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people: Salandra's Discorso in Campidoglio of Barrymore. It is a good portrayal of feminine June 2 (see Diario della guerra, Milan, Treves), idealism on the background of corrupt male the official character of which gave it a vogue chivalric prejudice. Niccodemi’s growing fame not to be explained by its artistic merit; the was honored during the summer by his native lecture-oration of Italy's greatest public speaker, city Livorno. Alfredo Testoni's new play, n Antonio Fradeletto of Venice, Dall'alleanza alla pomo della discordia, like his numerous other guerra (Milan, Treves); and, curiously enough, comedies, shows the overpowering sense of fun the drama Romanticismo of Rovetta, which, on which, in his Bolognese dialect production, its production 30 years ago was suppressed by marked him as a man of promise. He has, howdecree, but has been revived with astounding ever, never risen beyond the level of serious ob

The most elegant war writer has servation of life attained in his classic Car. proved to be Luigi Barzini, a journalist, whose dinale Lambertini, and he bids fair to remain work is appearing in a seven volume series, a mere Sardou. We note with pleasure two Scene della grande guerra. We may recall that epigones of the Goldoni-Gallina tradition: G. Barzini's popularity began with his reports on Cenzato's La sposa segreta and Per la regola the Mexican crisis, where he showed himself bit. (in Venetian dialect) of Domenico Varagnolo. terly hostile to the United States. It is typ- Mario Cortesi has tried again the well-worn ical of the times that one of Barzini's most ar- theme of Nerone (see YEAR Book, 1913), showtistic productions should be the essay entitled ing simply that the classic tragedy in Italy reCannon and Munitions. The war writing of fuses to stay buried. The Superstite of S. RizPaolo Orano (Milan, Treves) has been almost zone Viola was a failure. The best new comedyas much read. The leading military critic is drama of the year was Il cuore e il mondo of C. Baroni (Giornale d'Italia). Guelfo Civinini, Lorenzo Ruggi: the hero in the first two acts novelist and playwright, has written some as- overcomes his chivalric prepossessions through tonishingly prophetic and discerning articles love, only to succumb to “society” represented from Athens, Sofia, and Bucharest. For the by family associates. The Gazzetta di Venezia rest, the most informing books about the tech has published the memoirs of the actor Anzolo nique of warfare have been La guerra nel cielo Morolin. The year has been disastrous in the of F. S. di Brazza; Sottomarini, sommergibili loss of the actors Flavio Andò, Alberto Giovane torpedini of E. Bravetta; La marina nella nini, and Edoardo Ferravilla. Other plays: guerra attuale of L. Zingarelli. For a compre- Luigi Antonelli, Teatro completo; G. Adami, i hensive review of internal Italy see the con- capelli bianchi; G. Antona-Traversi, La grande siderable series L'Italia d'oggi, edited by Bon. ombra; Fratta-Tonetti-Nesti, La risposta del tempelli, Rome. The review Scientia (Bo- governo; A. Bruno, Femmine riluttanti; Guido logna) has been studying the war from a very

Francocci, Quinzica de' Sismondi (in verse) ; unusual and unbiased point of view. Guglielmo Carlo Bertolazzi, L'egoista; Nino Berrini, La Ferrero has written La guerra europea with

dama dell'altra sponda. passages of characteristic brilliancy on German REGIONAL LITERATURE (see Year Book, 1913). culture, which has found a more sympathetic Sicily: G. E. Nuccio, Sicilia buona; G. Galati critic in G. A. Borghese, Italia e Germania. Mosella, Canzuneddi di cicala (dialect verse); Why Italy is at War of Pietro Fedele has been L. Capuana, Nostra gente (tales). Sardinia: distributed abroad. Ezio Gray's Invasione te Margherita Lunati-Manca, l'erra nostra (tales); desca in Italia contained some rather sensa

Grazia Deledda, il fanciullo nascosto (novel). tional gossip. The emotional historical article, Tuscany: Ferdinando Paoleri, Novelle toscane. especially on subjects dealing with the Italian Bar Davide Lopez, Canti baresi. territories in dispute, has crowded out most VERSE (mostly from before the Italian war). other forms of non-journalistic writing save the Elda Giannelli, Lyrica (contains some free verse) ; drama.

