Exposition of Electrical Appliances and also a ercises :

general Spanish Exposition is announced as in "The Panama-Pacific International Exposition: preparation to be held in Barcelona, Spain, durwhich in its conception and successful accom- ing 1917. Announcement is made of the orplishment gave striking evidence of the practical ganization of committees for the preparation of genius and artistic taste of America; which in a celebration in 1916 of the 250th anniversary of its interesting and unusual exhibits afforded im- the founding of the city of Newark, N. J., and pressive illustration of the development of arts of the 200th anniversary of the founding of San and peace; and which in its motive and object Antonio, Texas, by the Franciscan monks. See was eloquent of the new spirit which is to unite also ARCHITECTURE. East and West and make all the world partners FABRE, JEAN HENRI, a distinguished French in the common enterprises of progress and hu- entomologist, died at Orange, France, on Oct. manity.” Thirty-nine foreign nations and 37 11, 1915. He was born at St. Léons, Avignon, States and 3 Territories of the American Union in 1823, taught for several years in the Lycée were represented at the exposition. It was esti- of Avignon, and was afterward professor of mated that there were 80,000 exhibitors whose physics at the College of Ajaccio. Later he redisplays were valued at $350,000,000. The daily tired to Lérignan, where he wrote his greatest attendance, which averaged about 62,000, began work, Souvenirs entomologiques (10 vols. 1879– with 245,143 on the opening day and reached its 1907), which was crowned by the Institute. highest number—348,472, on November 2nd, San His other works are: La science élémentaire, a Francisco Day. The total was 18,413,399. series of lectures (1862–65); Histoire de la There were 800 congresses and conventions held bûche (1866); Notions préliminaires de phy. sique (1867-70); Le Livre d'histoires (1868); the established lines of activity were maintained Les ravageurs (1870); Astronomie élémentaire by the council in State and local federations, (1872); Les auxiliaires (1873); Lectures scien- foreign missions, home missions, religious educatifiques: zoölogie (1873); Botanique (1874); tion, social service, evangelism, Sunday observ. Premiers éléments de physique (1874); De ance, temperance, and peace and arbitration. chimie (1875); De science naturelle (1875); The council promoted a religious exhibit and Les serviteurs (1875); La plante (1875); L'In conducted a continuous religious campaign at dustrie (1875); Cours complet d'enseignement the Panama-Pacific Exposition, with evangelistic littéraire et scientifique (1876); Livre des meetings, daily lectures, and conferences. In aid champs (1879); Les inventeurs et leurs inven- of the promotion of international friendliness tions (1880); La vie des insectes (1910). through the churches, 400,000 books and pamFabre was made a corresponding member of the phlets were distributed and 170,000 letters sent Institute and a chevalier of the Legion of Honor. out. A Christian embassy to Japan was well Parts of his writings have been published in received, and an investigation was conducted on English, as Insect Life (1901); The Life and the Pacific Coast concerning the Japanese probLove of the Insect, translated by A. T. de Mat- lcm in the United States. Delegates afterward tos (1911); Social Life in the Insect World, came from Japan for fraternal conference with translated by Bernard Miall (1913); The Life American workers. A committee on the special of the Spider and The Life of the Fly, translated interests of the colored denominations was proby A. T. de Mattos (1913).'

jected. The general secretary, Rev. Charles S. FAILURES. See FINANCIAL REVIEW, section MacFarland, visited Holland, Switzerland, Eng. so entitled.

land, France, and Germany, representing the FALABA CASE. See UNITED STATES AND United Churches on 25 national committees; THE WAR.

and he addressed over 100 conferences. The FALKLAND ISLANDS. A British colony council's year ended free of debt, but it was composed of a group of islands in the South admitted that the growing demands of the work Atlantic. They are East Falkland (3000 square call for much larger expenditure in 1916. The miles), West Falkland (2300), and about 100 annual meeting of the executive committee of smaller islands (totaling about 1200 square the council was held at Columbus, Ohio, on miles). South Georgia, a group of islands 541%2° December 8–10th, was attended by 1150 memS., with an area of about 1000 square miles, a bers and delegates, and was addressed by the great whaling station, is a dependency of the President of the United States. The administraFalkland Islands. Inclusive of South Georgia tive committee is in close and constant comthe population numbered in 1911, 3275 (2370 munication with the churches of the belligerent males and 905 females). Estimated population nations of Europe, looking toward future opDec. 31, 1913, 3223. Sheep farming is the sole portunities of reconciliation, a delegation being industry of the colony, the entire country being in readiness to go to Europe at the earliest wild moorland fit for little besides pasture. opportunity.. There are no trees. There were in 1913 about The denominations affiliated with the Federal 698,000 sheep, 7821 cattle, and 3528 horses. Council are as follows: Baptist (North), Free Hides, skins, horns, hoofs, bones, tallow, wool, Baptist, Christian, Congregational, Disciples of and guano are the exports. Whale produce ex Christ, Evangelical Association, Evangelical ported in 1913 was valued at £1,252,932, of Synod, Society of Friends, Lutheran General which £443,378 from South Georgia. Imports Synod, Methodist Episcopal Church, Methodist and exports for 1913 were valued at £239,222 and Episcopal Church (South), German Evangelical £1,460,219 respectively (£93,913 and £471,156 in Synod, National Baptist Convention (colored), 1911). The United Kingdom contributed im- the Mennonite Church, the African Methodist ports valued at £152,958, and received exports Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episco€750,994. Total tonnage entered and cleared, pal Zion Church, the Colored Methodist Episco500,449 (315,278 in 1911). Revenue, 1913, £42, pal Church in America, the Methodist Protestant 929 (1911, £35,349); expenditure, £25,238 (£22,- Church, the Moravian Church, the Presbyterian 460). There is no public debt. The only town Church in the United States of America, the is Stanley, with about 950 inhabitants. It has Presbyterian Church in the United States a fine inner and outer harbor and is a coaling (South), the Primitive Methodist Church, the station for vessels rounding Cape Horn. Be- Protestant Episcopal Church, the Reformed yond the town limits there are no roads. The Church in America, the Reformed Church in the islands were taken by Great Britain in 1832 for United States, the Reformed Episcopal Church, the protection of the whale fisheries. Depend the Reformed Presbyterian Church (General encies besides South Georgia are the South Shet. Synod), the Seventh Day Baptist Church, the lands, Graham's Land, the South Orkneys, and United Presbyterian Church, the United Breththe Sandwich group.

ren Church, the United Evangelical Church, the FARABEE, DR.—HIS EXPLORATIONS. See United Presbyterian Church, and the Welsh EXPLORATION, South America.

Presbyterian Church. FARATSIHITE. See MINERALOGY.

FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS. See BANKS FARMERS' INSTITUTES. See AGRICUL- AND BANKING. TURAL EXTENSION WORK.

FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM. See FARMING. See AGRICULTURE.

BANKS AND BANKING, under the section so enFAWCETT, MAJOR P. H.—HIS EXPLORA- titled. TIONS. See EXPLORATION, South America.

FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. See FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE TRUSTS. CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN AMERICA. FEDERATED MALAY STATES. A BritThe council officially unites in its activities 30 ish protectorate composed of four states in the Protestant denominations, including 139,000 Malay Peninsula, as follows (area in square churches with 17,500,000 members. During 1915 miles, population census of 1911):

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