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1910
1912
1913

.tons

tons

1910

.tons

1911

.tons

.tons

was £109,443,999, Wales £27,982,687, Scotland for the year 1914 are subject to slight revision. £22,436,444, Ireland £229,209, and the Isle of Total imports, imports reëxported, and net imMan £20,268. By far the most important min- ports (that is, imports for home consumption) eral is coal, and the most important metal, iron. have been valued as follows (exclusive of specie The following table shows the amount in tons and bullion, of foreign merchandise transshipped of coal produced in the United Kingdom and its under bond, and of diamonds from the Union spot value in pounds sterling, and the amount of South Africa): and value of pig iron produced, distinguishing the pig iron produced from British and from

Total imports Reëxports Net imports foreign ores:

1905 .£565,019,917 £ 77,779,913 £487,240,004

678,257,024 103,761,045 574,495,979 Pig iron

744,640,631 111,737,691 632,902,940 Coal British Foreign

768,734,739 109,575,037 659,159,702 1914

697,432,649 95,489,586 601,943,063 1900

225,181,300 4,666,942 4,292,749

121,652,596 19,596,910 18,025,639 1905

236,128,936 4,760,187 4,847,899 In 1910 imports of gold and silver specie and

82,038,553 14,992,368 15,268,619 bullion amounted to £71,422,077; in 1912, £69,-
264,433,028 4,975,735
108,377,567 17,008,812 17,216,059 467,185; in 1913, £74,028,598; in 1914, £62,596,-
271,891,899 5,020,510 4,505, 762 632. Total exports, reëxports of foreign and

110,783,682 16,146,340 14,490 872 colonial produce, and domestic exports (that is, 1912

260,416,338 4,451,636

117,921,123 16,419,298 15,859,372 exports of British produce) have been valued as 1913 .tons 287,430,473

follows (exclusive of specie and bullion and of 145,535,669

foreign merchandise transshipped under bond): In 1914 the coal output amounted to 253,195,

Total exports Reëxports

Dom. exp. 000 tons. The value of metals, aside from iron,

1905

£407,596,527 £77,779,913 £329,816,614 produced from British ores in 1912 was as fol

1910

534, 145,817 103,761,045 430,384,772 lows: white tin, £1,116,738; lead, £349,561; 1912

598,961,130 111,737,691 487,223,439 zinc, £158,622; fine copper, £22,714; silver, £14,

634,820,326 109,575,037 525,245,289

1914 382; gold, £5103.

525,720,311 95,489,586 430,230,725 FISHERIES. Wet fish (exclusive of salmon and shellfish) landed on the coasts of the Exports of gold and silver specie and bullion United Kingdom in 1912 amounted to 24,092, in 1910 amounted to £64,724,213; in 1912, £64,862 cwts.; in 1913, 24,657,116 cwts. The val. 871,488; in 1913, £62,142,038; in 1914, £41,488,ues are stated at £12,779,717 and £14,229,311 125. respectively. The herring catch in 1913 was Total imports of merchandise, domestic exvalued at £4,572,295; cod, £2,300,119; hake, ports of merchandise, and foreign and colonial £678,981; soles, £474,127. The value of shell exports of merchandise in 1913 and 1914 are fish landed in 1912 was £454,709, and in 1913 shown by classes in the following table, in thou£463,642.

sands of pounds sterling (figures for 1914 subCOMMERCE. Returns of trade shown below ject to revision) :

£

1913

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Total

290,202 II. Raw materials and articles mainly unmanu

factured:
Coal, coke, and manufactured fuel...

37
Iron ore, scrap iron, and steel

7,433 Other metallic ores

10,197 Wood and timber

33,789 Raw cotton

70,571 Wool, including rags, etc.