Arnaldo Monti, Quadri e suoni di guerra; Bruno DRAMA. The drama immediately assumed its Vignola, Accordi; Luisa Anzoletti, Canti dell'ora; war paint, but, if anything, gained in vitality. An Maria Bianco Bufalini, Umanità; Rachele Gialmost unheard-of thing, the theatres remained raldi, Rane e cicale; Augusta Mosconi, La coppa open during the whole summer as perhaps the del male e dell'ira; Pier Eugenio Zemo, Per il sole diversion of the civilian population and as libro delle ore; Palmina Perrotti, La conca d'oro; powerful auxiliaries of public charity. Reviv. Vincenzo Migliorini, Anima Rerum; Gerlando als of plays from the old Risorgimento stock, Lentini, Eros; Felice Campania, Pervigilium ; such as Troppo tardi of T. Ciconi, were nu Ippolito Rossetti, Echi di Valverde; Rafaele merous. Goldoni, Sugana, Piloto became new Valente, Il mostro; Lamberto Orsini, Odi; Curio favorites acted by Emilio Zago. For the actor Mortari, Bella. See also YEAR Book for 1914. Erméte Zacconi, Domenico Tumiati has pro- TALES. Virgilio Brocchi, La coda del diavolo; duced a dramatic history of the struggle for Amalia Guglielminetti, Anime allo specchio; Italian independence, of which have appeared Luciano Zuccoli, La vita ironica; Augusta Osimo Il tessitore, La meteora, Carlo Alberto, La gio- Muggia, Rivoli in ombra; Luciano Folgore (fuvine Italia, Garibaldi, and Poerio. This is the turist), Ponti sull' oceano. most bulky exploitation of the war spirit which NOVELS. Flavio Steno, I miraggio; Moisè has produced numberless plays like Sull'Isonzo Cecconi, Il taccuino perduto; Marcello Arduino, of E. Collaredo, and L'alto Isonzo of G. Zucca. Ave Cæsar; Arcangelo Pisani, La fuga; E. D.

The number of novelties meanwhile from pa- Colonna, Israele; Guido da Verona, donna cific sources of inspiration seems not to have che inventò l'amore; Mario Carli, Retroscena; diminished appreciably. Sem Benelli's Nozze Maria Giusti, La casa senza lampada ; M. R. del dei centauri is almost a repetition of his earlier Bava, Rose delle Alpi; Luigi Pirandello, Si gira. Rosmunda: the charm of Italy which succumbs TRANSLATIONS. From English: Anna Beneto barbaric violence of the North only to de- detti, Beowulf; Elegie scelte. From Greek: E. stroy the ravisher. Niccodemi's Ombra was Romagnoli: Agamemnon of Æschylus; G. Fracgiven also in English in New York by Ethel caroli, Prolegomeni of Pindar; Le donne a parla

1901

1911

P.
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mento of Sophocles (into dialect of Verona);

Sq. km. C. 0. Zuretti, Frammenti of Menander; Taccone, Basilicata

9,962 490,705 474,021 Idili of Theocritus. From Persian: Italo Pizzi:

Calabria

15,075 1,370,208 1,402,151 Sicily

25,739 3,529,799 3,672,258 Libro dei re (Firdusi).

