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1912

1913

1914

1913

1914

Wheat

Oats

1910

1911

1912

1913

102.8

1910

1911

1912

1913

percent). As compared with 1895, the year 87,233; iron ore, 27,200 and 28,608; zinc ore, 1907 showed an increase in waste and forest 644 and 642; lead ore, 143 and 110; copper land and a slight decrease in cultivated land. ore, 974 and 948; rock salt, 1296 and 1392; poIn 1907, about 28 per cent of the population tassium salts, 11,161 and 13,306. The output were supported by agriculture, as compared with of pig iron in 1911 and 1912 is reported at 15,about 35 per cent in 1895.

574,039 and 15,220,900 metric tons respectively; For some of the principal crops, the area, in zinc, 243,784 and 313,600; lead, 161,450 and thousands of hectares, and the yield, in metric 165,000; copper, 37,455 and 45,500; tin, 12,426 tons, are reported as follows:

and 10,600; sulphuric acid, 1,724,981 and 1,

649,700. For 1913, the total output of pig iron 1000 hectares

Metric tons

was reported at 19,291,920 metric tons; for

1914, 14,389,547. 1,925 1,974 1,996 4,655,956 3,971,995

COMMERCE. The German customs territory Rye ..6,268 6,414 6,299 12,222,394 10,426,718 includes the grand duchy of Luxemburg. On Barley ..1,590 1,654 1,582 3,673,254 3,137,983 account of the war, commercial statistics for

.4,387 4,438 Potatoes ..3,342 3,412 3,386 54,121,146 45,569,559 1914 have not been published. For 1913 and

preceding years, total foreign commerce, except On account of the war, figures for the 1915 goods in transit, is shown below, in millions of crops are not available. In 1913, about 533,000

marks: hectares were planted to sugar beets, yielding 16,939,979 metric tons; in 1914, 569,082 hec- Imports: tares, 16,918,782 metric tons. The output of

Merchandise 9,535,1 10,380.0 11,572.4 11,654.8

Coin and bullion.. 555.0 297.3 327.4 441.3 raw sugar in 1913 was 2,706,327 metric tons; in 1914, 2,617,938 (provisional figure). In 1913 Total ...10,090.1 10,677.3 11,899.8 12,096.1 and 1914 respectively, 27,048 and 27,685 hec

Exports: tares were under hops; yield, 106,179 and 232,

Merchandise 9,535.1 10,380.0 11,572.4 11,654.8 366 metric quintals. The average yield of hops Coin and bullion.. 352.9 118.3 142.9 in 1905–14 was 192,307 quintals. The area un

Total der vines is gradually declining, from 119,873

8,432.6 8,892.2 9,827,1 10,994.6 hectares in 1904 to 105,876 in 1913, and 102,855 in 1914; the yield varies greatly, having been

Imports for consumption and exports of Ger7.5 hectolitres per hectare in 1910, 26.6 in 1911, man produce have been valued as follows, in 18.6 in 1912, and 9.5 in 1913. The total yield millions of marks: of wine in the latter year was 1,004,947 hectolitres. The average yield in 1905-9 was 2,628,- Imports: 034 hectolitres.

Merchandise

8,934.1 9,705,7 10,691.8 10,769.7 Coin and bullion ..

301.3

436.4 Live stock has been enumerated as follows on December 1st, the figures for horses not includ- Total

9,310.0 10,007.0 11,017.5 11,206,1 ing those used in the army and the 1914 fig.

