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is a blunder, both moral and economic. If both Sq.m. 1911 Capital

parents are feeble-minded, all their numerous Perak

7,800 494,057 Taiping

• 3,156 Selangor,

progeny will be mentally defective; while at least 294,035 Kuala Lumpur Negri Sembila 130,199 Seremban

one-half of the children will be mentally dePahang ..... ..14,000 118,708 Kuala Lipis fective if but one parent is feeble-minded. These F. M. S..........27,506 1,036,999 Kuala Lumpur

people are classified as borderline cases, morons,

imbeciles of three grades, and idiots of three See articles on the separate states for indi.

grades. They are all instances of arrested men

i tal development, while the insane have retrovidual production. A table of commercial and financial statistics follows, values in Straits

graded from normal mentality through disease. &

FEMINISM. See WOMAN MOVEMENT; and Settlements dollars (1 Straits Settlements dol- Worans lar = $0.56776) for 1913:

FENCING. The twenty-second annual inter.

collegiate fencing tournament was won by the Imp8. Exp8. Rev. Expend. United States Naval Academy. Columbia, which Pk. ....34,286,777 71,402,985 23,970,058 25,804,040

captured the championship in 1914, finished sec42,390.846 56,897.277 15.561,395 16.725,848 N. S. ... 6,462,551 13,362,762 3,071,799 2,681.530 ond, and the University of Pennsylvania, third. Pg..... 3,268,983 7,006,474 1,729,459 2,076,163 The individual winners were: foils, H. B. Van

Buskirk, Pennsylvania; sabres, R. D. S. Horne, There is no public debt. Railway lines in United States Naval Academy. operation (1914), 771 miles, including 37 miles Dual college competitions resulted as follows: opened in 1913. The Railways Administration Yale 9, Bowdoin 0; Yale 8, Columbia 1; Yale 5, controls the line in the Malay Peninsula, in- Harvard 4; Yale 5, Pennsylvania 4; Columbia 5. cluding the Johore State Railways, leased since Pennsylvania 4; Cornell 7, Columbia 2; Cornell January, 1912. In 1913 the Singapore Railway 8, Michigan 1; United States Naval Academy 6, had 20 miles in length, which had been leased Cornell 3. to the Railways Administration from the co- In the national championships held by the lonial government from January, 1912, at a Amateur Fencers' League, Sherman Hall of the rental of $150,000, and was purchased for $4, New York A. C. won with the foils and J. A. 136,000.

McLaughlin of the Washington Fencers' Club In 1909 a Federal Council was created by an excelled with the duelling swords. The woman's agreement between the high commissioner and championship with the foils was captured by the four native rulers, to consist of the high Miss Jessie Pyle. commissioner, the chief secretary, the sultans FERTILIZERS. To just what extent the of Perak, Selangor, and Pahang, the yam tuan supply, price, and use of fertilizers were affected of the Negri Sembilan, the four British residents, by the disturbed conditions of trade during the and four unofficial members nominated by the year 1915 it was impossible to say at the end high commissioner. The first meeting was held of the year, since complete and reliable statistics Dec. 11, 1909, at Kuala, Kangsar. The Council of the fertilizer industry were not available. meets annually, the high commissioner (Sir Some outstanding features of the situation were Arthur Young) presiding.

the shortage and high price of potash, an advance FEDERATION OF JEWISH FARMERS in the price of nitrate, and a shortage of sulOF AMERICA. See AGRICULTURAL CREDIT. phuric acid for the manufacture of super-phos

FEDERATION OF LABOR, AMERICAN. See phates. LABOR, AMERICAN FEDERATION OF.

