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St. Louis, Mo., gift to church by various donors. 000; gift by various donors, $171,600; gift by Ed$8000.
ward Weston, $10,000; will by George W. Millorth, San Francisco, gift to children's park by Mrs. H. E. $5000. Huntington, $275,000.
Stick, A. O., Independence, Kan., will to Washburne Saul, Julius, New York, will to charity, $5000. College, $75,000. Scanlon, J. K., Elgin, III., will to charity, $19,000. Stillman, "James, New York, gift to American Re
Scattergood, Elizabeth S., Philadelphia, Pa., will to lief Clearing House, Paris, $100.000. charity, $10,000.
Storm Lake College, will by L. S. Coffin, $20,000. Schefer, Henry, Philadelphia, Pa., will to charity, Stotesbury, E. T., Philadelphia, Pa., gift to Chil$6500.
dren's Hospital, $50,000. Schwab, Charles M., gift to charity, $15,000.
Stott, Sophie F., New York, will to charity, $37,000. Schwab, Charles M., and E. H. Gary, gift of armored Strait, Mrs. W. D., Westbury, L. I., gift to church, train to New York National Guard, $150,000.
$5000. Schwabacher, Morris, Chicago, Ill., will to charity, Straus, Nathan, New York, gift to Jewish relief fund, $17,000.
$50,000. Scripps, Ellen B., La Jolla, Cal., gift to Knox Col. Strong, Mrs. A. H., New Brunswick, N. J., gift to lege, $100,000; to University of California, $100,000.
D. A. R. Museum, $50,000. Seaman's Church Institute, gift by J. P. Morgan, Swartley, Anna, Launsdale, Pa., will to charity, $50,000;, gift by J. D. Rockefeller, $50,000; gift by $50,000. various donors, $122,202.
Swasey, Ambrose, Cleveland, Ohio, gift for enSearle, Miss 0. A., New York, will to Seashorehome, gineering research, $100,000. $10,000.
Swift, Mrs. G. F., Chicago, Ill., gift to charity, Seashorehome, will by Miss C. A. Searle, $10,000. $10,000; to Northwestern University, $8000.
Schieren, Charles A., New York, will to Brooklyn Syracuse University, gift by Mrs. Russell Sage, Academy of Music, $100,000; to Brooklyn Institute of $ 16,000. Arts, $22,975.
Taylor, M. E., Louisville, Ky., to charity, $20,000. Schiff, Mrs. C. H., New York, gift to University of Teachers College of Columbia University, will by Virginia, $50,000.
Grace Dodge, $500,000. Schiff, Jacob H., New York, gift to Barnard College, Teassler, J. T., Sunbury, Pa., will to charity, $6000; $500,000; to Jewish relief fund, $25,000; to Stevens to church, $7000; to Johns Hopkins Institute, $20,Technical Institute, $5000.
000. Schiffendecker, Charles, Joplin, Mo., gift of park to Technology, Institute of, will by Helen Cullamore, city, $100,000.
$500,000. Schmidt, John, Springfield, Mo., will to charity, Texas, University of, gift by J. W. Brackenrip, $10,000.
$100,000. Schools, gift to, by Mrs. S. W. Brigham, $10,000. Thomas, Cleo A., Brookline, Mass., wills to church, Settlements, gift to, by various donors, New York,
Thompson, Elizabeth, New York (trust estate), will Seventh Day Adventists, Boulder, Colo., gift to to charities, $3,250,000. church, $10,000.
Thompson, Jasper, Forest City, Iowa, gift of park Shapley, Ida, Baltimore, Md., will to missions,
to town, $100,000. $182,500.
Thompson, W. H., Pittsburgh, Pa., gift to charity, Sharon, Pa., gift to town by Frank H. Buhl, $500,- $5000. 000.
Thompson, William, New York, gift to Phillips Shaun, Nathan, New York, gift to Zion movement,
Exeter Academy, $100,000. $35,000.
Throop College of Technology, gift by various Shaw, Samuel 8., Boston, Mass., will to library, donors, $50,000. $5000.
Thurber, J. B., New York, gift to Yale University, Sheftel, Mrs. Herbert, New York, gift to Yale Uni- $10,000. versity, $10,000.
