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many of these had been slight wounds from penses of government only £170,000,000 was dewhich recovery was speedy. In the House of manded. The total expenditure would be £1,Commons the debate on the war credits became 590,000,000. To furnish this stupendous sum, a debate on conscription. In the House of Lords, Mr. McKenna counted upon regular taxes to the September 15th, Lord Kitchener, while express- amount of £272,110,000; new taxes to the ing his satisfaction at the "large increase in the amount of £30,924,000; postal changes to bring number of heavy guns” which had been supplied, in £1,980,000; and loans to cover £1,285,000,000. and reporting that 11 new divisions had been By the end of March, 1916, Great Britain's pubsent to occupy an additional 17 miles of the lic debt would reach the staggering figure of front in France, acknowledged that recruiting £2,200,000,000. The new taxes which Mr. Mchad recently declined, and anxious consideration Kenna proposed may be briefly summarized: was being given to the best means of securing (1) a 40 per cent increase of the income tax, recruits.
with a lowering of the exemption from £160 to LABOB OPPOSITION TO CONSCRIPTION. While £130, so that persons earning £2 108. a week Parliament and the press in September seemed would have to contribute, and so that the rate to incline towards compulsory military service on an earned income of £200 a year would be as a solution for the recruiting problem, organ- £7, 38., 4d.; (2) an increase in the supertax ized labor put itself on record as absolutely op- on incomes over £8000, so that the possessor of posed to any such scheme. On September 7th, an income of £100,000 would be taxed £34,000; the Trade Union Congress at Bristol resolved: (3) a 50 per cent tax on war-profits, which was “That we, the delegates to this Congress, repre expected to bring in £30,000,000; (4) duties insenting nearly 3,000,000 organized workers, re- creased 50 per cent on tea, tobacco, cocoa, coffee, cord our hearty appreciation of the magnificent and chicory, and 100 per cent on motor-spirit response made to the call for volunteers to fight and patent medicine; (5) a new ad valorem duty against the tyranny of militarism. We emphat- . of 3342 per cent on imported motor-cars, motorically protest against the sinister efforts of a cycles, cinema films, clocks, watches, musical insection of the reactionary press in formulating struments, plate glass, and hats; and (6) innewspaper policies for party purposes and at- creases in the rates for post, telegraph, and teletempting to foist on this country conscription, phone. It is worth noting that item 5 marked which always proves a burden to the workers, à step towards tariff reform. It is also signifiand will divide the nation at a time when abso- cant that the army was now costing £115,000,000 lute unanimity is essential. We believe that more than Lloyd George had estimated in the all the men necessary can, and will be obtained spring. through a voluntary system properly organized, THE RESIGNATION OF SIR EDWARD CARSON. and we heartily support and will give every aid On October 18th, Sir Edward Carson announced to the government in their present efforts to se- his intention of resigning his post as attorcure the men necessary to prosecute the war to ney-general in the cabinet. Two days later he a successful issue.” Something in the nature of explained the reason for his resignation as his a threat was conveyed in the words which Mr. inability to concur in the Balkan policy reJ. H. Thomas, as the representative of the rail-cently enunciated by Sir Edward Grey. Not unway men, uttered in the House of Commons, til a month later did the public learn the deSeptember 16th—“The first day this principle tails of the split. At the last War Committee (compulsory service) was introduced the gov- meeting (a small committee of the cabinet had ernment would have to deal, not with compul- been selected to direct the war policy) before sory service, but perhaps unfortunately with in- his resignation, it seemed, the decision had been dustrial revolution.” The British workingmen taken that it was too late to send assistance to were engaged in a fight against German mili- Serbia (consult WAR OF THE NATIONS, The tarism: they did not want militarism introduced Drive Through Serbia); as he had believed it into Great Britain. The same confident belief to be both possible and necessary for Great that the voluntary system would and must suf- Britain then to aid Serbia, Sir Edward had fice was expressed by a conference, September tendered his resignation. Later, he 30th, of the Parliamentary Committee of the tically added, when M. Millerand (French war Trades Union Congress, the Management Com- secretary) "came over here with a view to in. mittee of the General Federation of Trade Un- ducing the government to change this policy" ions, the Executive of the Labor Party, and mem- of non-assistance and when General Joffre himbers of the Parliamentary Labor Party. It was self urged it, Mr. Asquith had decided that aslargely as a result of this obstinate opposition sistance to Serbia would even then be opporto conscription expressed by labor organizations, tune. In reply to Sir Edward Carson's imthat Lord Derby's recruiting campaign was plied criticism, Mr. Asquith stated, November launched in October as the last and final effort 18th, that assistance had been sent to Serbia of the government to maintain the army on a without the slightest delay. voluntary basis (see below, The Derby Recruit- CHURCHILL'S RESIGNATION. Less than ing Campaign).