Potash. A large part of the world's supply FEÉBLE-MINDEDNESS. A recent publica- of potash was cut off by the German embargo tion issued by the Ohio Board of Administration in 1914, at a time when there was a greatly inis of considerable value in relation to the coun- creased demand for potash for the manufacture try-wide problem of the feeble-minded. It has of munitions. The result was such a decrease been estimated that from 300,000 to 400,000 per- in the amounts available for agriculture and sons in the United States, equivalent to 0.3 per such an advance in price as to make the use of cent of the population, are feeble-minded, and of potash salts as fertilizer in large measure prothese not over one-third are under custodial care. hibitive. The United States was probably the In Ohio there are between 10,000 and 15,000 greatest sufferer from this cause. Normally the fceble-minded children, less than 20 per cent of United States used about $14,000,000 worth of whom are in institutions devoted particularly German potash salts annually besides $1,000,000 to their care. Others are to be found in infirm- worth of potassium nitrate obtained indirectly aries, reformatories, and prisons, and others help from India. The situation created by the failure to swell the number of juvenile delinquents. A of the German supply of potash added impetus mental examination of the inmates of the Girls' to the search for other sources of supply and and Boys' Industrial School and Home showed stimulated inquiry as to practical means of that 59 out of 100 girls examined were feeble- meeting the emergency without impairment of minded, 14 were borderline cases, 13 mentally re- the productiveness of the soil. Attention theretarded, and only 14 normal. In the case of the fore was directed toward the more liberal use boys, out of 100 examined, 46 were feeble-minded, of substances such as lime, gypsum, salt, decay. 26 borderline cases, 11 mentally retarded, and ing organic matter, etc., and more thorough till11 mentally normal. The findings in Ohio coin- age, which was believed to increase the avail. cide with those in other States and indicate ability of the soil potash. These of course were that from 60 to 80 per cent of the feeble-minded only temporary expedients and would at best ness is due to bad heredity. This report takes only partly meet the needs of the situation. On the view that the attempt to discipline and train the other hand, the shortage of potash may in defective children and then return them to so- the end prove a distinct advantage to agriculture ciety, is futile. They can never be brought up in that it will force a more careful study of the to normal and to turn them loose on the public fertilizer needs of soils with reference to potash and lead to a more discriminating and profitable therefore, had to be met by conservation and dis. use of potash fertilizers. There was good reason criminating use of such supplies as were avail. to believe that there was a large waste in the able. use of such fertilizers on lands which did not In order that the many important experiments need them, and hence did not make a profitable with fertilizers in progress in the United States return for their use. Many of the soils of the may continue without hindrance an attempt is United States are abundantly supplied with pot- being made to arrange for the import of a suffiash. Good tillage and the liberal use of de- cient amount of potash salts for these expericaying organic matter are probably the most ments, the Secretary of Agriculture acting as effective practical means at the command of the consignee and guaranteeing that the salts shall farmer of increasing the availability of this soil be used only for experimental purposes and not potash. Recent investigations indicated that sold. the common estimate of the effectiveness of lime PHOSPHATES. Phosphates are the normal for this purpose was greatly exaggerated. All basis of practically all fertilizers since phosfarm supplies of potash, such as ashes, straw phorus is probably the fertilizer constituent most and crop residues, manure, etc., should, of course, generally needed by soils. Fortunately the be conserved.

world's supply is abundant. The United States It seemed certain that conditions created by especially contains a practically inexhaustible the European war would result in the develop supply of high-grade phosphates. It is becomment and permanent establishment of other com- ing increasingly desirable, however, to find pracmercial supplies of potash besides those of Ger- tical methods of utilizing more completely the many. The information available indicated that large supplies of low-grade phosphates, and, in the potash deposits of Spain are of such extent general, to improve the methods of manufacand character as to warrant the expectation that ture of soluble phosphates. The United States they will ultimately supply more than the home Department of Agriculture was systematically demand. The inquiries conducted under govern- investigating these questions as well as the ecoment auspices in the United States made it nomic justification of the use of untreated rock. plain that America could develop an abundant The systematic examinations of the enormous domestic supply of potash when the commercial phosphate deposits of the Western United States conditions justify the investment of the necessary were continued by the United States Geological capital. The sources of supply are abundant Survey with a view to withdrawing from entry and the more important technical problems have and reserving under government control lands in most cases been worked out. The four most underlaid by high-grade phosphate. On Jan. 1, promising of these sources of supply are con 1915, the total area of phosphate lands withsidered to be: (1) the giant kelps of the Pacific drawn from public entry in Montana, Utah, Coast, the beds of which are more than 400 Wyoming, and Idaho was 2,713,150 acres, consquare miles in extent and are estimated to be stituting perhaps the largest area of phosphate capable of yielding, with careful harvesting, six rock yet recognized in the world. to seven times the normal demands of the United NITROGEN. The nitrogen supply for fertilizers States; (2) the alunite deposits, mainly in the was affected to a marked extent during the year mountains of Utah; (3) the feldspars of the by the greatly increased demand for nitric acid Eastern United States; and (4) the saline muds for the manufacture of munitions of war. The of Searles Lake in California.