Tilton, Caroline S., New Orleans, La., will Sheppard, Marie J., Revere, Mass., will to charity, charity, $20,000. $11,150.
Tirker, George F., New London, Conn., will to Shirly, Louise F., San Diego, Cal., will to charity, charity, $5000. $17,000.
Tolan, Edwin F., Philadelphia, Pa., will to charity, Simmons College, will by Helen Cullamore, $100,000. $6000.
Sioux City, Iowa, to church by various donors, $20,- Trade school, gift for, by S. Benson, $100,000. 000.
Trinity College, will by George F. Newton, $5000. Sizer, Katherine M., New Haven, Conn., will to Trinity College, Sioux City, Iowa, gift by various charity, $50,000.
donors, $7000. Skinner, Francis, estate of, gift to Harvard Uni- Tripp, I. S., Prairie du Sac, Wis., will to Carroll versity, $43,000.
College,' $5000'; to Ripon College, $5000; to UniverSlimmer, Abraham, Dubuque, Iowa, gift to charity, sity of Wisconsin, $400,000. $25,000; to hospital, $30,000.
Tucker, A. H., Hyde Park, Mass., will to church, Sloane, William D., New York, will to charity, $170,
Tufts College, will by Frederick S. Pearson, $500,Sloane, Mrs. W. D., New York, gift to charity, $10,
Turner, Abbie, Randolph, Mass., will to charity, Slocum, Charles E., Defiance, Ohio, will to Washing- $27,000. ton University, $10,000.
Tuskegee Institute, gift by various donors, $450,000. Smith, Annie E., will to Barnard College, $10,000; Unemployed Colorado miners, gift by Rockefeller to charity, $252,000.
Foundation, $100,000. Smith, Mary A., Chelsea, Mass., will to charity, University museum, gift by Pierre S. Dupont, $25,$5000.
000. Smithsonian Institution, gift by Charles L. Freer,
Union Bethel, gift by Mrs. Maunca White, $22,500. $1,000,000.
Vandens, Maria, Baltimore, Md., will to charity, Southern secondary schools, gift by Rockefeller
$12,000. Foundation, $140,000.
Vanderbilt, Mrs. W. K., New York, gift to Mental Southmayd, Charles F., New York, will to charity,
Hygiene Institute, $40,000. $10,000.
Vassar College, gift by Mrs. Avery Coonley, $25,000; South Shore Country Club fair, Chicago, Ill., to
gift by Mrs. Ellen Hooker, $25,000; gift by Rocke. charity, $75,000.
feller Foundation, $200,000; gift by various donors, Spinsters' home, will by Annie McDowell, $50,000. $615,000.
Sprague, Albert A., Chicago, Ill., will to Art Insti- Virginia, University of, gift by John B. Cobb, $50,tute, $50,000; will to Presbyterian Hospital, $50,000;
000; gift by Mrs. C. H. Schiff, $50,000; gift by unwill to Protestant Orphan Asylum, $5000.
named donor, $50,000. Sprague, Mrs. Albert A., Chicago, gift to Art In- Vowels, Ann, New York, will to church, $5000. stitute, $90,000; to charity, $100,000.
Vowless, Ann, Brooklyn, N. Y., will to church, Superannuated ministers, gift by various donors,
Wadsworth Athenæum, gift by Mrs. James J. GoodStanford, Thomas W., gift to Leland Stanford Uni- man, $50,000. versity art museum, $80,000.
Wage dividends by corporations as reported, $5,000,
000. State air craft, gift by various donors, New York, $20,000.
Wait, Theodore N., Lyndonville, Vt., gift to Lyndon Stevens Institute of Technology, gift by Babcock and
Institute, $50,000. Wilcox, $25,000; gift by Carnegie Foundation, $250,
Walker, E. C., Walkerville, Mich., will to charity, 000; gift by H. W. Johns-Manville Co., $10,000; gift
$20,000; to church, $30,000; to College of St. An. by J. H. Schiff, $5000; gift by unnamed donor, $10,
drew, $10,025; to Detroit Art Museum, $25,000,
Ward, Robert B., New Rochelle, N. Y., will to Moses, $15,000; gift by J. S. Nicholson, $10,000; gift charity, $1,500,000.
by Rockefeller Foundation, $100,000; will by Grace Warsaw, Ind., gift to church by various donors, E. Dodge, $25,000; will by Albert Keep, $200,000. $75,000.