Exports: ures being provisional:

Merchandise

7,474.7 8,106.1 8,956.8 10,097.2

Coin and bullion.. 169.5
1904

1914
Total

7,644,2 8,224,4 9,099.5 10,198.6 Horses 4,267,403

3,441,307 Cattle

10,456,137 11,320,460 11,316,457 Sheep

7,907,173 5,520,837 5,451,570 In 1912 and 1913, imports and exports of Swine

.18,920,666 25,659,140 25,339,359 merchandise, special trade, valued by Goats 3,329,881 3,548,384 3,534,327

great classes as follows, in millions of marks: FISHERIES. Fishing in 1914 was interrupted

Imports

Exports by the war, and statistics for that year have

1913 1912 1913 not been issued. The value of the North Sea

Raw materials. 4,823.2 5,003.0 1,382.4 1,518.1 catch in 1912 and 1913 respectively was: fish, Partly mfa. 1,256.8 1,239.0 1,012.9 1,139.4 21,241,700 marks and 21,857,200 marks; shell- Manufactures 1,410.9 1,487.8 5,763.2 6,396.3 fish, 798,400 and 962,200; other marine animals,

Food substances 2,944.9 1,759.2 789.4 1,036.0
Live animals

256.0 289.7 8.9 7.4 6700 and 5700; salt herring and other fishery products, 8,937,800 and 11,786,100; total, 30,- Total

.10,691.8 10,769.7 8,956.8 10.097.2 984,600 and 34,611,200. Value of the Baltic catch, including that of the bays (Stettiner For 1912 and 1913 respectively, the values Haff, etc.), in 1912 and 1913: fish, 10,554,500 in millions of marks, of the principal imports marks and 10,341,100 marks; shellfish, 2900 of merchandise for consumption, were

as foland 6100; other animals regarded as marine lows: cereals, 1130.5 and 1037.0; hides and (chiefly wild ducks), 24,700 and 31,000; total, skins, 575.5 and 672.4; cotton, 623.6 and 664.1; 10,582,100 and 10,378,200. Total value of North wool, 527.0 and 511.7; chemicals and drugs, Sea and Baltic catches in 1912 and 1913, 41, 395.4 and 421.8; copper, 320.0 and 346.7; tim566,700 and 44,989,400 marks.

ber, lumber, etc., 355.5 and 325.5; live animals, MINERALS AND METALS. The output of the 252.9 and 291.6; coal, 275.7 and 280.6; iron, grand duchy of Luxemburg is included in the 213.3 and 238.3; copra, coconuts, etc., 195.3 and statistics of Germany. The value of the min. 225.9; coffee, 252.7 and 219.7; silk, 229.9 and eral output in 1912 is stated at 2369 million 193.3; eggs, 187.5 and 188.2; fruits, 126.0 and marks, as compared with 2086 million in 1911, 148.8; rubber and gutta-percha, 184.2 and and 2009 million in 1910. The production of 146.1; fish, 126.5 and 135.9; leaf tobacco, 135.6 the principal minerals in 1912 and 1913 are re- and 134.3; wheaten products, 186.8 and 130.3; ported as follows, in thousands of metric tons: linseed, 104.8 and 129.7; animal fats, 111.2 and coal, 174,875 and 190,109; lignite, 80,935 and 118.9; butter, 126.3 and 118.7; oilcake, 116.5

375.9

325.7

118.3

142.7

101.4

1913

were

1912

No.

No.

and 118.6; cotton yarn, 104.0 and 116.2; flax Number and tonnage of steam vessels inand hemp, 120.4 and 114.4; woolen yarn, 107.6 cluded in the 1913 figures above: and 108.0; rice, 102.6 and 103.9; southern fruits, 94.2 and 101.2; tin, 107.2 and 101.1;

Vessels entered Vessels cleared jute, 74.7 and 94.0; iron manufactures, 97.9

No.
Tons

No. Tons

German 59,900 18,596,837 60,392 18,618,425 and 93.7; meats, 84.8 and 81.4; machinery 77.1

Foreign 16,651 12,710,212 16,751 12,802,919 and 80.4. For 1912 and 1913 respectively, the values,

Total .. 76,551 31,307,049 77.143 31,42 1,344 in millions of marks, of the principal exports

