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© American Press Association M. TAKE JONESCU

M. RADOSLAVOFF
Leader of Conservative-Democratic Party-Rumania

Prime Minister of Bulgaria
FOUR BALKAN STATESMEN PROMINENT IN 1915

in all, inhabited by 30,000 Greeks—when it was zelos as premier, disregarding the recent quarpossible thereby to gain the friendly coöperation rel. An agreement was reached between the of Bulgaria and Rumania in securing for Greece King and the politician, August 22nd, on the in Asia Minor over 100,000 square kilometers basis of (1) benevolent neutrality towards the of territory with a Greek population of about Entente Powers; (2) fulfillment of treaty obli800,000. According to M. Venizelos's state- gations toward Serbia; (3) no cession of Greek ment, King Constantine withdrew his ob- territory. As a result of this understanding, jections to the cession of Kavala and authorized M. Venizelos was able to resume his post as negotiations with Bulgaria on the lines indi- premier and minister of foreign affairs, August cated in the second memorandum. But the an- 23rd. His colleagues were as follows: Minister nouncement that Bulgaria had accepted a loan of war, General Danglis; marine, Miaoulis; from German bankers, supervening just at this finance, Repoulis; interior, Gafayris; justice, juncture, upset all the plans of Greece, and con- Raktavin; communications, Diamantidis; pubvinced M. Venizelos that it would be impossible lic instruction, Tsirimokos; national economy, to gain the coöperation of Bulgaria against the Michalakopoulos. Central Powers and Turkey, even by the offer THE SECOND RESIGNATION OF VENIZELOS. A of territorial concessions. The offer was there. new crisis arose in the latter part of September fore not made. M. Venizelos further admitted when Bulgaria mobilized against Serbia (see that the Allies had asked Greece to assist Serbia BULGARIA, History) and the Greek government alone, and that Greece had refused, for the reason was confronted by two problems; first, whether that the Allies were unwilling to send more than Greece should fulfill her treaty obligations by two divisions of infantry to protect Greece aiding Serbia against Bulgaria ; second, whether against a possible Bulgarian attack. As a coun- Greece should allow Anglo-French troops to pass terblast to the ex-premier's revelations, King through Greek territory on their way to fight Constantine issued a communiqué, April 6th, with the Serbians. On these two points the flatly denying that he had ever authorized Veni. King and the premier were absolutely disagreed. zelos to negotiate any agreement which would According to M. Venizelos's own statement involve the alienation of Greek territory. The (Corriere della Sera, November 23rd), the Greek controversy now narrowed itself down to a clear premier acted upon the belief that by persisting cut question of fact. M. Venizelos, regarding in neutrality Greece would not avert, but simply the royal statement as an impeachment of his postpone, war with Bulgaria; hence the course own veracity, showed his resentment by absent- of wisdom would be to fight Bulgaria in alliance ing himself from the Te Deum service, April 7th, with Serbia and with the aid of Anglo-French when the court celebrated the national holiday troops. Accordingly, in the latter part of Sepof Greece. Venizelos furthermore addressed à tember, M. Venizelos not only ordered Greek letter to the King, threatening to retire from mobilization, September 25th, but furthermore political life entirely, unless the communiqué asked France and England if they were willing were corrected. The denial was not made, how to send 150,000 troops to the support of Serbia. ever, nor was the threat fulfilled.