Y. M. C. A., Allentown, Pa., gift by various donors, Washburne College, will by A. O. Stick, $75,000. $120,000; Buffalo, N. Y., gift by various donors, $32,Washington University, will by Mrs. 'W. A. Mc- 000; Chicago, Ill., gift by unnamed donor, $20,000; Millan, $1,000,000; will by Charles E. Slocum, $10.000. Columbus, O., gift by various donors, $23,000; Duluth,
Waterman, L. D., Indianapolis, Ind., gift to Indiana Minn., gift by J. H. Barnes, $60,000; Grand Forks, University, $100,000.
N. Dak., gift by various donors, $40,000; hotel, Chicago, Watson, Mrs. H. W., Doylestown, Pa., will to Ill., gift by various donors, $635,000; La Porte, Ind., church, $100,000.
gift by various donors, $11,396 ; Muskogee, Okla., gift Watertown, Mass., gift to college by William P. by various donors, $75,000; Nashua, N. H., gift by un. Herring, $1,000,000.
named donor, $10,000; Paterson, N. J., gift by various Webb, Edward A., St. Paul, Minn., will to missions, donors, $36,000. $400,000.
Y. W. 0. A., gift by Lizzie Eckhart, $10,000; will Webb, Mrs. M. E., New York, will to charity, $167,- by Grace Dodge, $700,000. 586,
Y. W. c. X. Los Angeles, Cal., gift by various Wellesley College, gift by Andrew Carnegie, $95,000. donors, $33,000; Paterson, N. J.,' gift by various Wells, H, P., New York, will to charity, $50,000. donors, $36,000.
Wentworth, Samuel T., Sandwich, N. H., gift of Yunivet, Julia E., New York, will to church, $6200; library to town, $18,000.
will to St. Xavier College, $5000. Western Advent Publication Society, will by Charles Zion movement, gift by Nathan Shaun, $35,000. Eckhart, $12,500.
Zionist relief fund, gift by various donors, $120,000. Weston, Edward, New York, gift to Stevens Tech- Zurbrugg, T., Philadelphia, Pa., will to hospital, nical Institute, $10,000.
$250,000. Wharton, Susan F., Philadelphia, Pa., will to charity, $5000; to Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, $5000. GIPSY MOTH. See ENTOMOLOGY.
Wherling, Mrs. M. L. L. O., Cincinnati, Ohio, will to Miami University, $400,000.
GLASS, MONTAGUE. See LITERATURE, ENGWhite, A. T., New York, gift to Rensselaer Insti. LISH AND AMERICAN, Fiction. tute, $50,000.
GOETHALS, MAJOR-GENERAL G. W. See White, Leila M., Bloomington, Ill., will to hospital, PANAMA CANAL. $5000. White, Mrs. Maunca, Cincinnati, Ohio, gift to Union
GOLD. The mined production of gold in the Bethel, $22,500.
mines of the United States for the calendar Whitney, Anne, Boston, Mass., will to charity, $5000. year 1914 was 4,484,544 fine ounces, valued at
Whitney, F. O., Boston, Mass., will to charity, $92,703,757. This was an increase in value of $5000.
Widener, Joseph E., Philadelphia, Pa., gift to em $2,715,869 over the production of 1913. The ployees, $100,000. Widener, P. A. B., Philadelphia, Pa., gift to charity, lows in 1914: California, Colorado, Alaska, Ne
principal gold producing States ranked as fol$10,000.
Wilcox, George C., Evanston, Ill., will to charity, vada, South Dakota, Arizona, Montana, Utah, $10,000; to church, $10,000. Wilder, George, New York, gift to charity, $5000. No other States than these mentioned have pro
Oregon, Philippines, Idaho, and New Mexico. Williams, Alice M., Williamsport, Pa., will to charity $18,000.
duced over $1,000,000 in the last year. The Williams University, will by Mrs. Van Antwerp De most notable increases in the gold output in Witt Jessup, $300,000. Wilson, Mary A., St. Louis, Mo., will to church, Montana, and $503,152 in the Philippines. The
1914 were $1,736,189 in Colorado, $624,479 in $21,000.
Winfield Lutheran College, gift by J. P. Winfield, largest decreases were $313,942 in Nevada, $75,000.