1912. 75,079 29,001,122 74,025 29,046,505

1903. 53,362 18,263,823 53,574 18,348,669 of domestic produce were as follows: iron man. 1893. 31,032 12,406,770 31,189 12,482,780 ufactures, 1185.8 and 1337.6; coal, 611.9 and 722.6; machinery, 630.3 and 680.3; chemicals Of the foreign shipping entered in 1913, Britand drugs, 546.4 and 658.0; cotton goods, 421,6 ish vessels numbered 5285, of 6,178,714 tons; and 446.5; cereals, 341.6 and 278.2; paints, Swedish, 5931, of 2,172,577 tons; Danish, 8101, dyes, colors, etc., 278.2 and 298.1; electrical ap- of 1,703,232 tons; Norwegian, 2184, of 1,356,paratus, 239.7 and 290.3; woolen goods, 253.4 681 tons; Dutch, 3635, of 1,022,585 tons; Finand 270.9; sugar, 132.2 and 266.6; paper, 232.2 nish, 512, of 207,215 tons; Russian, 517, of and 262.8; leather, 230.1 and 242.9; copper 197,031 tons. manufactures, 184.7 and 240.7; silk goods, 205.2 Of the total in 1913 there were entered at and 19.5; furs, etc., 182.2 and 193.8; hides Hamburg 14,054 vessels, of 13,141,362 tons; at and skins, 182.3 and 178.4; ships, 155.9 and Bremerhaven, 1803, of 2,298,689 tons; at Bre175.2; woolen yarn, 84.2 and 166.3; glass and nien, 3310, of 1,928,950 tons; at Stettin, 4900, glassware, 119.5 and 146.1; apparel, 118.3 and of 1,893,434 tons; at Rostock (Warnemünde), 132.0; rubber manufactures, 120.5 and 128.3; 3423, of 1,409,908 tons; at Cuxhaven, 1777, of leather manufactures, 98.1 and 114.2; pottery, 1,305,900 tons; at Sassnitz, 3277, of 1,235,117 102.0 and 112.8.

tons; at Lübeck, 4047, of 958,239 tons; at NeuThe value of imports of merchandise for con- fahrwassar (Danzig), 2811, of 781,498 tons; at sumption and of exports of domestic produce by Emden, 1870, of 779,031 tons. countries in 1912 and 1913 was as follows, in The table below shows the number of vessels, millions of marks:

with their registered net tonnage, comprising

Germany's merchant marine Jan. 1, 1914 (exImports

Exports cluded are steamers of less than 15 tons and 1912 1913 1912 1913 sail of less than 22 tons): United States 1,586.0 1,711.5 69 7.6 713.2 Russia .1,527.9 1,424.6 679.8 880.0

Vessels

Of which, steam United Kingdom 842.6 876.1 1,161.1 1,438.2

Tons

Tons Austria-Hungary 830.0 827.3 1,035.3 1,104.8 France 552.2 584.2 689.4 789.9

Hamburg

1,466 1,908,279 822 1,640,828 British India 533.3 541.8 107.5 150.7

Bremen

713 937,610 461 810,275 Argentina 444,9 494.5 239.4 265.9

Prussia

2,329 318,646 687 251,924 386.6 Belgium

344.6 493.3 551.0

Oldenburg

298

60,476 80 37,238 Netherlands 345.4 333.0 608.5 693.5

Lübeck

54 49,153 53 48,376 Italy 304.6 317.7 401.2 393.5

MecklenburgAustralia 276.7 296.1 87.6 88.5

Schwerin

75 45,907 67 43,671 Brazil 313.2 247.9 192.8 199.8

Recapitulation: Du. E. Indies 214.9 227.6 74.5 98.6

North Sea

.3,948 2,988,216 1,587 2,520,609 Sweden 214.0 224.1 197.4 229.8

Baltic Sea

987 331,855 583 311,703 Switzerland

5.7 213.3 520.5 636 Chile 209.7 199.8 112.0 97.8

Total

4,935 3,320,071 2,170 2,832,312 Spain 189.8 198.7 113.0 143.0

1913

4,850 3,153,724 2,098 2,655,496 Denmark 202.2 191.9 254.2 283.9

1912

4,732 3,023,725 2,009 2,513,666 Br. W. Africa 118.6 134.5 15.2 16.7

1901

3,883 1,941,645 1,390 1,347,875 China

115.6 130.0 81.7 122.8 Egypt 117.7 118.4 38.0 43.4

COMMUNICATIONS. The following table shows Norway

63.9 82.0 144.7 161.7 Rumania 138.2 79.8 131.7 140.0

the length in kilometers of state and private Turkey

77.8 73.9 113.2 98.4 normal-gauge railway in operation, together U, ofs. Africa. 67.2 69.6 44.5 46.9 with the average number of kilometers of railBr. N. America