37,736 Other textile materials

19,751 Oil seeds, nuts, oils, fats, and gums. 41,577 Hides and undressed skins

15,067 Materials for paper making

5,816 Miscellaneous

39,849 Total

.281,823 III. Articles wholly or mainly manufactured:

Iron and steel and manufactures thereof. 15,282
Cutlery, hardware, implements, and in-
struments

7,378
Electrical goods and apparatus

1,587 Machinery

7,283
Ships and boats (new)

34
Manufactures of wood and timber, includ-
ing furniture

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*

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2,337

2,042

1,565

589

320 Foreign and Total Imports

3,583 Yarns and textile fabrics : 1. Cotton

12,250 2. Wool

10,491 3. Silk

15,115 4. Other materials

9,129

9,367
7,647
13,391
7,358

127,162
37,677

2,158
14,828

103,275
31,543

1,866
12,984

2,238 1,283 1,768 2,377

1,798 1,152 2,126 2,111

Dom. Exports Colonial Exports 1913 1914 1913 1914 1913

1914 Apparel, including boots, shoes, and hats 5,980 4,257 16,424 14,540

842

606 Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and colors... 12,906 12,037 21,974 19,630 1,641 1,500 Leather and mfrs., excl. boots and shoes. 13,431 13,454 5,648 4,685 2,395 1,828 Earthenware and glass 4,546 2,988 5,213 4,149

196

135 Paper and manufactures thereof. 7,674 6,788 3,679 3,189

276

209 Railway carriages and trucks (not of iron), motor cars, cycles, carts, etc.. 8,357 7,267 11,366 10,740

942

981 Miscellaneous

26,524 19,862 34,229 30,403 3,191 2,481 Total

.193,602 160,378 411,368 338,152 29,458 24,092 IV. Miscellaneous and Unclassified †

3,108 2,644 11,384 8,432

137

85 Grand total

. 768,735 697,433 525,245 430,231 109,575 95,490 * Other than machinery and telegraph and telephone wire. † Including parcel-post goods not liable to duty.

Some of the principal articles of import not 20,938 vessels, of 19,529,543 tons gross. In shown separately in the table were valued as fol- 1913, 909 steamers, of 1,170,107 tons net, and lows in 1913 and 1914, in thousands of pounds 338 sail, of 30,382 tons net, were built in the sterling: Wheat, 43,849 and 44,741; sugar, United Kingdom, exclusive of warships; the war. 23,067 and 32,988; butter, 24,084 and 24,013; ship tonnage built was 193,785 for the British beef, 18,874 and 23,265; bacon, 17,429 and 18,- navy and 55,024 for the navies of other countries. 226; fruits, 15,886 and 16,000; maize, 13,770 and COMMUNICATIONS. The length of railway 11,763; mutton, 11,112 and 11,595; tea, 13,783 open to traffic in the United Kingdom on Dec. 31, and 14,337. The domestic exports of cotton 1914, was 23,701 miles, as compared with 23,691 piece goods in 1913 was 97,776 thousand pounds miles at the end of 1913, and 23,205 at the end sterling, and in 1914, 79,183; cotton yarn, 15, of 1912. The paid-up capital, Dec. 31, 1914, was 006 and 11,973; other cotton manufactures, 12, £1,421,848,000; total receipts during the year, 819 and 11,137'; woolen tissues, 14,467 and 11, £139,098,000; working expenses, £88,173,000; net 598; worsted tissues, 6186 and 6205; linen piece receipts, £50,925,000 (£52,011,000 in 1913). The goods, 5969 and 5481.

length of tramway and light railway at the end The table below shows the total imports con- of 1913 was 2675 miles; paid-up capital, £77,signed to and the total exports consigned from 198,680; net receipts, £5,588,121. the principal countries, in thousands of pounds A summary for the year 1914, with comparasterling:

tive figures for 1913, was issued during the year

by the commercial department of the British Imports

Exports board of trade and gave the following statistics

1912 1913 1912 1918 of the railways of the United Kingdom, for the United States .134,579 141,652 64,687 59,453 calendar year 1914, with comparative figures Germany

70,048 80,411 59,572 60,500 for the previous year. It was stated that on British India

52,149 48,420 59,775 71,670 France 45,505 46,353 37,532 40.882

account of the war no further statistics for the Argentina

40,808 42,485 21,325 23,437 year would be published. Russia

40,539 40,271 21,786 27,694 Canada

26,881 30,488 27,320 27,307 Australia 36,112 38,065 38,281 37,829 Mileage of Lines Open for Traffic.