The King, however, refused to consider any such THE RETURN OF VENIZELOS TO POWER. Par proposition. Venizelos communicated the King's liamentary elections were held in June. The refusal to the Entente Powers. In reply, he regovernment platform promised a long list of ceived a note from the French minister, October important measures, among which may be men- 2nd, announcing that the first contingent of tioned: proportional representation, decentral- French troops had already arrived at Saloniki, ization of public authority, greater economy in and that other French and English troops would public finance, tariff revision, the increase of be sent through Greek territory to aid Serbia. direct and the reduction of indirect taxation, “As the casus foederis justifying Greek interamelioration of labor conditions, and encour: vention in favor of Serbia had not yet occurred" agement of peasant-proprietorship. In respect (as Bulgaria had not yet attacked Serbia), said of foreign policy, the government promised to M. Venizelos, "I protested against the landing make no territorial concessions, but to watch for of the Anglo-French troops at Saloniki because every opportunity to increase the greatness of Greece was still neutral. I could not but be Greece. In spite of this strong bid for popular glad however, because I was certain that Bulsupport on the part of the Gounaris cabinet, garia was on the point of attacking Serbia. ... the victory of the Venizelist party was practi. On October 5th, however, I was compelled to recally a foregone conclusion. 'Almost 200, out sign, as the King disapproved what I had done." of the total of 316 deputies elected to consti- The text of the Greek protest against the Anglotute the new Parliament, were supporters of M. French landing at Saloniki was as follows: “In Venizelos. The minister of finance in the answer to your letter, I have the honor to deGounaris cabinet having lost his seat in the clare to Your Excellency that, being neutral in Chamber of Deputies, resigned his portfolio in the European war, the Royal government (of the ministry, June 15th. The premier himself Greece) could not possibly sanction the prodelayed his resignation only until the meeting ceeding in question, for it constitutes a breach of the newly elected Parliament, which took of Greece's neutrality, the more manifest since place August 16th. A fortnight before his it comes from two great belligerent Powers. It resignation, M. Gounaris received a visit from is therefore the duty of the Royal government the British, French, Italian, and Russian minis. to protest against the passage of foreign troops ters at Athens, presumably to urge upon Greece across Greek territory." the necessity for making concessions to Bul- THE ZAIMIS CABINET AND THE CYPRUS OFFER. garia. A few days later M. Gounaris publicly Following the resignation of M. Venizelos, which reaffirmed his determination not to cede a single occurred October 5th, Alexander Zaimis accepted inch to Bulgaria. When M. Gounaris resigned, the post of premier and formed a cabinet, OctoAugust 16th, the question arose whether King ber 7th, in which the portfolios were distributed Constantine would consent to reinstate M. Veni- as follows: Foreign affairs, Zaimis; interior, Gounaris; war, Yanakitsas; marine, Coun- botany at the University of California from touriotis; finance, Dragoumis; public instruc- 1885 to 1895, and at the Catholic University of tion, Theotokis; justice and communications, America from 1895–1904. In the latter year Rhallis. The Zaimis cabinet lasted less than a he was associate in botany at the Smithsonian month, but during its short term of office it Institution. His writings include: Manual of decided two important questions. In the first Botany for the Region of San Francisco Bay place, when Bulgaria attacked Serbia, October (1894), West American Oaks (1887), Pittonia 14th, M. Zaimis refused to involve Greece in (5 vols. 1887-1903), Landmarks of Botanical the war, and announced that in view of changed History (1909). circumstances, the Serbo-Greek treaty did not GREENLAND. A Danish Arctic colony. now bind Greece to aid Serbia against Bulgaria. Estimated area, 2,200,000 square kilometers In the second place, the Zaimis government had (849,420 square miles). Area of settlements to consider an offer made by Great Britain, (colony proper) 88,100 square kilometers (34,October 17th, whereby in return for active Greek 015 square miles). Population of colony proper military support, Greece would obtain the im- in 1901, 11,893 (11,621 Eskimos and 272 Europortant Island of Cyprus from Great Britain. peans) ; Feb. 1, 1911, 13,459 (13,075 Eskimos Greece rejected the offer. The Zaimis govern- and 384 Europeans). In 1912 births and deaths ment never commanded the majority of the among the Eskimos were 482 and 389 respectGreek Parliament, but existed merely at the ively; in 1913, 566 and 377. Trade is restricted will of the King and at the sufferance of M. to Denmark. Imports from Denmark in 1912 Venizelos. A violent debate, following a speech and 1913 were valued at 482,873 and 608,875 which the minister of war chose to regard as a kroner respectively; exports to Denmark, 899,personal insult, led to a vote of no confidence 451 and 965,802. Principal exports: seal and (147–114) and to the resignation of M. Zaimis, fish oil, valued in 1912 and 1913 at 490,000 and November 4th.