58.1 64.1 54.3 60.5 Japan

43.1
46.6 110.6 122.7

way per thousand square kilometers of area, as Finland

36.9 45.2 83.4 97.5 officially reported for March 31, 1913: Total including

State Private Total Aver. other . 10,691.8 10.769.7 8,956.8 10.097.2

Prussia

35,303.1 2,209.3 37,510.4 107.5 Bavaria

8,115.3 241.9 8,357.2 110.2 By Imperial orders dated July 31, 1914, the Saxony

2,656.4 20.2 2,676.6 178.5 export of wheat, wheat flour, rye, barley, oats,

Württemberg

1,831.1 162.5 1,993.6 102.2 Baden

1,856.0 235.7 2,091.7 138.8 maize, rice, and cotton from that date, and of Hesse

1,363.3 130.2 1,493.5 194.3 linseed from August 19th, was prohibited. Ex- Mecklenburg:

Schwerin ceptions might be granted.

1,157.1 9.1 1,166.2 88.8 Saxe-Weimar

409.9 Number and registered tonnage Mecklenburg

51.1 461.0 SHIPPING.

127.7 (metric) of vessels entered and cleared at the Strelitz

160.0 121.3 281.5 96.0 Oldenburg

644.1 40.8 684.9 106.5 ports, in the foreign trade, in 1913:

Brunswick

439.5 208.3 647.8 176.4

Alsace-Lorraine 1,822.1 15.6 1,837.7 126.6
Vessels entered Vessels cleared Total including
No.
Tons
No. Tons

other

57,505,7 3,653.1 *61,158.8 113.1 German 89,329 21,231,342 90,456 21,276,587

1912

.56,859 3,662 60,521 111.9 Foreign 26,637 15,540,835 26,919 13,645,219

1911

..56,062 3,701 59,762 110.5 1910

55,353 3,678 59,031 109.1 Total 115,966 34,772,177 117,375 34,921,806

1905 32,541,458

4,166 1912..114,407

100.9

54,680

.50,514 113,931 32,606,653 1903., 90,829 20,886,048 91,510 20,978,515 * In addition 352.3 km. abroad, belonging to the Ger. 1893.. 66,655 14,621,634 67,219 14,734,653 man state railways.

150

600

A.
B.
0.
D.
E.

20

450 550

90 400

29
15

110 415

were

Besides the normal-gauge railway shown in

TRAFFIC IN THE CONQUERED RAILWAY TERRITORIES the foregoing table, there were in operation on

(BELGIUM AND FRANCE) FOR THE MONTH OF March 31, 1913, 2218.5 kilometers of narrow

APRIL, 1915 gauge railway, of which 1075.3 kilometers were

(In round figures) state railway and 1143.2 kilometers private. 1. Distance in kilometers (kilometer=.621 mile) at tho The railway service in Germany during 1915,

end of the month :

Single line Double line Total and in the previous year, was handled under

Used by military.. 3,000 4,100 7,100 military conditions. The German government

Leased maintained a complete military organization of

Not in use

570 its railway lines, and construction was primar

Not restored

Under construction. ily for strategic purposes and military opera. tions. From the time that war was declared

Total

4,490 4,305 8,795 on Aug. 2, 1914, the mobilization of the troops was effected rapidly by railway service which As a result of the war and the military operaincluded not only the actual moving of military tion of the railways, the usual train service in units, but also bringing men to their homes or Germany was considerably reduced. The timeappointed places, while at the same time a large table itself showed a high percentage of trains number of tourists were transported to fron- withdrawn. The reduced service for the most tiers or elsewhere.