1914 1918 Belgium 23,616 23,382 19,556 20,660 Running Lines:

Mile Miles Denmark

22,306 24,029 6,171 6,589 Netherlands 21,434 23,578 19,364 20,522

First track

23,701 23,691 Egypt 25,790 21,395 9,597 9,964

Second track

13,403 13,392 New Zealand 20,302 20,338 11,186 11,790

Third track

1,648 1,619 Spain 14,552 14,394 7,678 8,631

Fourth track

1,277 1,254 Sweden 13,236 14,213 8,104 9,235

Over four tracks reduced to single Switzerland 10,627 11,070 4,753 5,088 track

700

706 Italy 8,239 8,127 15,011 15,622

Sidings reduced to single track. 14,928 14,749 Austria-Hungary 7,019 7,706 6,153 5,780 Straits Settlements*. 18,239 19,373 5,156 7,388

Total of single track, including U. of S. Africa | 11,276 12,301 23,280 24.346

sidings

55,663 55,405 Japan

3,933 4,388 12,471 14,827 China 4,933 4,672 10,889

15,010 Authorized Capital: Brazil 9,360 10,008 13,172 13,021

Shares and stock $5,046,116,500 $4,885,481,250 Total, including

Loans and debenture others .744,640 768,735 598,961 634,820

stocks

1,989,110,520 1,979,521,740 * Including Federated Malay States. † Imports do not

Total

. $7,035,227,020 $6,865,002,990 include diamonds. Including Formosa.

Paid-up-Capital. (The SHIPPING. The total net tonnage (exclusive figures preceded by of the coasting trade) entered at the ports, with

* show the nominal

additions to capital cargo and in ballast, was 76,190,616 in 1912 and

included in the 82,148,569 in 1913; cleared, 76,266,429 and 82,- figures above.) 661,012. The British tonnage entered in 1912 Ordinary

$2,399,824, 260 $2,396,291,040 was 44,291,842, and in 1913, 46,602,920; Ger

453,520,620 451,134,360 Preferential

173,990,430 1,724,308,560 man, 7,761,144 and 9,073,855; Norwegian, 5,523,

* 213,703,920 213,752,520 796 and 5,883,316; Swedish, 2,991,136 and 3,400,- Guaranteed

604,263,240 604,268,100 660; Dutch, 3,027,243 and 3,169,375; Danish, 2,

384,180 84,384,180 Loans

62,810,640 58,820,580 987,971 and 3,149,675; French, 1,888,246 and 2,- Debenture stock 1,711,536,480 1,699,605,180 248,981. In 1913, the British merchant marine

* 216,517,860 216,513,000 consisted of 12,602 steamers, of 18,683,039 tons

Total

.$6,518,338,920 $6,483,293,460 gross, and 8336 sail, of 846,504 tons gross; total,

* 968,026,580 965,784,060

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Revenue

1919-13

1913-14 Revenue Receipts and

Property and income tax. 44,806,000 47,249,000 Expenditure:

Land value duties...... 455,000 715,000 Total receipts (including miscellaneous

Tax revenue

£154,753,000 £163,029,000 net receipts). $676,016,280 $677,731,860 Expenditure 428,520,780 424,375,200

Postal service..

£20,300,000 £ 21,190,000 Telegraph service

3,100,000 3,080,000 Net income $247,495,500 $253,356,660 Telephone service

5,755,000 6,530,000 Crown lands (net)

530,000 530,000 † Including nominal additions to the amount of $142,. Receipts from Suez Canal 470,900 which were excluded from the total for 1913. shares and sundry loans 1,418,900 1,579,972

Including the estimated amount receivable by the Fee and patent stamps.. 1,066,000 1,078,000 companies, under agreement with the government, in re- Receipts by civil departspect of the control of British railways during the period ments, etc.

1,859,099 1,225,925 from August 5 to December 31.