Winston-Salem Academy, gift by various donors, $299,882 in Utah, $192,244 in Idaho, and $139,$300,000.
102 in Washington. The imports of gold in the Wirt Walker estate, Chicago, Ill., $50,000.
United States for the calendar year 1914 Wisconsin, University of, will of I. s. Tripp, $400,- amounted to $57,387,741, and the exports to 000.
Wittenberg College, gift by F. E. and P. A. Myers, $222,616,156. $20,000.
The gold production for 1915 is estimated by Woepped, Ignatz, Buffalo, N. Y., will to charity, the director of the mint. The table given be. $8500.
Wolf, Celestin, Champaign, Ill., gift to church, $25,- low shows the total mine production of gold in 000.
the various States in 1914, and the value of the Wolff, Edwin, New York, will to charity, $20,000. increase or decrease as compared with 1913. Woman's Club, gift by Julius Rosenwald, $50,000. Woodman, Annie E., Dover, N. H., will for art in. stitute, $100,000.
Increase Woodman, Sarah O., Dover, N. H., will to church,
(+) or $10,000.
decrease ) Woodruff, Frances E., Morristown, N. J., will to city, State or Territory $50,000.
Quantity Value (value) Woodward, R. B., New York, will to Brooklyn In- Alabama
579.05 $11,970 + $876 stitute of Arts and Sciences, $160,000.
762,596.03 15,764,259 137,446 Woodworth, Sarah E., Boston, Mass., will to hos
202,166.62 4,179,155 155,244 pital, $5000.
999,112.87 20,653,496 246,538 Woolverton, William H., New York, will to library Colorado
961,845.20 19,883,105 +1,736,189 at Alexandria, Pa., $40,000.
787.06 16,270 + 1,162 Wright, G. H., New York, will to Knickerbocker Idaho
55,743.24 1,152,315 192,244 Hospital, $580,000; to public library, $100,000.
Illinois Wursten, Alfred, Philadelphia, Pa., will to charity, Maryland and $20,000.
225 + 225 Wyman, Cyrus, Langdon, Kan., will to charity, Michigan $200,000.
Missouri Wyman, H. M., estate of, gift to Harvard Uni.
199, 203.94 4,117,911 + 624,479 versity, $75,000.
555,402.47 11,481,188 313,942 Yale Chinese Medical College, gift by Rockefeller New Mexico
56,680.79 1,171,696 289,770 Foundation, $16,200.
6,343.94 131,141 + 4,693 Yale University, gift by Mrs. C. W. Goodyear, $10,- Oklahoma 000; gift by Howland family, $15,000; gift by Mrs. Oregon
76,986.92 1,591,461 36,249 Herbert Sheftel, $10,000; gift by J. B. Thurber, $10,- Philippines
66,347.00 1,371,514 503,152 000; gift by various donors, $453,270; will by C. H. Porto Rico
1,684 Forman, $510,434; will by J. H. Hotchkiss, $1,000,- South Carolina
2,479 000; will by Mrs. Van Antwerp De Witt Jessup, South Dakota 354,758.45 7,333,508 14,214 $300,000; will by Charles H. Pine, $150,000.
1,401 Y. M. C. A., gift by James A. B. Brunt, $125,000; Texas
106 gift by Mrs. E. E. Jackson, $50,000; gift by Galen C. Utah
157,961.16 3,265,347 299,882
Increase cent, accounting for three-quarters of the world's
(+) or Gold decrease (-)
supply. State or Territory
GOLD PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD
(Engineering and Mining Journal, New York)
$173,176,133 $188,397,707 Wyoming 242.17 5,006 19,178
17,745,980 18,852,135 West Africa
8,671,371 8,556,550 Total 4,484,544.24 $92,703,757+$2,715,869 Madagascar, etc.
1,980,000 1,865,000 Increase (+) or de.