part, however, carried on by employees over The early movements of the railway lines in- military age was very satisfactory and well orcluded the elimination of loading and unloading ganized. In many ticket offices women freight cars that were not needed for the trans- employed, and the usual dining and sleeping port of military material. The operation of cars were operated on the more important extroop trains began a few hours after the actual press trains between large cities. All the Germobilization under the direction of the chief of

man railways were being worked on one single the military railway organization and his staff, system, which was extended to the whole of under whom all railways became immediately Belgium under German occupation, as well as subject, as he was empowered to issue all orders for regulating the war traffic, and had at sian Poland. Direct express trains, with sleep

to the occupied portions of France and of Rushis disposal the railway sections of the great ing and dining cars, were run from Berlin to railway staff in Berlin. Germany's railway Metz-Charleville-Mezières, and also to Brussels systems were soon augmented by the railways and Lille, so that a civilian with proper official in the conquered territory, which had to be re

papers could travel to the occupied territory to paired in case of damage to track, and put in the west to places as far as Noyon, Laon, and working order and connected with the German Chauny, just as he could travel eastward to lines. The organization of the railway traffic Lodz. in the conquered district was on a basis similar The German military authorities, only 11 days to the railway administration in Germany. after the capture of Warsaw, put on a Lille-WarTwo military railway administrations were

saw express train connecting the two extremes of formed for this purpose. One of these had its occupied enemy territory, some 800 miles apart. headquarters at Aachen previous to proceed. This train left Lille at 6.40 A.M., Brussels at ing to Belgium, and straightway, the lines 8.30, Berlin at midnight, and arrived in War. of the conquered district were repaired so rap- saw in time for luncheon the next afternoon. idly that German rolling stock could be sent Late in the year the German railway administraeven as far as Louvain, filled with troops, and tion issued 'the new time-tables for the Berlinempty trains returned, even under fire. The Munich-Constantinople trains. These were not second military administration was set up on to go through Belgrade, as the bridge over the Aug. 20, 1914, at Ulfingen, and gradually Save and the Ripanj tunnel were still unusable, pushed forward, while railway commandos were but were to follow the route Berlin-Munichestablished in Luxemburg, and in the East, at Budapest-Temesvár-Verschez, crossing the Danube Lodz, to take care of the conquered districts of at Semendria, and reaching Nish by a secondary Russian Poland.

line. Thence they would proceed to the Turkish As was natural, the construction operations capital. of the German railway troops consisted during The Imperial administration of ports and telethe first months of the war in replacing tracks graphs embraces all the German states except and restoring damaged railway buildings and Bavaria and Württemberg; these kingdoms other plants, or laying new lines where they operate, under certain limitations, their own were required by the military authorities. The postal and telegraph systems. In addition to nature of the operations required the construc- the state telegraph lines, there are railway teletion of small field railways to bring up am- graph lines and some private lines. The folmunition and provisions to the particular lowing table relates to the year 1913 (the figures places where German troops were located, and for the empire do not include those for Bavaria these lines became increasingly important with and Württemberg): A number of post offices; the development of French fighting; Many of B state telegraph offices; C railway and private the bridges which were destroyed, and which had telegraph offices; D total telegraph offices; E been temporarily repaired, were replaced by per- length in kilometers of state telegraph lines; F manent structures, various tunnels were restored, length of state telegraph wire; G number of and a large number of lines opened to traffic, places (towns, etc.) having telephonic communi. this requiring in many cases the construction of cation: stations and increased station facilities. The German official report gave the follow

Empire Bavaria Württemberg Total ing statistics for the operation of German mili

34,860 5,355 1,200 41,415 tary lines in Belgium and France for the month

33,315 6,023 2,347 41,685 of April, 1915, the figures being approximate: 0

5,194 3,113

8,328

B

21

E

1912

1914

1915

Empire Bavaria Württemberg Total 1,531,000;

Reuss Elder Line, none; Reuss D

38,509 9,136 2,368 * 50,013 Younger Line, 1,040,600; Schaumburg-Lippe, .195,451 31,656 11,436 238,493 .649,822 95,918 19,587 765,327

387,100; Lippe, 970,600; Lübeck (city and G

32,897 5,935 2,255 41,087 state), 74,906,300; Bremen (city and state), * Exclusive of 17 radiolitegraph stations and 213 on

299,766,400; Hamburg (city and state), 780,board ship.