Total revenue

.£188,801,999 £198,242,897

* Exclusive of fee and patent stamps. According to the railway returns for 1913, there were on December 31st of that year 12,118 Receipts into the exchequer in 1914–15 and the tender engines, 8697 tank engines, and 12,315 estimates for 1915–16 are as follows: tenders on the railways of England and Wales; 2043 tender engines, 806 tank engines, and 2049

Revenue

1914-15

1915-16 tenders in Scotland, and 631 tender engines, 340

Customs

£ 38,662,000 £ 38.950,000 tank engines, and 607 tenders in Ireland.

Excise

42,313,000 56,250,000 The first application in the British Isles of Estate, etc., duties

28,382,000 28,000,000 Stamps

7,577,000 6,500,000 electric locomotives for heavy goods traffic was Land tax

630,000

660,000 inaugurated on the North-Eastern Railway on House duty

1,930,000 1,990,000 the electrified section from Shildon to Newport. Property and income tax. 69,399,000 103,000,000

Land value duties. This electrified line has no steep grades, and

412,000 350,000 the traffic consists of heavy freight for the blast Tax revenue

.£189,305,000 £235,700,000 furnaces at Erimus sidings, Newport, near MidAn overhead system is employed Telegraph service

Postal service

£20,400,000 dlesborough.

£ 20,600,000

3,000,000 3,100,000 with two bow collectors on each locomotive. Telephone service

6,250,000 6,700,000 There were 10 locomotives, which are eight: Receipts from Suez Canal

(.

545,000 530,000 wheeled, with a motor driving each axle, and

shares and sundry loans 1,277,000 2,002,000 capable of hauling a load of 1000 tons. The Miscellaneous

5,917,000 1,700,000 power is supplied at 1500 volts to the overhead conductors, which will be about 1712 feet above

Total non-tax revenue. £ 37,389,000 £ 34,632,000
Total revenue

226,694,000 270,332,000 rail level. The first section of the London and South-Western Railway's newly electrified lines

* Exclusive of fee and patent stamps. from Waterloo Station, in London, to Wimbledon (through East Putney), was opened for

Issues out of the exchequer in the years 1913– traffic on Oct. 25, 1915, while the second por: 14 and 1914–15 are reported as follows: tion of the electrified system, which includes Waterloo, Barnes, Richmond, Kingston, Wimble- Expenditure

1913-14

1914-15 don, Clapham Junction, Waterloo, was nearly National debt services., .£24,500,000 £ 23,500,000 ready for operation at that time. Up to Aug. Road improvement fund. 1,394,951 1,545,000

Payments to local taxa31, 1915, 92,658 employees of the railways of

tion accounts, etc.. 9,734,128 9,885,000 the United Kingdom had enlisted in the British Other consolidated fund army, this being not less than 14.9 per cent of

services

1,693,890 1,706,000 the total 621,588 men who were employed at the Navy

Army

28,346,000 28,885,000

48,833,000 51,550,000 beginning of the war.

Civil services

53,901,000 58,885,000 On March 31, 1913, there were 75,042 miles of

Revenue departments

4,483,000 4,741,000

Postal service state telegraph and telephone line, with 2,661,

24,607,000 26,227,000 378 miles of wire. Post offices, March 31, 1914, Total expenditure . £197,492,969 $206,924,000 24,447. FINANCE. The monetary unit is the pound

Expenditure against cap.
ital

4,220,749 5,265,000 sterling, whose par value is $4.86656. Ordinary revenue (actual receipts into the exchequer) and

* Including expenditure on education, science, and

art (£19,450,000 in 1913-14) and old-age pensions, ordinary expenditure (actual issues out of the

etc. (£19,666,000 in 1913–14). exchequer chargeable against revenue) have been as follows, in years ended March 31st: in 1900, It will be seen that in 1914–15 the issues out £129,804,566 and £143,687,068; in 1905, £153, of the exchequer, £206,924,000, aggregated less 182,782 and £151,768,875; in 1910, £131,696,456 than the revenue, £226,694,000; but between the and £157,944,611; in 1912, £185,090,286 and outbreak of the war in August, 1914, and the £178,545,100; in 1913, £188,801,999 and £188, end of the fiscal year, Mar. 31, 1915, votes of 621,930; in 1914, £198,242,897 and £197,492,969. credit were taken amounting to £362,000,000. The table below shows receipts into the ex- The war budget submitted by the chancellor of chequer, under the principal heads thereof, in the the exchequer on Sept. 21, 1915, shows estifiscal years 1913 and 1914:

mated revenue for the fiscal year 1916 amount

ing to £272,000,000, a sum a little larger than evenue

1912-13

1913-14

the total given in the table above. The expend

iture was estimated at £1,590,000,000, the estiCustoms

£ 33,485,000 £ 35,540,000 Excise

38,000,000 39,590,000 mated deficit being £1,318,000,000. See paraEstate, etc., duties.

25,248,000 27,359,000 graph The Budget under section History. Stamps

10,059,000 9,966,000 Land tax

On Nov. 15, 1915, the prime minister moved a House duty

700,000 700,000

2,000,000 2,000,000 vote of credit for £400,000,000, this amount rais

*

ing the total of the five votes taken up to that as the second but only surviving son of Edward time during the fiscal year (that is, since April VII. He married July 6, 1893, Princess Victoria 1st) to £1,300,000,000. Add to this sum 'the Mary, only daughter of the late Duke of Teck. total of the votes of credit between August, 1914, Heir-apparent, Edward Albert, Prince of Wales, and March 31, 1915, and the total votes of credit born Dec. 14, 1895. during the war up to Nov. 15, 1915, are seen to be £1,662,000,000. And the fiscal vote of credit

HISTORY was expected to carry the war only to the middle of February, 1916.

THE GOVERNMENT'S TASK. The endeavors of The nominal amount of the funded debt on the government to find money, men, and muniMarch 31, 1914, was £586,717,872; estimated tions for the prosecution of the war constituted capital liability in respect of terminable ameni- the outstanding feature of British politics durties, £29,552,219; unfunded debt, £35,000,000 (in- ing the year 1915. It was comparatively easy cluding treasury bills temporarily paid off, but to supply the money, although the increasing renewable not later than June 30); total "dead- burden of the war debt might well give rise to weight” debt, £651,270,091. The net increase of solicitude for the future. Guns and ammunition the debt during 1914–15 was £457,546,985, so were less readily obtained: the construction of that on March 31, 1915, the “dead-weight” debt new munition factories and the organization of was £1,108,816,076. And it was expected that a the industry entailed painful delay, and the rules sum about double this amount would represent of the trade-unions hampered the work. Even the "dead-weight” debt on March 31, 1916. more arduous was the task of suddenly creating

ARMY. See MILITARY PROGRESS, passim. an enormous army without doing violence to the