month after Sir Edward Carson's resignation, THE BUDGET. The third budget since the be- the cabinet lost another member, Mr. Winston ginning of the war, and the largest in the world's Spencer Churchill, who had quarreled with history, was presented to Parliament, Septem- Lord Fisher in May, it will be recalled, and ber 21st, by the chancellor of the exchequer, had been transferred from the important post Mr. Reginald McKenna. He estimated that the of first lord of the admiralty in the old Libarmy alone would cost £715,000,000 during the eral cabinet to the minor office of chancellor coming year; the navy would cost £190,000,000; of the Duchy of Lancaster in the Coalition advances to dominions and allies would amount cabinet. Mr. Churchill's resignation was preto £423,000,000; food supplies, miscellaneous ex- cipitated by the formation of a War Council or penditures, and outstanding obligations would inner cabinet composed of Mr. Asquith, Mr. require £92,000,000; while for the ordinary ex- Balfour, Mr. Bonar Law, Mr. McKenna, and
Mr. Lloyd George. The premier had offered that as an object lesson to the nation, the memhim a place in the War Council, Mr. Churchill bers of the cabinet had decided to reduce their admitted, but he had been unwilling to share own salaries. A rumor, of prime importance in the general responsibility for the govern- if true, but probably without foundation, was ment's war policy without any personal share in given great prominence in the press towards the its control. In a letter to Mr. Asquith dated close of the year, that Sir Edward Carson was November llth, Mr. Churchill informed the endeavoring to form a new group in the House prime minister of his resignation; in a speech of Commons, to pursue a more orous and a before the House of Commons on November 15th more clearly defined policy in the prosecution he made a public and spirited defense of his of the war to a successful conclusion. conduct while in office. He had been criticized THE DERBY RECRUITING CAMPAIGN. The close as personally responsible for (1) the destruc- of the year was made memorable by a great tion of Rear Admiral Craddock's fleet in the campaign for recruits, conducted under the dibattle off Coronel, (2) the loss of the cruisers rection of Lord Derby. The Derby campaign, Cressy, Hogue, and Aboukir, (3) the disastrous begun in October and continued into the midfailure of the expedition sent to relieve Ant- dle of December, was the final effort of the govwerp, and (4) the Dardanelles fiasco. On all ernment to find a method of securing a sufli. four points, Mr. Churchill's defense was vigor cient number of recruits for the army without ous and convincing. In regard to the Coronel forcing compulsory military service upon the battle, the Admiralty arrangements had been unwilling workingmen. With blue cards conmade with the full consent of naval experts, taining names copied from the National Regisand were "probably the best that could have ter, soldiers and civilians made a personal canbeen made." The exposure of the three cruis- vass of the men who had not enlisted. In order ers to the peril of submarines was not his mig- that the "slackers” who refused to volunteer take, and he was willing to have the Admiralty might be made more ignominiously conspicuous, memoranda on the subject published, although armbands of khaki were to be given (1) to men "the papers might do injury to officers who are who had enlisted and were waiting to join the now serving and to others.” (3) The Antwerp colors, (2) to men who were willing but physexpedition had been undertaken without con- ically unfit to serve in the army, and (3) to sulting him, and had originated with Lord soldiers incapacitated for further service. Each Kitchener and the French government; he had class was to be distinguished by a different type taken an energetic part in perfecting arrange of armband. To stimulate patriotism, King ments for it, but could not be held responsible; George issued an appeal to the nation calling moreover, the expedition could not be called an for volunteers. The men who hesitated were unmitigated failure, for although it had not warned that if the voluntary system failed, comsaved Antwerp, it had the effect of "causing the pulsion would be introduced. The premier pubgreat battle to be fought on the line of the licly announced that if the unmarried men held Yser instead of 20 or 30 miles further south.” back, he would use compulsory methods to bring As for the