467,900 kroner; seal skins, 81,800 and 90,500; THE SKOULOUDIS CABINET. M. Zaimis was blue fox skins, 121,350 and 161,300. The disucceeded by a former foreign minister of rector resides at Copenhagen. Greece, M. Skouloudis, who had played a con- GREGORY, DANIEL SEELYE. An American spicuous part in the London Conference of 1913. clergyman and editor, died April 14, 1915. He The cabinet formed by M. Skouloudis, November was born in Carmel, N. Y., in 1832, and gradu7th, was almost identical with that of his pre- ated from the State Normal College at Albany decessor: Foreign affairs and premier, Skou. in 1850 and from Princeton Theological Seminary loudis; public instruction, Micheledkis; justice in 1860. In the following year he was ordained and communications, Rhallis; interior, Gou- to the Presbyterian ministry, and from then till naris; national economy, Theotokis; war, 1871 served various pastorates. From 1871 to Yanakitsas; marine, Countouriotis; finance, 1878 he was professor of metaphysics, logic, and Dragoumis. With the Skouloudis cabinet the English literature at the University of Wooster, question was no longer whether Greece should and was president of Lake Forest University help Serbia—that question had been settled in from 1878–86. From 1890–94 he was managing the negative. The question now was whether editor of the Standard Dictionary. He edited the Anglo-French expeditionary forces, and the the Homiletic Reviero from 1895–1904, and from defeated Serbian armies, should be allowed to that year until his death was general secretary operate freely upon Greek territory, instead of of the Bible League of North America, and being interned, as a strict interpretation of Greek managing editor of the Bible Student and neutrality might require. The whole question Teacher. His writings include Christian Ethics is treated in the article WAR OF THE NATIONS (1875), The Crime of Christendom (1900), and (q.v.). In this place, it is necessary only to Constructive Studies in John, the Gospel for point out that inasmuch as Venizelos still com- the Christian (1909). manded a majority in the Greek Parliament, it GREGORY, ELIOT. An American artist and was necessary for the King to dissolve Parlia writer, died June 1, 1915. He was born in 1854 ment November llth, in order to forestall a in New York City and graduated from Yale in conflict between the ministry and the majority. 1880. For several years he studied art in Paris, New elections were called for December 19th. and one of his paintings received honorable menAgainst this step the Venizelists most strenu- tion at the Salon. On his return to New York ously protested. The King was violating the City he established one of the first studios on the constitution, they claimed, in refusing to recoy- European model. This became a meeting place nize the results of the June elections, which had for artists, musicians, and persons prominent in expressed the country's approbation of M. Veni- social life in the city. Mr. Gregory also wrote zelos and his policies. M. Venizelos therefore on a variety of subjects. For many years his announced that he would regard the December Idler Papers appeared in the New York Evening elections as unconstitutional, and urged his fol- Post. A number of his essays were gathered lowers to take no part in the balloting. The into two volumes, Worldly Ways and By-Ways result, as might easily have been foreseen, was and The Ways of Men. He was regarded as an the return of a majority pledged to support the authority on art and literary subjects. His government. In his political duel with M. Veni- work as an artist consisted mostly of portraitzelos—for in that way the events of the year ure. His portrait of Ada Rehan as “Katherine" may be epitomized-King Constantine had in The Taming of the Shrew, painted for Augustriumphed. "Greece had not joined the Entente. tin Daly, is now in the Shakespeare House in

GREENE, EDWARD LEE. 'An American bot. Stratford-on-Avon. anist and educator, died Nov. 10, 1915. He was GRENADA. A British West Indian colony, born in Hopkinton, R. I., in 1843, and graduated consisting of the Island of Grenada, which is the from Albion College in 1866. He was an Episco- most southerly of the Windward Islands group, pal clergyman in 1871-85, and then became a and some of the Grenadines. The area of the Roman Catholic layman. He was professor of island is about 119 square miles; the Grenadines have an area of about 14 square miles 000; Totonicapan, 29,000; Esquintla, Zacapa, (Carriacou, the largest, 8467 acres); so that Chiquimula, and Jalapa, about 18,000 each; the area of the colony is stated at 133 square Santa Cruz del Quiché, 17,000; Jutia pa, 16,miles. At the 1911 census, the population of the 000; Antigua, Salamá, and Huehuetenango, colony was 66,750 (6886 in Carriacou); esti- about 15,000 each; Amatitlán, 12,000; Solola, mate of Dec. 31, 1913, 69,307. The capital and 11,000. The number of births reported for 1913 chief town is St. George's (population, 1911, and 1914 respectively was 75,593 and 76,551; 4916); it has an excellent harbor. About 2 per deaths, 38,320 and 40,878; excess of births, 37,cent of the inhabitants of the colony are Euro 273 and 35,673; marriages, 5274 and 5873. peans, almost all the rest being negro. In 1913, The reported number of public primary there were 30,200 acres under cultivation. schools in 1912 was 1837, with 59,631 pupils; Sugar culture is declining, and the cacao is the in 1913 pupils numbered 61,136; in 1914, there crop of chief commercial importance. Imports were 1878 public primary schools, with 64,387 and exports in 1913–14 were valued at £282,927 pupils. At the normal schools 343 male and and £367,149 respectively. Revenue in that 370 female students were enrolled in 1914. year amounted to £91,258 (of which £53,900 from There are a few secondary schools, a medical customs); expenditure, £85,827. Public debt, school, a law school, and several other educa£123,670.

tional institutions. Roman Catholicism is the GRENADINES. See GRENADA; and SAINT prevailing religion. There is no state church. VINCENT.