Navy. Additions to the navy since the begin- cherished traditions of the people by establishning of the war in August, 1914, cannot be ing compulsory military service. These three stated. The following statement issued by the great problems--finance, the supply of muniOffice of Naval Intelligence at Washington re- tions, and the recruitment of the army-are lates to July 1, 1914. Number and displacement separately discussed in the paragraphs that folof warships of 1500 or more tons, and of tor- low. pedo craft of 50 or more tons, built and build- The Cost OF THE WAR. Providing the huge ing: Dreadnoughts (battleships having a main sums required to defray her own and part of her battery of all big guns, that is, 11 or more inches allies' expenses in the war was the least of in calibre): built, 20, of 423,350 tons; building, Great Britain's difficulties. In his budget 16, of 421,750 tons. Pre-dreadnoughts (battle- speech of May 4th, the chancellor of the exships of about 10,000 or more tons, whose main chequer, Mr. David Lloyd George, informed the batteries are of more than one calibre): built, House of Commons that the daily cost of the 40, of 589,385 tons; building, none. Coast-de- war to Great Britain, not including the sums fense vessels (smaller battleships and monitors), advanced to colonies and allies, then stood at none built or building. Battle cruisers (ar about £2,100,000 a day. The total expenditure mored cruisers having guns of largest calibre in for the year 1915-16, if the war continued, main battery and capable of taking a place in would amount to about £1,322,654,000—more line of battle with the battleships) : built, 9, of than double the expenditure for 1914-15. 187,800 tons; building, 1, of 28,500 tons. Ar- About one-third of this sum would be raised by mored cruisers: built, 34, of 406,800 tons; build- taxation; the deficit would be no less than ing, none. Cruisers (unarmored warships of £862,322,000, and would have to be raised by 1500 or more tons) : built, 74, of 382,815 tons; internal loans. The estimate of the war's cost building, 17, of 67,000 tons. Torpedo-boat de- made by Mr. Lloyd George in May was soon exstroyers: built, 167, of 125,850 tons; building, ceeded in fact. Hardly a month after Lloyd 21, of 21,770 tons. Torpedo boats: built, 49, of George had stated the daily expenditure to be 11,488 tons; building, none. Submarines: built, £2,000,000, Mr. Asquith announced that the 75, of 30,362 tons; building, 22, of 17,236 tons. daily cost had risen to an average of £2,660,000, Total tonnage: built 2,157,850; building, 556, and that during the next three months at least 256. Excluded from the foregoing: ships over £3,000,000 a day would be expended. At the 20 years old from date of launch unless recon- request of the government, Parliament authorstructed and rearmed within five years; torpedo ized an issue of securities up to a maximum craft over 15 years old; ships not actually be total of £1,000,000,000, at 442 per cent interest. gun or ordered although authorized; transports, In order to induce the middle and lower midcolliers, repair ships, torpedo-depot ships, and dle classes to invest, five shilling shares of the other auxiliaries. The active personnel, July 1, new loan were offered on sale at post offices. 1914, was reported at 150,609 officers and men. The effect of the war expenditure upon Great See also NAVAL PROGRESS.

Britain's economic life was explained by Mr. GOVERNMENT. The executive authority is Asquith in a speech in the Guildhall June 27th. vested in the King, acting through his ministers. Before the war, the annual income of the naThe legislative power devolves upon the Parlia- tion had attained a figure somewhere between ment, which consists of the House of Lords and £2,250,000,000 and £2,400,000,000; the annual the House of Commons. The peers entitled to expenditure of the nation was estimated at sit in the House of Lords in 1915 numbered 654, about £2,000,000,000. Thus there was a surplus including the lords spiritual and temporal, and of from £250,000,000 to £400,000,000 which three princes of the blood royal. The second could be saved or invested, and which would Parliament of George V, which convened Jan. ordinarily be available for the purchase of gov31, 1911, had 670 members in the House of Com- ernment loans. But the amount needed for the

England is represented by 465 members, war was now £1,000,000,000 a year. The balWales 30, Scotland 72, and Ireland 103.

ance of trade, moreover, had turned against The King in 1915 was George V, born June Great Britain. Comparing board of trade sta3, 1865; he succeeded to the throne May 6, 1910, tistics for the first five months of the year 1915

mons.

with those for the same period a year ago, it Jameson (author of the "Jameson Raid”), Lord appeared that imports had increased by £35, Northcliffe, Sir Arthur Pinero, and Sir William 500,000 while exports and reëxports had fallen Ramsay. The Daily Mail published the same off by £73,750,000. These figures signified, the manifesto, accompanied by a furious editorial speaker went on to say, that in five months attack upon voluntary service, and a suggestion nearly 110 millions sterling had been added to that local committees organize mass meetings to Great Britain's foreign obligations, “and if that demand compulsion. From the middle of Aug. rate continued until we reached the end of a ust to the end of the year, the campaign for completed year, the figure of our indebtedness National Service increased in intensity, and the would rise to over 260 millions.” In order to hot debate between advocates of compulsion and correct this balance of trade, imports of lux- defenders of free enlistment loomed larger and uries must be rigorously curtailed; tea, tobacco, larger upon the political horizon. wine, sugar, and petrol must be used sparingly, THE SHORTAGE OF MUNITIONS. More serious if at all; and the nation must learn thrift and than either the question of finance or the diffisave money to invest in the war loans. In this culty of recruiting was the shortage of municonnection it may not be amiss to remark that tions. According to a statement made by Mr. the need for economy was hardly less pressing David Lloyd George in the House of Commons, in England than in Germany, for although the Great Britain had made wonderful progress in seas remained free to British trade, the cost manufacturing artillery ammunition: if 20 be of living had increased at an alarming rate. In taken as representing the output in September London the price of wheat had risen from 348. of 1914, in October the output was 90; in No11d. just before the war to 458. at the begin- vember, 90; in December, 156; in January, 186; ning of the year 1915.