581,000; Alsace-Lorraine, 44,546,600.

ARMY. See MILITARY PROGRESS, passim. FINANCE. The sta lard of value is gold.

Navy. Authentic information is not avail. The monetary unit is the mark, whose par value able in regard to naval construction since the is 23.821 cents. The Imperial revenue (ordin- beginning of the war in 1914. The following ary, extraordinary, and total) for the fiscal summary is taken from a statement of the years 1912 and 1913 and the estimates for 1914 Cffice of Naval Intelligence at Washington and (including supplementary estimates) and 1915 relates to July 1, 1914. Number and displaceare reported as follows, in thousands of marks: ments of warships of 1500 or more tons, and of

torpedo craft of 50 or more tons, built and 1913

building: Dreadnoughts (battleships having a Revenue:

main battery of all big guns, that is, 11 or more Ord. ..2.827,194 3,194,399 3,405,178 3,323,081

inches in calibre): built, 13, of 285,770 tons disExtr. 88,190 190,292 10,392,752 10,042,342 placement; building, none. Coast-defense ves

sels, 2, of 8168 tons; building, none. Battle Total.2,915,384 3,384,691 13,797,930 13,365,423

cruisers (armored cruisers having guns of larExpenditure:

gest calibre in main battery and capable of takOrd. .2,707,365 3,403,034 3,405,178 3,323,081 ing a place in line of battle with the battleExtr. 185,973 117,868 † 10,392,752 † 10,042,342 ships) : built, 4, of 88,749 tons; building, 4, of Total.2,893,338 3,520,902 13,797,930 13,365,423

112,000 tons. Armored cruisers: built, 9, of

94,245 tons; building, none. Cruisers: built, * The 1914 estimate was supplemented by war loans amounting to 10,000,000,000 marks, under laws of 41, of 150,747 tons; building, 5, of 26,900 tons. Aug. 4 and Dec. 3. 1914. + Extraordinary, war ex. Torpedo-boat destroyers: built, 130, of 67,094 penditure was placed at 10,300,000,000 marks in the tons; building, 24, of 14,400 tons. Torpedo 1914 and 10,000,000,000 marks in the 1915 budget.

boats,

none built or building. Submarines :

built, 27, of 14,140 tons; building, 18, of 14,400 The larger ordinary expenditures in 1912 and tons. Total tonnage: built, 951,713; building, 1913 respectively were: military administration, 354,864. Excluded from the foregoing: ships 684,182,900 and 747,047,100 marks; Imperial over 20 years old from date of launch, unless posts and telegraphs, 675,861,300 and 713,458, reconstructed and rearmed within five years; 800 (revenue from Imperial posts and tele- torpedo-boat destroyers over 15 years old; vesgraphs, 792,870,500 and 833,314,600); debt, 225,- sels not actually begun or ordered, although 471,200 and 239,391,300; naval administration, authorized; transports, colliers, repair ships, 183,676,900 and 204,426,300; pensions, 143, torpedo-depot ships, and other auxiliaries. After 834,000 and 146,336,900; railway administra- the outbreak of the war, the battle cruiser tion, 104,406,200 and 111,938,300 (revenue from Goeben (22,640 tons) and the cruiser Breslau railway administration, 155,105,000 and 153,- (4550 tons) were reported as sold to Turkey. 580,200); general administration of finance, 97,- In the summer of 1914, the active personnel 031,500 and 107,473,400 (revenue from general of the navy was reported at 79,197, including administration of finance, which includes cus- 2 admirals of the fleet, 6 admirals, 12 vicetoms, stamps, etc., 1,792,751,000 and 2,095,196,- admirals, 22 rear-admirals, 154 captains and 200); interior department, 90,750,700 and 96, commanders, 2220 other line officers, 340 medical 805,400.

officers, 276 pay officers, 162 naval constructors, The annual ordinary expenditures of the con- 30 chaplains, 3183 warrant officers, 65,797 enstituent states amount to a sum far larger than listed men, 177 marine_officers, and 5791 mathe Imperial expenditures; the latter are ex- rines. See also NAVAL PROGRESS. ceeded by those of Prussia alone.