conditions stimulated the study of additional Up to the end of 1915 there was a reluctance means of meeting the need for nitrogen comto invest capital in the kelp potash industry on pounds. This is being done partly by the inaccount of uncertainty in regard to the State creased use of by-products of coke ovens to save laws governing the harvesting of the kelp. One the ammonia produced in coking, the developplant was constructed and another was planned ment of processes of fixing the nitrogen of the for the production of potassium sulphate from air, and more intelligent use of city and indusalunite. In addition to the potassium sulphate trial wastes, especially garbage and sewage it is possible to produce a fair grade of alumina sludge. It was found that the two latter can and sulphuric acid, which, under favorable con- be made to furnish useful components of fertil. ditions, would constitute valuable by-products. izers without interfering with the requirements An obstacle in the way of the most successful of sanitary disposal. The search for new surface utilization of this source of potash seemed to be deposits of nitrates had not yielded results of the remoteness from commercial centres of the commercial importance. great deposits which were to be used. Inquiry It is well known that farm manure is subject with reference to the production of potash from to large loss of nitrogen under ordinary methods feldspars had gone far enough to show that this of handling, but the cause of this loss had not is feasible if a salable by-product, as, for exam- been clearly understood. Investigations in Eng. ple, cement, could be secured at the same time. land showed that the explanation was to be Of the large number of desert basins which had found in the fact that alternate wetting and dry. been explored in the United States Searles Lake ing of the manure causes reduction of nitrates was the only one which seemed to be commer- formed on the surface of the manure and consecially promising. The brine obtained here con- quent loss of nitrogen in the free state. This tains from 5 to 6 per cent of potash as chloride, teaches the practical lesson that if manure can but its impurity presents certain serious techni. not be promptly spread on the land as it is procal difficulties in preparing pure salts. Develop- duced it should be stored under cover and kept ment of the industry here was delayed by doubt as uniformly moist as possible. Another fact and litigation as to the title to the property of considerable practical importance brought out From none of the sources named was the short by experiments with manure was that small age of potash for agricultural purposes likely to amounts of manure might be instrumental in inbe relieved for many months to come even under creasing to a considerable extent the effective. most favorable circumstances. The situation, ness of green manures, especially leguminous green manures, by furnishing active bacteria to treatment of such special topics as the stock exhasten their decomposition in the soil.

change, foreign trade, bank clearings, building RADIOACTIVE FERTILIZERS. That radium ex- operations, failures, and business conditions in erts a marked influence upon plant growth was the particular countries. For additional inshown by plant physiologists very soon after formation relating to business and finance the radium was discovered and its properties began reader is referred to the following topics: to be studied. Following this discovery the use AGRICULTURAL CREDIT; BANKS AND BANKING; of radioactive materials as fertilizers was sug- BLUE SKY Laws; COTTON, Cotton Futures Act; gested. The results of experiments with such INSURANCE; NATIONAL BANKS; PRICES; Savmaterials, however, up to 1915 was contradictory INGS BANKS; STATE BANKS; TARIFF; TRUSTS. and inconclusive. Several reports on experi- See also LABOR and various articles there rements of this kind, reaching entirely contradic- ferred to. tory conclusions, appeared in 1915. Those who GENERAL CONDITIONS. The year 1915 was one had investigated the subject most fully were of of very marked and decisive recovery from the the opinion that the amounts of radium which industrial depression of the preceding year, the could actually be supplied in this way at prices tide of business operations rising steadily which would not be prohibitive do not and can throughout the entire twelve months. Some hardly be expected to produce any effect upon signs of approaching prosperity had begun to crop yields. Moreover, as Hopkins pointed out, appear at the close of 1914, but that business even if such materials proved effective their use was still at a low ebb at the opening of the year should be adopted with caution since they add is shown by the fact that the output of pig iron nothing to the soil but by stimulating plant in December, 1914, was only 1,500,000 tons, the growth hasten the exhaustion of the soil.