Dardanelles campaign, it had been them forward, before he would ask the married undertaken with the approbation of naval ex- men to go to the front. At the conclusion of perts, but had not received the hearty and loyal the Derby campaign in the middle of December, support, after it had been begun, which the before any definite announcement of the results first sea lord, Lord Fisher, should have given was made, the fact was already patent that, in it. Had the Dardanelles expedition been prop- spite of entreaties and warnings, a very conerly supported, Mr. Churchill believed it might siderable number of the single men had not have achieved a brilliant victory and vitally come forward; consequently the British press affected the issue of the war. (4 detailed dis- urgently and insistently called upon Mr. As. cussion of the expedition, and of Mr. Church- quith to make good his “pledge to the married ill's comments upon it, will be found under the men,” by introducing a conscription bill. Later WAR OF THE NATIONS.) Mr. Churchill was in December while the result of the Derby camsucceeded by Mr. Herbert L. Samuel, November paign was still a matter of speculation, Parlia25th.
ment was asked to authorize an increase of the PARLIAMENT IN DECEMBER. In December the maximum strength of the army from 3,000,000 government introduced a bill to prolong the life to 4,000,000. Great Britain, Mr. Asquith on of Parliament 12 months beyond its normal this occasion announced, was maintaining 1,duration, until Jan. 31, 1917. To the principle 250,000 men in the field; and since about 15 of this very important departure from constitu- per cent of the men were lost or disabled every tional practice, which involved the question of month, at least 2,250,000 men must be kept in whether sovereignty rested in Parliament or the reserve to maintain the field army at its actual electors, little objection was raised; consider strength during the year 1916. The army inable opposition was encountered, however, be- crease was voted before Parliament adjourned cause the proposed extension of the mandate of for the Christmas holidays, but not before the the present Parliament would make it possible Irish Nationalists and the Laborites had found for the Plural Voting Bill, which had already occasion to declare that they would oppose any been passed twice by the House of Commons resort to compulsory military service. As a reand twice rejected by the House of Lords (see sult of the Derby campaign, official reports the 1914 YEAR BOOK, p. 324), to be passed a stated, 1,150,000 bachelors and 1,679,263 marthird time by the House of Commons and en- ried men had presented themselves; 428,853 of acted unde the provisions of the Parliament these volunteers had been rejected as physically Act. In consequence of this opposition, Mr. unfit, and many more would be unavailable for Asquith found it necessary to propose, as military service. Lord Derby estimated the net compromise, that the prolongation of Parlia- yield of his campaign at 831,062 men, including ment's life be made for 8 instead of for 12 215,431 actually enlisted and 615,631 available months. In December Parliament was informed men "attested' for future service. Over 1,000,
per 89. km. 27 48 37 32 30 108 21 93 146 30 48 51 30 20 35
48 25 90 51 76 29 24 30
000 bachelors and a slightly larger number of married men had refused to enroll themselves; to be sure, 827,878 of these "slackers” were
. "starred" men, who could not be spared from industry, but 651,160 unmarried men who had Acarnania and Ætolia. 5,225 141,405
3,136 150,918 not responded to Lord Derby's call, it was esti
4,357 162,324 mated, would be available if they could be in- Argolis
2,585 81,943 duced to volunteer. The demand of the Na
1,383 41,280 tional Service advocates was that these 651,160
3,117 65,816 irresponsible bachelors be compelled to enlist. Cephalonia
71,235 The question was destined to be finally decided
99,571 when Parliament resumed its sittings, beginning
2,370 71,229 Cyclades
2,719 130,378 Jan. 4, 1916. Press reports at the very close Elis
2,014 103,800 of December indicated that although the gov- Eubea
3,895 116,903 ernment was determined to introduce compul- Eurytania
2,647 92,941 sory service for unmarried men, the ministry Lacedæmon
3,164 87,106 was badly divided and certain members of the Laconia
1,278 61,522 cabinet, notably Sir John Simon and Mr. Ar
3,873 95,066 Leucas
41,186 thur Henderson, had decided to offer their res
2,034 102,742 ignations.