GOVERNMENT. The empire is a federal state. The Imperial debt, as reported for Oct. 1, Its constitution bears date of May 4, 1871, and 1913, was 5,177,225,300 marks, of which the in- was amended March 19, 1888. This instrument terest-bearing debt was 4,897,225,300 marks; the vests the executive authority in the King of non-interest-bearing debt consisted of treasury Prussia as German Emperor; he is authorized bonds 160,000,000 marks and paper money 120,- to conclude treaties, to declare war (if defen000,000 marks. The interest-bearing debt plus sive) and peace, and to appoint and receive outstanding paper money has stood as follows diplomatic representatives. In 1915, the Em(March 31st): 1880, 377,526,600 marks; 1890, peror was William II, who was born Jan. 27, 1,240,908,800; 1900, 2,418,517,700; 1905, 3,323, 1859, and succeeded his father (the Emperor 500,000; 1910, 5,013,500,000; 1912, 5,014,012, Frederick III) June 15, 1888. The heir-appar900; 1913, 4,925,796,200.

ent or Crown Prince is Prince Frederick WilThe interest-bearing debt of Prussia in 1913 liam, born May 6, 1882. was 9,901,769,100 marks; Bavaria, 2,285,976,- The legislature consists of the Bundesrat, a 100; Saxony, 861,109,900; Württemberg, 621, federal Council (61 members appointed for each 377,000; Baden, 586,355,500; Hesse, 434,632,400; session of the governments of the several states), Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 144,574,400; Saxe-Wei- and the Reichstag (397 members elected for five mar, 2,222,600; Mecklenburg-Strelitz, 2,680,200; years by direct manhood suffrage). Oldenburg, 82,689,800; Brunswick, 43,763,800; The Imperial ministers, or secretaries of state, Saxe-Meiningen, 7,287,800; Saxe-Altenburg, 882, do not form a ministry proper, but act inde700; Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 6,004,600; Anhalt, 5,- pendently of each other under the general super329,300; Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, 1,672,200; vision of the Imperial Chancellor. The ChanSchwartzburg-Rudolstadt, 4,560,200; Waldeck, cellor, who is the highest official of the empire and president of the Bundesrat, is appointed by established by, the Distributing Bureau. The the Emperor without reference to the political ordinance also contained a clause that foreign majority in the Reichstag, and to the Emperor grain, if imported, could be sold only to the he is directly responsible. The Imperial Chan- War Grain Association or to the Central Purcellor (and Prussian Prime Minister) in 1915 chasing Association, or to the Communal Assowas Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (from July ciations; but this provision was rescinded on 14, 1909). Imperial secretaries of state in February 6th. On the same day that the con1915: foreign affairs, Gottlieb von Jagow (he fiscation of grain and flour was decreed, Janusucceeded Alfred Kiderlin-Waechter, who died ary 25th, an order was issued obliging towns of Dec. 30, 1912); interior, Klemens Delbrück over 5000 inhabitants to acquire and maintain a (from July 14, 1909); marine, Grand Admiral supply of preserved meat adequate to suffice for Alfred von Tirpitz (from June 15, 1897); jus- the needs of the population in case of emertice, Hermann Lisco (from Nov. 1, 1909); gency. In February, a further step was taken treasury, Karl Helfferich; posts and telegraphs, for the regulation of the bread supply. Each Reinhold Kraetke (from 1901); colonies, Wil- individual was given a "bread card" with couhelm Solf (from Dec. 20, 1911).