net earnings of the United States Steel CorporaSULPHUR. Investigation called attention to tion in the fourth quarter of 1914 were less than the fact that sulphur is frequently deficient in $11,000,000, steel mills of the country were worksoils and suggested that it is possibly a more ing at only 60 per cent of capacity with thouimportant element of soil fertility than has com- sands of idle workmen, steel prices averaged $2 monly been supposed. A number of investiga- per ton less than in 1913, railroad earnings were tions on the fertilizing effect of sulphur and its low, and business failures were large. By concompounds were reported. These showed that trast in 1915 the output of pig iron rose to with certain soils relatively deficient in sulphur 3,125,000 tons in October, an amount never bethe addition of sulphur compounds measurably fore equaled; prices of steel products were high, increase the growth of certain plants, notably but steel plants were running at full capacity legumes and crucifers. Elemental sulphur had and were rejecting orders; net revenues of the not proved as effective as sulphates for this pur- Steel Corporation rose from $12,500,000 in the pose. It was suggested that the beneficial effect first quarter to $28,000,000 in the second, and observed might be due in part to stimulation of $38,500,000 in the third. Foreign trade which bacterial activity in the soil.

in 1914 was less than in 1913 or 1912 rose to See also CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL, Utilization the unprecedented sum of $5,290,000,000 in 1915, of Peat, and passim.

and exports of merchandise for the 12 months FESTIVALS, MUSICAL. See MUSIC.

ending with October exceeded imports by the reFIJI ISLANDS. A group of South Pacific markable amount of $1,626,886,000, and for 1915 islands; a British crown colony. The principal by $1,760,000,000. Likewise the volume of railinhabited islands are Viti Levu (4112 square way freight traffic during the fall of 1915 was miles), Vanua Levu (2432), Taviuni (217), never before equaled, some of the roads with Kadavu (124), Koro (58), Gau (45), and Atlantic seaboard terminals being actually under Ovalau (43). Total area, including the depend- the necessity of refusing freight for ocean shipency of Rotumah (14), is 7435 square miles, a ment. As a result the stock quotations of raillittle larger than the combined area of Con- road shares advanced generally 10 to 20 points. necticut and Delaware. Estimated population, This great outburst of business and especially Dec. 31, 1913, 153,704. The population at the the great volume of orders from abroad for war 1911 census was 139,541 (80,008 males, 59,533 munitions and supplies resulted in wild speculafemales), of whom 87,096 Fijians, 40,286 (26,- tion on the stock exchange. During January 073 males) East Indians, 3707 Europeans. the pessimism of the preceding year gradually Sugar, copra, and fruit (particularly pineapples) gave way to a more hopeful sentiment. Exports are the chief products and exports. Total im- were increasing; foreign countries, especially ports 1913, £903,968 (1910, £870,120); exports, Canadian provinces and cities, Sweden, Norway, £1,425,940 (£1,005,818). Export of sugar, £l, and Argentina, placed loans in the American 041,927 (£669,432); copra, £176,741 (£258,914); market; the gold pool of $100,000,000 to meet fruit, £168,249 (£47,301). There is no railway. maturing American obligations abroad was disSuva, the capital, has cable communication with solved and the pool for the relief of cotton growBrisbane and with Canada. Revenue, 1913, ers likewise formed in the fall of 1914 became £266,031 (£211,952 in 1910); expenditure, £324, inoperative, only $28,000 having been applied 528 (£236,661). Public debt, £71,915.