1,674 127,991 SPIES SUSPECTS. Numerous German
2,157 62,246 Phthiotis
4,622 112,328 spies were detected in treasonable activities
3,055 90,548 during the year. One of the most notorious Triphylia
57 cases was that of Anton Kuepferle, a self-con- Zante
42,502 fessed German soldier, who committed suicide Turkish cession, including
55,400 2,066,647 in prison, May 20th, rather than submit to the humiliation of public execution. Two other
120,057 † 4,698,599 spies, F. R. Muller and Hahn, were arrested † 46,345 square miles. with Kuepferle, and one of them, Muller, was executed in the Tower June 23rd. On July 15th Besides Crete, with an area of 8618 square a naval spy, Robert Rosenthal, was executed. kilometers, the area acquired from Turkey inA number of spies, whose names were not di- cludes the insular districts of Lesbos, Samos, vulged, were also executed after trial by court and Chios, the estimated area of which is 4018 martial. One alleged spy, Gustav Triest, a square kilometers, and, on the mainland, the freshman at Princeton University, was acquit. districts of Salonica, Kozani, Florina, Serres, ted and released, November 19th. As a result Drama, Janina, and Prevesa, aggregating about of the activity of spies, and in consequence of 42,760 square kilometers. The principal towns the violent popular excitement caused by Ger- with their 1907 population, follow: Athens, man Zeppelin raids and submarine exploits, a 167,479; Piræus, 71,506; Patras, 37,724; Corfu, veritable panic of anti-German sentiment swept 27,397; Volo, 23,563; Larissa, 18,041; Trikkala, over the British public. Anti-German riots 17,809; Hermoupolis, 17,773; Pyrgos, 13,690; were of frequent occurrence until the Germans Zante, 13,580; Kalamata, 13,123; Chalcis, 10,resident in England were interned in concen- 958; Tripolitsa, 10,789; Laurion, 10,007. Aptration camps. After the sinking of the Lusi. proximate population of the principal towns in tania the names of the German Emperor, the the territory ceded by Turkey: Salonica, 158,Crown Prince, and other German and Austrian 000; Candia, or Iraklion (Crete), 25,000; royalities were ordered stricken from the list Canea (Crete), 24,200; Kavala, 23,400; Serres, of Knights of the Garter. Sir Edgar Speyer, 18,700; Janina, 16,800; Drama, 12,900. in consequence of the accusations of disloyalty INDUSTRIES. Agriculture is the principal inwhich were popularly brought against him, was dustry, though the methods are antiquated; the constrained to resign his office of privy coun- chief crops are currants, grapes, cereals, tocilor. Sir Ernest Cassel, likewise of German bacco, citrus fruits, olives, and figs. The area birth, felt it incumbent upon himself to issue a of old Greece under cultivation is given at about public declaration of his unabated loyalty to 5,563,000 acres—1,112,000 under cereals, 1,200,Great Britain. Even Lord Haldane, who had 000 fallow, 2,025,400 under forests. There are rendered the country such conspicuous serv. in addition 5,000,000 acres under pasture. The ices as
a statesman, was regarded with sus- principal crop is currants, with an annual averpicion. See also INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND age yield of 150,000 tons, which far exceeds the ARBITRATION; HARDIE, JAMES KEIR; UNITED export; the surplus is utilized in the manufacSTATES THE War; and WAR
ture of denatured alcohol. The law limiting NATIONS.