. $201,573,484 $217,671,392 crease (-) in
$94,531,800 +$2,715,869 Mexico value
18,185,000 16,9 75,000 Canada
15,925,044 15,875,000 WORLD PRODUCTION. The world production Central America, etc. 3,500,000 3,750,000 of gold in 1913-14 is shown in the following
Total North America . $132,141,844 $137,491,100 table:
Russia, inc. Siberia
$26,763,000 26,750,000 France
1,450,000 1,025,000 WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF GOLD, 1913–1914, BY
2,350,000 1,875,000 COUNTRIES
$30,563,000 $29,650,000 Country
$12,327,980 11,699,385 North America:
British and Dutch E. Indies 4,690,000 4,825,000 United States $88,884,400 $94,531,800 Japan and Chosen
7,476,500 7,850,000 Canada 16,216,131 15,925,044 China and others
3,625,000 3,675,000 Mexico
18,250,000 18,000,000 Cuba
Tl. Asia, not inc. Siberia $28,119,480 $28,049,385 Africa 205,875,000 201,000,000 South America
$13,525,000 13,750,000 Australasia 53,038,090 49,386,180 Australasia
45,659,271 44,368,013 Europe: Russia and Finland 24,578,575 26,750,000
Total for the world. ...$451,582,129 $470,979,890 Austria-Hungary
2,180,441 1,500,000 Germany
See also METALLURGY. Sweden
GOLD COAST. A British crown colony and Italy
protectorate, with Ashanti and the Northern Spain and Portugal
Territories, situated on the Gulf of Guinea. France
1,946,600 1,000,000 Area of the colony, 24,200 square miles; of Great Britain
Ashanti, 20,000; of the Northern Territories, Serbia
35,800—total, 80,000. The census (1911) reSouth America: Argentina
turns place the population for the colony at Bolivia and Chile
800,000 500,000 853,766; Ashanti, 287,814; Northern TerritorColombia
3,000,000 3,000,000 ies, 361,806; but the figures are believed to unEcuador
289,133 Brazil 3,009,786
the actual number of inhabitants. Venezuela
Accra, the capital, had (1911) 19,585 inhabiGuiana
tants; Coomassie, 18,853; Cape Coast Castle, British
1,353,368 1,250,000 11,364; Seccondee, 7725. The chief products Dutch
470,433 500,000 French 3,050,600 3,000,000
and exports (1913) are cacao, £2,489,218; gold Peru
492,200 500,000 and gold dust, £1,656,110; rubber, £87,015; Uruguay
111,000 Central America
palm kernels, £159,128; palm oil, £65,952; lum3,000,000 3,500,000
ber, £366,094; kola nuts, £144,705. Cotton Asia : Japan
4,470,723 4,476,500 goods, provisions, and wine and spirits are the China
3,658,900 3,800,000 main imports. Total trade (1913): £4,952,494 Indo-China
70,000 Chosen (Korea)
imports, £5,427,106 exports. Revenue, £1,301,Siam
566; expenditure, £1,363,291. Tonnage entered India, British
11,152,463 11,388,870 and cleared, 2,986,553. A railway runs from East Indies, British
1,352,000 East Indies, Dutch
4,750,000 Seccondee to Coomassie, 168 miles. A railway
under construction from Accra to Akwapim is Total - $454,942,211 $453,000,000 open for traffic to a temporary terminus at
Mangoase, about 39 miles distant. An extenThe gold production of the world in 1915, sion to Komfrodna was to be completed in 1915. according to the preliminary estimates made by Total telegraph lines, 1492 miles. the Engineering and Mining Journal, New York, GOLF. The names of Jerome D. Travers and in its annual review of the year, was greater Robert A. Gardner stand out in the golfing histhan for the previous two years, and indicated tory of 1915. The former captured the open an excellent showing for the gold mining in- title at Baltusrol and the latter won the amadustry, although it must be considered that the teur laurels at Detroit. Both are veterans at European war did not directly affect any of the the game, and it is noteworthy in this regard great gold mining regions even in Russia. The that the year produced few new players of speestimated increase from 1914 was $19,397,761, cial merit. The women's championship went to the gain being due chiefly to the increased pro- Mrs. Clarence H. Vanderbeck of Philadelphia. duction of the Transvaal and the United States, The victory of Travers in the open tourney was though as will be seen from the accompanying in the nature of a “come back," as it was fig. table, the increase was evident for the more im- ured that the winner of the amateur title on portant producing districts except in Austral- four different occasions had seen his best days asia and Mexico. The Transvaal in 1915 pro- as a golfer. As it turned out, however, the duced about 40 per cent of the world's total, only player to give Travers a battle was Tom the United States about 21 per cent, Australasia McNamara, a professional, who covered the 72 a little over 9 per cent, and Russia about 6 per holes in 298, or one stroke less than the victor's