for; nearly all of the $384,000,000 of emergency FILIPPI, DR.-His EXPLORATIONS. See Ex currency and of the $215,000,000 of clearing PLORATION, Asia.

house certificates that had been issued since FILTRATION. See WATER PURIFICATION. August, 1914, were retired; the stock exchange

FINANCE. See sections so entitled under was reopened, but trading was moderate, only various countries, and under the States of the 5,000,000 shares being transferred in January United States. See also the article FINANCIAL and 4,300,000 in February. REVIEW.

In the latter month the upward tendency beFINANCIAL REVIEW. Under this topic came more marked. Exports exceeded imports is included a statement of the general aspects of by $173,500,000, with the result that sterling exbusiness during the year together with some change declined to $4.79. This rate contrasted and lead to a more discriminating and profitable therefore, had to be met by conservation and dig. use of potash fertilizers. There was good reason criminating use of such supplies as were avail. to believe that there was a large waste in the able. use of such fertilizers on lands which did not In order that the many important experiments need them, and hence did not make a profitable with fertilizers in progress in the United States return for their use. Many of the soils of the may continue without hindrance an attempt is United States are abundantly supplied with pot. being made to arrange for the import of a suffiash. Good tillage and the liberal use of de- cient amount of potash salts for these experi. caying organic matter are probably the most ments, the Secretary of Agriculture acting as effective practical means at the command of the consignee and guaranteeing that the salts shall farmer of increasing the availability of this soil be used only for experimental purposes and not potash. Recent investigations indicated that sold. the common estimate of the effectiveness of lime PHOSPHATES. Phosphates are the normal for this purpose was greatly exaggerated. All basis of practically all fertilizers since phosfarm supplies of potash, such as ashes, straw phorus is probably the fertilizer constituent most and crop residues, manure, etc., should, of course, generally needed by soils. Fortunately the be conserved.

world's supply is abundant. The United States It seemed certain that conditions created by especially contains a practically inexhaustible the European war would result in the develop- supply of high-grade phosphates. It is becomment and permanent establishment of other com- ing increasingly desirable, however, to find prac. mercial supplies of potash besides those of Ger- tical methods of utilizing more completely the many. The information available indicated that large supplies of low-grade phosphates, and, in the potash deposits of Spain are of such extent general, to improve the methods of manufacand character as to warrant the expectation that ture of soluble phosphates. The United States they will ultimately supply more than the home Department of Agriculture was systematically demand. The inquiries conducted under govern- investigating these questions as well as the ecoment auspices in the United States made it nomic justification of the use of untreated rock. plain that America could develop an abundant The systematic examinations of the enormous domestic supply of potash when the commercial phosphate deposits of the Western United States conditions justify the investment of the necessary were continued by the United States Geological capital. The sources of supply are abundant Survey with a view to withdrawing from entry and the more important technical problems have and reserving under government control lands in most cases been worked out. The four most underlaid by high-grade phosphate. On Jan. 1, promising of these sources of supply are con- 1915, the total area of phosphate lands withsidered to be: (1) the giant kelps of the Pacific drawn from public entry in Montana, Utah, Coast, the beds of which are more than 400 Wyoming, and Idaho was 2,713,150 acres, consquare miles in extent and are estimated to be stituting perhaps the largest area of phosphate capable of yielding, with careful harvesting, six rock yet recognized in the world. to seven times the normal demands of the United NITROGEN. The nitrogen supply for fertilizers States; (2) the alunite deposits, mainly in the was affected to a marked extent during the year mountains of Utah; (3) the feldspars of the by the greatly increased demand for nitric acid Eastern United States; and (4) the saline muds for the manufacture of munitions of war. The of Searles Lake in California.