the output has resulted in the uprooting of GREECE. A constitutional European mon- many large plantations. The cereals grown are archy, situated between the Ionian and Agean wheat, barley, rye, corn, and maslin. The out
It consists of 26 nomes, or departments, put of currants in 1913 was 160,000 tons; besides Crete and the new Turkish cession. The olives, 50,000,000 okes (1 oke equals 2.85 capital is Athens.
pounds); wheat, 12,593 bushels; tobacco (1912), AREA AND POPULATION. The area previous to 86,355 hundredweights, and in the new territhe Balkan wars was given at 64,657 square tories 274,000 hundredweights; figs (1912), kilometers (24,964 square miles), with a popu. 240,000 hundredweights; grapes (1912), 140,lation in 1907 of 2,631,952. The area, popula- 551,000 okes. Currant crop" (1910–11), 262,tion (1907), and density of the 26 nomes, and 500,000 pounds, of which 225,130,412 pounds also of Crete, together with figures of the new were exported. Turkish cession are given in the following Live stock, as reported for 1914: horses, 149,table:
000; mules, 79,500; asses, 132,800; cattle, 300,
000; sheep, 3,546,600; goats, 2,638,000; swine, donia, where only a few main lines absolutely 227,200. Sericulture is carried on.
necessary had been built. The scheme of conThe output of the principal minerals pro- struction proposed was two lines with a length duced is reported as follows for 1912 and 1913 of 60 miles for Crete, while five lines were to respectively: iron, 431,632 and 423,569 tons; be built in Macedonia, with a total length of manganese iron, 14,311 and 21,477; iron pyrites, 320 miles, the most important of which was the 29,767 and 26,285; lead, 27,347 and 24,918; Calambaka-Sarowitz line, 100 miles in length. nickel, 15,111 and 16,416; zinc, 30,570 and 25, This last not only was to run through a coun862; magnesite, 62,995 and 52,502; chromite, try entirely devoid of modern transportation 6310 and 6930; emery, 8268 and 5649. Some facilities, but possessed great strategical imof these outputs are considerably below the portance, as it would enable troops to be conamounts produced before the Balkan centrated on the northern frontiers. During Mining concessions cover a total of about 20,- 1915 20 heavy (2-8-2) locomotives were built 000 acres.
by the American Locomotive Company in the COMMERCE. Import and export values are United States for the Greek government railstated as follows, in thousands of drachmas ways. For other data concerning railroads, and (the par value of the drachma is 19.295 cents): for mileage of telegraph lines, etc., see 1914
FINANCE. The total revenue for the year 1911 Imports ..137,549 160,536 173,510 157,657 177,933 amounted to 136,277,463 drachmas, and the exExports ..101,687 144,571 140,903 146,163 119,001 penditure to 135,094,473. The budget for 1912
estimated the revenue at 144,118,645 drachmas The principal imports are grains, yarn and and the expenditure at 143,326,520. Estimated textile fabrics, coal, timber, chemicals and rerenue for 1913, 201,162,000 drachmas; exdrugs, minerals and metal wares, sugar, fish, penditure, 253,957,000. The gold debt amounted, and coffee. The exports for 1910 of the prin- Dec. 31, 1912, to 833,581,000 and the paper to cipal products are given below in drachmas, 150,009,565 drachmas. with the share of the United Kingdom, France, Navy. The fleet included (July, 1913) 4 Germany, and the United States in thousands ironclads, 1 modern cruiser, 14 destroyers, 4 of drachmas; a few only of the articles are corvettes, 13 torpedo boats, 2 submarines, and given, and totals for each country named: miscellaneous minor craft. The Salamis,
As will be seen, Great Britain is the leading launched 1914, has a displacement of 19,500 country of origin and destination. In the 1911 tons; its principal armament is eight 14-inch trade, she contributed imports valued at 40,- guns and 12 6-inch guns; torpedo tubes, 5; horse580,000 drachmas, and received exports to the power, 40,000; maximum speed, 23 knots. In amount of 33,777,000 drachmas; Russia, 34,- the summer of 1914 the Greek navy was strength449,000 and 2,601,000; Austria-Hungary, 23, ened by the battleships Mississippi and Idaho, 721,000 and 13,520,000; Bulgaria, 14,146,000 purchased from the United States, and renamed and 360,000; Germany, 13,336,000 and 16,364,- Lemnos and Kilkis. These are sister ships, laid 000; France, 10,438,000 and 13,733,000. In 1913 down by the Cramps (Philadelphia), May 12, the export of currants was valued at 40,663,000 1904, and commissioned, one Feb. 1, and the drachmas; tobacco, 19,616,000; olive oil, 15,317, other April 1, 1908. The Mississippi was built 000; wine, 12,510,000. The trade of Crete for at a total cost of $5,832,801, and the Idaho $5,1911 was valued at 21,359,000 drachmas imports 892,821. Their displacement is 13,000 tons; and 15,631,000 exports.