total. This marked the second time in 21 years cyclopædias, and edited the Vermont Revoluthat an amateur was successful in the quest tionary Rolls in 1904. of the open title. The showing of Travers at GOŘICAR, JOSEPH. See UNITED STATES Baltusrol made him the favorite in the ama- AND THE WAR. teur tournament. Francis Ouimet and Charles GÖRZ AND GRADISCA. See AUSTRIAEvans also had large followings. All three of HUNGARY. these were eliminated before the final round, GOULD, ELGIN RALSTON LOVELL. An Amerand Gardner emerged the winner through his de- ican public officer and economist, died Aug. 18, feat of John G. Anderson of Mount Vernon, 1915. He was born in Oshawa, Ont., in 1860, N. Y. Gardner first captured the amateur hon- and graduated from the University of Toronto ors back in 1909. The women's championship in 1881. He afterwards studied at Johns Hoptourney narrowed down to a bitter struggle be- kins, taking the degree of Ph.D. in 1886. From tween Mrs. Vanderbeck and Miss Alexa Stir. 1892–97 he was lecturer at Johns Hopkins, and ling, the Southern title holder from Atlanta, from 1895–96 professor in the University of Ga. Mrs. Vanderbeck won only after the de Chicago. In 1896 he became president of the ciding match had been carried to the fourth ex- City and Suburban Homes Company of New tra hole. The most promising of the younger York, and worked on plans to improve the lives players of the year were Philip V. G. Carter of and surroundings of wage earners and at the the Nassau Club, F. K. Robeson, a Pawling same time provide a profitable commercial inschoolboy, Jesse Guilford, Archie McIlwaine, vestment. În 1901–02 he was a lecturer on Roy D. Webb, Reginald Lewis, Nelson Whitney, political economy in Columbia University. He and Oswald Kirkby.
was appointed city chamberlain of New York The winners of the leading tournaments were: in 1902, holding office until 1904. In 1907–08 United States Amateur, Robert A. Gardner ; he was vice chairman of the New York Charter United States Open, Jerome D. Travers; United Revision Committee. He was active in finanStates Women, Mrs. Clarence H. Vanderbeck; cial, philanthropic, and religious affairs, and in Metropolitan Amateur, Walter J. Travis; Met- reform movements in New York, and was ropolitan Open, Gilbert Nicholls; Metropolitan member of many learned societies. His writWomen, Miss Lillian B. Hyde; Metropolitan ings include: Housing of Working People; PopJunior, Philip V. G. Carter; Western Amateur, ular Control of the Liquor Traffic; The GothenCharles E. Evans, Jr.; Western Open, Thomas burg System of Liquor Traffic, and The Social L. McNamara; Western Women, Miss Elaine Condition of Labor. He also contributed on Rosenthal; Western Junior, De Witt C. Balch; economic subjects to magazines. Southern Amateur, Charles L. Dexter, Jr.; GOURMONT, RÉMY DE. See FRENCH LITERASouthern Women, Miss Alexa Stirling; Panama-Pacific Amateur, Harry K. B. Davis; Pan- GOVERNMENT. See section entitled ama-Pacific Open, Walter Č. Hagen.
under various countries. In the intercollegiate championships Yale de- GOVERNORS' CONFERENCE. The eighth feated Princeton in the final round by 5 up and annual meeting of this body, known also as the 4 to play. The individual winner was F. R. "House of Governors," was held in Boston, Aug. Blossom of Yale, who vanquished G. A. Pea- ust 24 to 27. The topics considered were, penol. cock of Princeton, in the final by 11 up and 9 ogy, greater efficiency in State administration, to play. The Western intercollegiate champion. conservation, and the relation of the State to ship was won by the University of Illinois. the national defense. Important addresses on
GOODALE, GREENLEAF AUSTIN. An Ameri. these and other subjects were made. The next can soldier, died Feb. 17, 1915. He was born meeting of the conference will be in Salt Lake in Orrington, Me., in 1839, and was educated City, Utah. in the Eastern Maine Conference Seminary. GRAIN. See AGRICULTURE. He enlisted as a private in the sixth Maine in- GRAND MAL. See EPILEPSY. fantry in 1861, and served throughout the war. GRANT, ROBERT. See LITERATURE, ENGLISH He was mustered out of volunteer service in AND AMERICAN, Fiction. 1866 with the rank of captain. In the same GRAPES. See HORTICULTURE. year he was appointed lieutenant in the United GRAPHITE. The total production of graphStates infantry, and rose through various grades ite in 1914 was 4336 short tons, valued at $324,until he became brigadier-general in 1907. Hc 118. Of this 1725 was amorphus, and 5,220,539 received several brevets for gallant service dur pounds were crystalline. The greater part of ing the Civil War. From 1868 to 1898 he took the latter is produced in New York, Pennsylpart in Indian campaigns. In 1898–1901 he vania, and Alabama. The imports of graphite served in the Philippines.