conditions stimulated the study of additional Up to the end of 1915 there was a reluctance means of meeting the need for nitrogen comto invest capital in the kelp potash industry on pounds. This is being done partly by the inaccount of uncertainty in regard to the State creased use of by-products of coke ovens to save laws governing the harvesting of the kelp. One the ammonia produced in coking, the developplant was constructed and another was planned ment of processes of fixing the nitrogen of the for the production of potassium sulphate from air, and more intelligent use of city and indusalunite. In addition to the potassium sulphate trial wastes, especially garbage and sewage it is possible to produce a fair grade of alumina sludge. It was found that the two latter can and sulphuric acid, which, under favorable con be made to furnish useful components of fertilditions, would constitute valuable by-products. izers without interfering with the requirements An obstacle in the way of the most successful of sanitary disposal. The search for new surface utilization of this source of potash seemed to be deposits of nitrates had not yielded results of the remoteness from commercial centres of the commercial importance. great deposits which were to be used. Inquiry It is well known that farm manure is subject with reference to the production of potash from to large loss of nitrogen under ordinary methods feldspars had gone far enough to show that this of handling, but the cause of this loss had not is feasible if a salable by-product, as, for exam- been clearly understood. Investigations in Eng. ple, cement, could be secured at the same time. land showed that the explanation was to be Of the large number of desert basins which had found in the fact that alternate wetting and dry. been explored in the United States Searles Lake ing of the manure causes reduction of nitrates was the only one which seemed to be commer- formed on the surface of the manure and consecially promising. The brine obtained here con- quent loss of nitrogen in the free state. This tains from 5 to 6 per cent of potash as chloride, teaches the practical lesson that if manure can but its impurity presents certain serious techni- not be promptly spread on the land as it is procal difficulties in preparing pure salts. Develop- duced it should be stored under cover and kept ment of the industry here was delayed by doubt as uniformly moist as possible. Another fact and litigation as to the title to the property. of considerable practical importance brought out From none of the sources named was the short by experiments with manure was that small age of potash for agricultural purposes likely to amounts of manure might be instrumental in inbe relieved for many months to come even under creasing to a considerable extent the effectivemost favorable circumstances. The situation, ness of green manures, especially leguminous green manures, by furnishing active bacteria to treatment of such special topics as the stock exhasten their decomposition in the soil.

change, foreign trade, bank clearings, building RADIOACTIVE FERTILIZERS. That radium ex- operations, failures, and business conditions in erts a marked influence upon plant growth was the particular countries. For additional inshown by plant physiologists very soon after formation relating to business and finance the radium was discovered and its properties began reader is referred to the following topics: to be studied. Following this discovery the use AGRICULTURAL CREDIT; BANKS AND BANKING; of radioactive materials as fertilizers was sug- BLUE SKY LAWS; COTTON, Cotton Futures Act; gested. The results of experiments with such INSURANCE; NATIONAL BANKS; PRICES; SAVmaterials, however, up to 1915 was contradictory INGS BANKS; STATE BANKS; TARIFF; TRUSTS. and inconclusive. Several reports on experi. See also LABOR and various articles there rements of this kind, reaching entirely contradic- ferred to. tory conclusions, appeared in 1915. Those who GENERAL CONDITIONS. The year 1915 was one had investigated the subject most fully were of of very marked and decisive recovery from the the opinion that the amounts of radium which industrial depression of the preceding year, the could actually be supplied in this way at prices tide of business operations rising steadily which would not be prohibitive do not and can throughout the entire twelve months. Some hardly be expected to produce any effect upon signs of approaching prosperity had begun to crop yields. Moreover, as Hopkins pointed out, appear at the close of 1914, but that business even if such materials proved effective their use was still at a low ebb at the opening of the year should be adopted with caution since they add is shown by the fact that the output of pig iron nothing to the soil but by stimulating plant in December, 1914, was only 1,500,000 tons, the growth hasten the exhaustion of the soil.