mean draft, 24 feet 8 inches; speed, 17 knots; COMMUNICATIONS. Railways (1912), 1609 main armament, 4 12-inch and 8° 7-inch guns. kilometers. Previous to the outbreak of the GOVERNMENT. The executive authority is Balkan War in 1912, lines from Leontari to vested in the King, who is assisted by a reGythion (70 miles) and from Olympia to near sponsible ministry. The legislative body conLeontari (23 miles) were under construction. sists of a single Chamber of 316 members, elected The Gravia to Volo line to the Gulf of Corinth by manhood suffrage. The reigning King, Conwas also under way. In 1915 the railway sys- stantine I, succeeded to the throne upon the tem of Greece in its extent of line open to traf- assassination (March 18, 1913) of his father, fic, included about 950 miles in the so-called George I, son of Christian IX of Denmark, who "Old Kingdom," or territory occupied by Greece was elected King by the Greek National Assembefore the conclusion of the second Balkan war, bly in 1863. Heir-apparent, Prince George, born while the new provinces contributed a further July 19, 1890. Constantine married, Oct. 27, 1720 miles. Notwithstanding the hostile con- 1889, Sophia, Princess of Prussia, sister to the ditions, an extensive programme of new lines German Kaiser. was drawn up in the early part of the year to
HISTORY develop the country which the Turks had left entirely without railway facilities, especially in THE QUESTION OF GREEK NEUTRALITY. The Epirus and Crete, and to a less extent in Mace- vexed question whether Greece should intervene in the great European war completely over- to M. Gounaris, who had been minister of finance shadowed all other issues in Greek politics dur- in the Theotokis cabinet of 1908. M. Gounaris ing the year 1915. The successive cabinet crises succeeded in forming a cabinet, March 9th, in through which Greece passed, and the informa- which the portfolios were distributed as fol. tion subsequently divulged by M. Venizelos, made lows: Premier and minister of war, Gounaris; it patent that the indecision of the Greek gov- foreign minister, Christakis Zographos; comernment was in large part due to the fact that munications, Baltadjis; instruction, Vozikis; while on one hand the party of M. Venizelos, finance, Protopapadakis; interior, Triantafillawhich controlled the majority of the Greek kos; national economy, Eutaxias; justice, Parliament, was ardently in favor of the Entente Isaldaris; marine, Stratas. The declaration of and eager to enter the war in the hope of acquir. policy issued by the new cabinet, March 10th, ing territory, the King, on the other hand, with contained the significant statement that Greece the support of the German-trained army offi- should “seek the satisfaction of her interests” cers, and with the approval of a considerable without “compromising the integrity of her element of the people, was stubbornly determined territory.” The government officially implied not to join forces with the Entente. King Con- that the outgoing premier had been willing to stantine's refusal to intervene in the war was surrender a portion of Greek territory to Bulperhaps partly ascribable to the influence of his garia, the most bitter foe and rival of Greece. wife, Queen Sophia, a sister of the German Em- Indignant, and anxious to justify himself beperor ;
doubtless also the admiration for fore the country, M. Venizelos now made interGerman military methods to which he had fre. esting revelations. In an interview with the quently given outspoken expression before the Corriere della Sera March 16th, he admitted war (for example, consult the YEAR Book for that when the Anglo-French operations at the 1913, p. 292) now made him extremely reluctant Dardanelles were first undertaken, he had advoto hazard his own army in a struggle against the cated sending Greek troops to aid the Allies, Central Powers, especially since the Entente in response to the informal invitation of the armies had given no convincing proof as yet of Entente Powers. In return, he hoped to gain their ability to win the war.