PRODUCTION AND COMMERCE. Guatemala is a GREY, SIR EDWARD. See UNITED STATES AND fertile country and produces crops of corn, sugar THE WAR.

cane, bananas, cacao, tobacco, etc. CommerGROTON, WILLIAM MANSFIELD. An Ameri- cially the most important product is coffee. Escan theologian and educator, died May 25, 1915. timated yield for 1914 is reported as follows in He was born in Waldoboro, Me., in 1850, and quintals: coffee, 918,522; corn, 4,611,292; wheat, graduated from Harvard University in 1873. 546,532; rice, 237,523; potatoes, 308,733; beans, He studied theology in the Philadelphia Divinity 184,426; brown sugar, 100,000. The banana School, graduating in 1876. In the following yield was estimated at 7,933,487 bunches. year he was ordained a priest of the Protestant Grazing is of considerable importance; cattle Episcopal Church. He was rector of several in 1914, 1,407,223. There are valuable forests, churches in Canada, Massachusetts, and Rhode in which are worked rubber, chicle, dye woods, Island until 1898, when he became professor of cedar and mahogany. Some gold placers are systematic theology in the Divinity School of worked, but mining, as well as manufacturing, is the Protestant Episcopal Church, in Philadel- little developed phia. From 1900 until his death he was dean Imports and exports have been valued as folof that school. He was a member of many im. lows: portant committees at general conventions of his church. In 1912 he was lecturer at Phila

1911
1912
1913

1914 delphia on the Bohlen Foundation. He was the Imp. ..$8,166,670 $9,822,462 $10,062,328 $9.831.115

Exp...11,005,835 13,156,538 14,449,926 12,754,027 editor of the Sunday School Teacher's Manual (1909).

To the actual invoice value of imports at the GUADELOUPE. A French colony composed maritime customs houses, the Guatemalan auof the islands of the Lesser Antilles. Area, thorities add 25 per cent-an estimate covering 1780 kilometers (687 square miles) ; population freights, insurance, commissions, etc. This ad(1911), 212,430. The capital is Basse-Terre. dition is included in the above import values. In 1912, imports and exports were valued at In 1912 and 1913 respectively, the principal ex19,524,116 and 26,084,302 francs respectively; ports were as follows, values expressed in thouin 1913 imports came to 20,174,930 francs (of sands of dollars: coffee clean, 9126 and 9905; which 11,196,908 francs represents imports from coffee in parchment, 1863 and 2350; bananas, France) and exports amounted to "18,287,489 667 and 826; cattle hides, 190 and 455; sugar, francs (of which 16,401,932 francs represents 565 and 349; woods, 241 and 248. The princiexports to France). The leading exports are pal countries that have shared in the trade cacao, coffee, and sugar.

are as follows, in thousands of dollars : GUATEMALA. The most northwesterly of the Central American republics. The capital is

Imports Exports Guatemala City.

1913 1914 1913 1914 AREA, POPULATION, ETC. The Guatemalan United States ...

5,053 4,879 3,923 4,874 Honduran boundary has not been entirely fixed,

Germany.

. 2,043 1,843 7.654 5,413

1,650 United Kingdom:

1,390 1,600 but in the spring of 1915 a treaty was con

1,477 France .....

. 402 318 21 34 cluded between the two governments looking toward a settlement of the long-standing bound COMMUNICATIONS. The reported length of ary dispute. On account of the unsettled railway in operation in 1914 was 502 miles. boundary, the area of Guatemala has been vari. San José and Champerico, on the Pacific, have ously stated; one estimate is 48,290 square rail connection with Guatemala City, and the miles, and another 43,641 square miles. The latter with Puerto Barrios, on the eastern population, as calculated for the end of 1913, coast. Connection was made with the Mexican was 2,119,165, as compared with 1,842,134, the railway system in 1914. Telegraph lines, over figure returned by the census of Dec. 31, 1903. 4200 miles; telegraph offices, 236; post offices, The 1903 census showed about 60 per cent of about 380. the population Indian and most of the re- FINANCE. Revenue and expenditure for the mainder mestizo. Varying estimates are made fiscal year 1914 are reported at 82,399,925 and for urban populations. Guatemala City, with 48,735,805 pesos (paper) respectively. The suburbs, is supposed to have upwards of 100,000 paper peso fluctuates in value, but is commonly inhabitants; Quezaltenango, 34,000; Cobán, 31, regarded as being worth about six cents. Of

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