in February, 256; in March, 388. Still the supKITCHENER'S ARMY. The result of Lord ply was insufficient, and the shortage of muniKitchener's labors as minister of war, in rais- tions was undeniable. On March 15th Lord ing, drilling, and equipping a vast volunteer Kitchener gravely warned the House of Lords army to reënforce the puny original expedi- that "the work of supplying and equipping new tionary force of three army corps, was indi. armies depends largely on our ability to obtain cated in April when the chancellor of the ex- the war material required.” Armament firms, chequer, Mr. David Lloyd George, speaking in to be sure, and most of the employees had rethe House of Commons, revealed the fact that sponded nobly to the demands laid upon them, altogether 36 divisions or about 750,000 men but still the minister of war was obliged to adhad been sent to the front. “Kitchener's army” mit that "the output is not only not equal to was a wonderful achievement, in the face of al- our necessities, but does not fulfill our expectamost insuperable obstacles, such as the difficulty tions.” Orders had not been filled on time. of raising a large army on a purely voluntary The lack of labor was hampering the munitions basis, and the absence at the outset of any or factories. Idleness, slack work, drunkenness, ganization or equipment adequate to deal with and trade-union restrictions were responsible for such numbers of

Nevertheless when the dire plight in which the nation found itself, "Kitchener's army” was compared with Joffre's in so far as they hindered work on munitions army, and the length of the battle line held by orders. Perhaps the laboring classes were misBritish troops was compared with the length led by the fatuous confidence in Great Britain's held by the French, it was patent that Great ability to win the war without half trying, Britain was not doing her full share. Two or Lord Kitchener suggested. His only comment three million men were needed. Hints of con- on such confidence was this: “I can only say scription were heard. Newspaper correspondents that the supply of war material at the present asserted that complaints were being raised in moment and for the next two or three months France at England's failure to furnish a larger is causing us very serious anxiety, and I wish contingent. On May 18th Lord Kitchener is- all those engaged in the manufacture and supsued a call for 300,000 new recruits. In June ply of these stores to realize that it is absoPremier Asquith announced that the total num- lutely essential not only that the arrears in the ber of men for army and navy sanctioned by deliveries of our munitions of war should be Parliament—3,200,000—would not be exceeded wiped off, but that the output of every round of without the authority of Parliament. Mean- ammunition is of the utmost importance and while enlistment continued regularly, but with has a large influence on our operations in the out the alacrity and spontaneous enthusiasm field.” A new Defense of the Realm Bill, which which might have been desired. It was neces- was being submitted to the consideration of the sary for eloquent speakers to tour the country, House, would help, Lord Kitchener hoped, to exaddressing mass meetings, to urge young men pedite the manufacture of munitions. As for to enlist. Still recruiting lagged. On August the complaint of the laborers that they were un15th a National Register or census was taken justly treated, Lord Kitchener observed, “Labor of all persons, of both sexes, between the ages may very rightly ask that their patriotic work of 15 and 65, so that the government might should not be used to inflate the profits of the have exact information of the numbers available directors and shareholders of the various great both for service in the army and for labor in industrial and armament firms, and we munitions factories. On the following day, therefore arranging a system under which the August 16th, the journals owned by Lord North- important armament firms will come under govcliffe opened a campaign in favor of compulsory ernment control, and we hope that workmen “National Service." The London Times pub- who work regularly by keeping good time shall lished a manifesto in favor of National Service, reap some of the benefits which the war autosigned by a number of prominent men, including matically confers on these great companies." Sir F. G. Banbury, Lord Charles Beresford, the The new Defense of the Realm Act, submitted to Bishop of Birmingham, Lord Denman, Sir Ed- Parliament in March, to which the war minward Elgar, Sir Rider Haggard, Sir Starr ister referred, gave the government power to

men.

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