pons calling for 25, 50, and 100 grams of bread,

enough amply to supply his or her needs for HISTORY

the week, but not to permit the purchase of a

large supply for future use. The cards were The FooD SUPPLY. Considering that the ulti- to be presented and the appropriate number of mate issue of the war must depend in part at coupons clipped, before bread could be purleast upon the ability of the British navy to chased at restaurants, bakeries, or grocery "starve Germany out” by cutting off the food stores. In this manner, by enforcing the strictsupplies which had formerly been imported from est economy, the German government hoped to abroad, vital importance attaches to the meas- minimize the hardship occasioned by the shortures which the German government instituted age of food until the next harvest. It was anfor the conservation of the food supply in Ger- ticipated that as time progressed, in case of a many. Soon after the outbreak of war maximum long-drawn-out war, the situation would become prices had been fixed for some commodities, like more instead of less favorable. Potatoes could cereals and potatoes; but still the prices of food be much more extensively cultivated and used continued to rise, and the drastic action of the to feed live stock as well as to supply the table. government was obviously demanded to cor- Grain hitherto used for the manufacture of rect two glaring abuses-the extravagance of starch or of alcohol could be saved for food. A consumers and the manipulation of the market yeast-process was invented that would help supby speculators—which manifestly aggravated ply albuminous fodder. Instead of producing a the misery of the poorest classes and caused surplus of rye and of beet sugar, Germany widespread discontent. In January, therefore, could raise more wheat and more beans and the government decided to lay its hands upon peas. Moreover, there were at least 33,000,000 the food supply, to stop speculation, and to acres of moorland which could be converted into regulate consumption. To this effect ordinances valuable grainfields if men could be found to were published in the Reichsanzeiger of Janu- perform the labor and if sufficient quantities of ary 25th, providing that all supplies of wheat or fertilizer could be applied; and what with the rye, pure or mixed, threshed or not, were to be invention of new fertilizers and the increasing confiscated and taken over from private indi- number of prisoners of war (at the beginning viduals by the War Grain Association; at the of January there were 586,000 prisoners of war same time all supplies of flour were to be taken in Germany; in March, 810,000; at the end of charge of by the Communal Association in each July, 1,900,000), it began to appear that neither town. In compensation, private owners would the fertilizers nor the labor would be lacking. be paid the average price which prevailed be. See also FOOD AND NUTRITION. tween Jan. 1-15, 1915, except in cases where a EFFECT OF THE FOOD REGULATIONS. By the maximum price had been fixed by the govern beginning of June, the effect of the regulation ment. Dealers and trade mills would be per- of the bread-supply had become apparent. On mitted to handle half the amount of flour per June 5th the Prussian minister of the interior month that they had sold from January 1-15. announced that the bread problem was practic. Bakers and confectioners were limited to three- ally solved. There would even be a surplus of fourths the amount they had been accustomed grain to carry over into the next harvest year, to use.

The consumption of cereals was to be so that no anxiety need be felt if the coming regulated under the general supervision of an harvest should not be extraordinarily plentiful. Imperial Distributing Bureau, composed of 16 Moreover, and this was a most important result delegates to the Bundesrat, in addition to one of Germany's military successes, grain and porepresentative of the German Agricultural Coun- tatoes had been planted in large quantities in cil, one representative of the German Commer- conquered territory, so as to relieve the pressure cial Congress, and one representative of the upon German agriculture. In August it was German Municipal Congress. While the Dis- calculated that, thanks to the bread cards, and tributing Bureau in coöperation with the War thanks to the increased supply of grain from Grain Association controlled the general distri- conquered territory, the next year it would be bution of the grain and flour supply, local con- possible to allow a very generous increase in the sumption was to be regulated by Communal As- individual consumption of wheat and rye flour. sociations, which would have the power to dis- Meantime, as the bread question became less tribute flour to bakers, confectioners, and re- pressing, the shortage of meat began to cause tailers, to determine the composition of bread, to the gravest anxiety. In Berlin, May 29th, hotels prohibit the baking of cakes, to regulate the de- were ordered to abolish table-d'hôte dinners, to livery of bread and flour by dealers, subject to the encourage the use of more vegetables and less general principles of, and limited by the maxima meat, to substitute boiled meat for roast meat

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