net earnings of the United States Steel CorporaSULPHUR. Investigation called attention to tion in the fourth quarter of 1914 were less than the fact that sulphur is frequently deficient in $11,000,000, steel mills of the country were worksoils and suggested that it is possibly a more ing at only 60 per cent of capacity with thouimportant element of soil fertility than has com- sands of idle workmen, steel prices averaged $2 monly been supposed. A number of investiga per ton less than in 1913, railroad earnings were tions on the fertilizing effect of sulphur and its low, and business failures were large. By concompounds were reported. These showed that trast in 1915 the output of pig iron rose to with certain soils relatively deficient in sulphur 3,125,000 tons in October, an amount never bethe addition of sulphur compounds measurably fore equaled; prices of steel products were high, increase the growth of certain plants, notably but steel plants were running at full capacity legumes and crucifers. Elemental sulphur had and were rejecting orders; net revenues of the not proved as effective as sulphates for this pur. Steel Corporation rose from $12,500,000 in the pose. It was suggested that the beneficial effect first quarter to $28,000,000 in the second, and observed might be due in part to stimulation of $38,500,000 in the third. Foreign trade which bacterial activity in the soil.

in 1914 was less than in 1913 or 1912 rose to See also CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL, Utilization the unprecedented sum of $5,290,000,000 in 1915, of Peat, and passim.

and exports of merchandise for the 12 months FESTIVALS, MUSICAL. See MUSIC.

ending with October exceeded imports by the reFIJI ISLANDS. A group of South Pacific markable amount of $1,626,886,000, and for 1915 islands; a British crown colony. The principal by $1,760,000,000. Likewise the volume of railinhabited islands are Viti Levu (4112 square way freight traffic during the fall of 1915 was miles), Vanua Levu (2432), Taviuni (217), never before equaled, some of the roads with Kadavu (124), Koro (58), Gau (45), and Atlantic seaboard terminals being actually under Ovalau (43). Total area, including the depend- the necessity of refusing freight for ocean shipency of Rotumah (14), is 7435 square miles, a ment. As a result the stock quotations of raillittle larger than the combined area of Con- road shares advanced generally 10 to 20 points. necticut and Delaware. Estimated population, This great outburst of business and especially Dec. 31, 1913, 153,704. The population at the the great volume of orders from abroad for war 1911 census was 139,541 (80,008 males, 59,533 munitions and supplies resulted in wild speculafemales), of whom 87,096 Fijians, 40,286 (26,- tion on the stock exchange. During January 073 males) East Indians, 3707 Europeans. the pessimism of the preceding year gradually Sugar, copra, and fruit (particularly pineapples) gave way to a more hopeful sentiment. Exports are the chief products and exports. Total im- were increasing; foreign countries, especially ports 1913, £903,968 (1910, £870,120); exports, Canadian provinces and cities, Sweden, Norway, £1,425,940 (£1,005,818). Export of sugar, £1, and Argentina, placed loans in the American 041,927 (£669,432); copra, £176,741 (£258,914); market; the gold pool of $100,000,000 to meet fruit, £168,249 (£47,301). There is no railway. maturing American obligations abroad was disSuva, the capital, has cable communication with solved and the pool for the relief of cotton growBrisbane and with Canada. Revenue, 1913, ers likewise formed in the fall of 1914 became £266,031 (£211,952 in 1910); expenditure, £324, inoperative, only $28,000 having been applied 528 (£236,661). Public debt, £71,915.

for; nearly all of the $384,000,000 of emergency FILIPPI, DR.—His EXPLORATIONS. See Ex- currency and of the $215,000,000 of clearing PLORATION, Asia.

house certificates that had been issued since FILTRATION. See WATER PURIFICATION. August, 1914, were retired; the stock exchange

FINANCE. See sections 80 entitled under was reopened, but trading was moderate, only
various countries, and under the States of the 5,000,000 shares being transferred in January
United States. See also the article FINANCIAL and 4,300,000 in February.
REVIEW.

In the latter month the upward tendency beFINANCIAL REVIEW. Under this topic came more marked. Exports exceeded imports is included a statement of the general aspects of by $173,500,000, with the result that sterling exbusiness during the year together with some change declined to $4.79. This rate contrasted

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