the vilayet of Smyrna for Greece. This proTHE FIRST RESIGNATION OF PREMIER VENIZE- posal, he asserted, the Crown Council had been LOS. The conflict between the policy of the King too faint-hearted to accept, since it feared that and the policy of the cabinet was clearly re- Greece would be exposed to invasion by land. vealed by the resignation of M. Venizelos in On March 31st M. Venizelos addressed å letter March, 1915. Up to that time, although nego- to the foreign minister (M. Zographos), asking tiations for a new Balkan alliance had been the government to deny that the Venizelos cabirumored, comparatively little information had net had planned to alienate a portion of Greek been vouchsafed the public in respect of the territory. Instead of the desired démenti, the secret negotiations by which the Entente Powers King sent a letter to M. Venizelos, maintaining were endeavoring to enlist the active coöperation that he, M. Venizelos, had, as a matter of fact, of Greece against Turkey. The most important proposed the cession of Sari Shaban, Drama, statements of policy by M. Venizelos, as head and Kavala in order to bribe Bulgaria to join of the Greek government, had been declarations the Entente Powers in conjunction with Greece. of neutrality. When the Austro-Hungarian This allegation Venizelos indignantly denied; he armies invading Serbia had taken Belgrade, and had only proposed certain frontier rectifications the Entente Powers had inquired whether Greece to be effected only after the conclusion of the considered herself bound to aid Serbia under war, when Greece would obtain ample compensathe terms of the Serbo-Greek treaty of 1913, tion-about 140,000 square kilometers in Asia Venizelos had affirmed the decision of the Greek Minor. To substantiate his statements, M. Veni. government to remain neutral. Just before the zelos published a memorandum which he had subChristmas holidays (Old Style), when during mitted to King Constantine on January 24th, the course of the budget debates an Opposition communicating the British offer of territory in leader, M. Theotokis, had pointed to the recent Asia Minor in return for Greek aid. Greece loan advance of 20,000,000 francs accepted from was asked also to withdraw any objections which France as a violation of Greek neutrality, M. she might have to the cession of part of Serbian Venizelos had again declared that the neutrality Macedonia by Serbia to Bulgaria. In his of Greece was inviolate. The Anglo-French at memorandum, M. Venizelos argued that Greece tack on the Dardanelles forced Greece to recon- might as a last resort give up Kavala in order sider her neutrality. As it afterwards appeared, to obtain the very desirable ends in viewthe Triple Entente was willing to pay a high Smyrna, reconciliation with Bulgaria, and the price for Greek participation in the campaign, aid of Bulgaria and Rumania in creating a and Premier Venizelos of Greece was quite will. Greater Greece and in warding off the Austroing to make the bargain. Rumors of an im- German peril. The King, however, had refused pending decision aroused the liveliest excite- to regard the Bulgarian question seriously, and ment in Greece during the first week of March. had instructed Venizelos to enter into negotiaFour former premiers of Greece, Theotokis, tions with Rumania, disregarding Bulgaria. A Ralli, Mavromichalis, and Dragoumis, were second memorandum, which had been submitted called to the palace to consult with the King to the King on January 30th, was published by and the prime minister in a formal Crown Coun- M. Venizelos, April 4th. In this document M. cil. Unable to obtain the approval of the King Venizelos set forth the contention that inasmuch for his policy of intervention, M. Venizelos as Rumania was reluctant to join with Greece handed in the resignation of his cabinet, March and Serbia unless Bulgaria were included in the 6th. M. Zaimis, former Cretan high commis- new Balkan alliance, it would be criminally sioner, who was recommended by Venizelos as short-sighted on the part of the Greek governthe best man to head a new cabinet, declined to ment to balk at the cession of Drama, Kavala, accept the responsibility. Then the King turned and Sari Shaban-only 2000 square kilometers