during the year were 22,002 short tons, valued GOODRICH, JOHN ELLSWORTH. An Ameri- at $1,398,261. The largest amount came from can classical scholar, died Feb. 24, 1915. He Ceylon. Japan and Mexico furnished also large was born in Hinsdale, Mass., in 1831 and grad- quantities. uated from the University of Vermont in 1853. GRAY, JOHN CLINTON. An American jurist, He served as chaplain of the first Vermont cav- died June 28, 1915. He was born in New York alry in 1864–65. For many years he was prin- City in 1843, and studied at the University of cipal of academies in Massachusetts, Vermont, Berlin in 1860–61. In the latter year he enand New Hampshire, and from 1868 to 1870 tered the Harvard Law School, graduating in was superintendent of schools in Burlington, 1864. He afterwards took a course in law at Vt. Between 1872 and 1907 he held chairs at New York University. After practicing for the University of Vermont, where he was pro- several years in Boston he removed to New fessor of Latin for 18 years. He was also li- York, where he became one of the most prombrarian of the university from 1873 to 1886, inent lawyers. He was appointed judge of the and was dean of the department of arts from Court of Appeals by Governor Hill in 1888, and 1903 to 1907. He contributed to several eno in November of that year was elected to a full
term of 14 years. He wrote opinions in sev. The actual increase per cent was 10.89, the diferal of the most important cases tried in New ference between actual increase and natural inYork City during his term on the bench. He crease being accounted for by excess of emiwas reëlected in 1902, but retired in 1913. grants over immigrants.
GREAT BRITAIN. THE UNITED KINGDOM In 1911 the number of males and females OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. A constitu- were, respectively: England, 16,421,298 and tional monarchy. Capital, London. Great 17,623,992 (or 1073 females to 1000 males); Britain consists of England, Scotland, and Wales, 1,024,310 and 1,000,892 (977 females to Wales. The term “Great Britain," however, is 1000 males); Scotland, 2,308,839 and 2,452,065; often used to mean “United Kingdom.” At- Ireland, 2,192,048 and 2,198,171. tached to the United Kingdom, but not properly In England and Wales, the population of ura part of it, are the Isle of Man and the Chan- ban districts in 1901 numbered 25,058,355, and nel Islands.
of rural districts 7,469,488; in 1911, 28,162,936 AREA
POPULATION. The of the and 7,907,556. In 1851 the percentage of popuUnited Kingdom, including inland water, is lation in urban districts in England and Wales stated at 121,331 square miles; including the was approximately 50.2; in 1881 the actual perIsle of Man and the Channel Islands, 121,633 centage was 67.9; in 1891, 72.0; in 1901, 77.0; square miles, an area less than that of New in 1911, 78.1. While the general increase per England, New York, and New Jersey (123,852 cent in England and Wales was 10.89 in the pesquare miles). England and Wales, which are riod 1901-11, the urban increase was 11.1 and often regarded as a unit, comprise 58,340 square the rural 10.2; in the period 1891–1901, the urmiles, or in land area alone 58,029 square miles; ban increase was 15.2 per cent, and the rural Scotland, 30,405 square miles, or in land area 2.9 per cent. England and Wales had at the 29,796 square miles. By divisions the area, the 1911 census, 97 urban districts (including the population according to the censuses of April administrative county of London as
one disi, 1901, and April 3, 1911, and the density per trict) with a population exceeding 50,000 each. square mile in 1911, are shown in the follow. The inhabitants of these districts in 1891 numing table:
bered 13,779,848; in 1901, 15,886,874; in 1911,
17,251,009; the increase per cent in the first peSq. M. Pop. 1901 Pop. 1911 Dens. riod being 15.3, and in the second 8.3. London England * 50,874 30,813,043 34,045,290
(that is, the administrative county, embracing Wales
7,466 1,714,800 2,025,202 271 74,816 acres, or 117 square miles) had, in 1911, Scotland
30,405 4,472,103 4,760,904 Ireland
4,521,685 inhabitants, as compared with 4,536,32,386 4,458,775 4,390,219
267 in 1901, or a decrease of 0.3 per cent. The U. Kingdom 121,331 41,458,721 45,221,615 373 term, “Greater London," is used to describe the Isle of Man
area covered by the Metropolitan and City of Channel Isles
95,618 96,899 1,292
London police districts; this area embraces, beTotal ...121,633 41,609,091 45,370,530 374 sides the administrative county of London, a * Including Monmouthshire.
wide belt of suburban towns and districts,
known as the "outer ring." The outer ring had The population figures represent persons pres
in 1901, 1,405,852 inhabitants; in 1911, 2,729,ent; no census of the resident, or legal, popula
673. The area of the outer ring is 368,608 tion is taken in the United Kingdom, and there
acres, or 576 square miles. Greater London emfore the figures above do not include British
braced 443,424 acres, or 693 square miles, with soldiers, sailors, and merchant seamen abroad.
7,251,358 inhabitants in 1911, as compared with The estimated population of the United King- 6,581,402 in 1901 and 5,633,806 in 1891; the indom, June 30, 1913, was 46,026,483; June 30,
crease from 1891 to 1901 being 16.8 per cent, 1914, 46,407,037 (England and Wales, 37,302,
and from 1901 to 1911 10.2 per cent. In 1911 983; Scotland, 4,728,500; Ireland, 4,375,554).
the population of the larger cities of England The population of Great Britain and Ireland
and Wales, after London, with percentage of was, at different periods, as follows:
increase of 1901, was as follows: Birmingham,
525,833 (0.5)—with districts annexed Nov. 9, E. & W. Scot. Ire. U.K.
1911, 840,202; Liverpool, 746,421 (6.0); Man15,914,148 2,620,184 8,196,597 26,730,929 chester, 714,333 (10.8) ; Sheffield, 454,632' (11.1) 22,712,266 3,360,018 5,412,377 31,484,661
-with districts annexed April 1, 1912, 459,916; 25,974,439 3,735,573 5,174,836 34,884,848 Leeds, 445,550 (3.9); Bristol, 357,048 (5.3); 29,002,525 4,025,647 4,704,750 37,732,927 West Ham (in the outer ring), 289,030 (8.1); 36,070,492 4,760,904 4,390,219 45,221,615 Bradford, 288,458 (3.1.); Kingston-upon-Hull,
277,991 (15.7); Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 266,603 The following table shows the percentage of
(7.9); Nottingham, 259,904 (8.4); Stoke-onpopulation in the several divisions and, in the
Trent, 234,534 (9.2); Salford, 231,357 (4.7); last two columns, the percentage of increase in
Portsmouth, 231,141 (22.3); Leicester, 227,222 the decennial periods 1891-1901 and 1901–11:
(7.4); Cardiff (in Wales), 182,259 (10.9); Bol
ton, 180,851 (7.5); Croydon (in the outer ring),
1911 '91-'01 '01-'11 169,551 (26.6); Willesden (in the outer ring), England
154,214 (34.3); Rhondda (in Wales), 152,781 Wales 4.0
(34.3); Sunderland, 151,159 (3.5). Scotland
A large part of the population increase in Ireland 12.5
1841 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911
3,4 9.8 30.7
4.1 10.8 10.8
Scotland from 1901 to 1911 was in the suburbs of Glasgow. The larger municipal boroughs,
with 1911 population and increase per cent over In England and Wales, the increase per cent 1901, are: Glasgow, 784,455 (1.1); Edinburgh, by births in the period 1901-11 was 28.56; de- 320,315 (0.9); Dundee, 165,006 (1.2)—in 1913, crease by deaths, 16.13; natural increase, 12.43. Broughty Ferry, which had 11,058 inhabitants