Sardinia

24,109 791,754 852,407 EVENTS. Giuseppe Pitrė, the Sicilian folk

Total lorist, has been made Senator, as have Allesan

69 *286,682 32,475,253 34,671,337 dro Chiappelli of the Nuova Antologia and Luigi 110,688 square miles. Albertini of the Corriere della sera. The following died during the year: Enrico Castelvetro, The population given above is the populanovelist; Edoardo Dalbono, Neapolitan scholar, tion actually present at the date of the census, poet, and novelist; Giovanni Bistolfi, critic and the total legal (de jure) population on that day editor; Domenico Gnoli, critic, novelist, scholar; being 35,845,048. As calculated Jan. 1, 1914, Rodolfo Renier, scholar; Grazia Mancini, poet, the total de facto population was 35,597,784, dramatist, and novelist; Raffaello Giovagnoli, the density being about 321.8 per square mile. dramatist, poet, lecturer; Francesco Novati, a The population returned as over 15 years of distinguished mediævalist. Alessandro d'Ancona age in 1911 numbered 22,817,755, of whom 8,died late in 1914. Renato Serra (Bologna), au- 039,129 were unmarried, 12,613,993 married, 2,thor of Lettere and a popular journalist, has 147,325 widowed, and 17,308 unascertained. been killed in action.

The communal population of Naples in 1911 was See also PHILOLOGY, MODERN.

678,031, Milan 599,200, Rome 542,123, Turin 427,ITALIAN SOMALILAND. An Italian col- 106, Palermo 341,088, Genoa 272,222, Florence ony in eastern Africa, bordering the coast of 232,860, Catania 210,703, Bologna 172,628, Venice the Indian Ocean from the (British) Somaliland 160,719, Messina 126,557, Leghorn 105,315; Bari Protectorate southward to the Juba River. Es 103,670, Padua 96,230, Ferrara 95,212, Brescia timated area, 357,000 square kilometers (about 83,338, Verona 81,909, Foggia, 76,688. 137,800 square miles). Estimated population, The number of marriages in 1912 and 1913 re300,000. In 1911-12, imports were valued at spectively was 264,674 and 264,325; living births, 5,533,462 lire, and exports 2,055,018; in 1912–13, 1,133,985 and 1,122,484; stillbirths, 47,571 and 6,188,211 and 2,062,692. For 1913-14, the esti- 46,871; deaths exclusive of stillbirths, 635,788 mated revenue was 6,031,000 lire (local, 852,000; and 663,966. Emigrants in 1912 numbered 711,state contribution, 3,629,000; extraordinary, 1, 446 (of whom 403,306 went overseas and 308,140 550,000); estimated expenditure, 5,770,999 lire to European countries or other countries on the (including 1,052,265 extraordinary). The de Mediterranean); in 1913, 872,598 (559,566 and pendency is administered by a governor, resi- 313,032). Infant, primary, normal, and seconddent at Mogadiscio.

ary schools are maintained. ITALY. A southern European constitutional PRODUCTION. In the table below are given monarchy, composed of the Apennine Peninsula, the area in hectares sown to principal crops and the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, and a number the yield in metric quintals; with the yield per of minor islands. The capital is Rome.

hectare in 1913–14:

Hectares 1913-14

1914-15 Wheat

4,768,530 5,059,500 Rye

122,500

119,000 Barley

246,800 246,000 Oats

491,000

488,800 Corn

1,500,000 1,600,000 Rice

146,000

146,000 Flax

18,000

18,000 Beets

40,300

50,000 Vines

4,358,000 4,400,000 Tobacco

8,000

8,000 Olives |

2,390,000 2,300,000 Potatoes

290,000 300,000
* Production of seed; fibre production was 25,000 qs. in 1913-14.
† Production in hectoliters.

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AREA AND POPULATION. The area, in square Live stock (1908) : 839,723 horses, 388,337 kilometers (according to the calculations of the mules, 6,198,861 cattle, 19,266 buffaloes, 11,162,Military Geographical Institute), the number of 926 sheep, 2,714,878 goats, 2,507,798 swine. provinces in each compartimento, the population The forest products were valued in 1909 at as taken at the census of June 10, 1911, and the 124,132,000 lire. Sericulture is carried population as taken at the census of Feb. 10, throughout the country, particularly in Pied1901, are given, by compartimenti, in the fol- mont and Lombardy. The quantity of eggs lowing table:

placed for hatching in 1913 was 300,000 hecto

grams, producing 32,000,000 kilograms of P. Sq. km. 1901

1911

Cocoong. Piedmont 29,367 3,317,401 3,424,450

Following are the productive mines in operation Liguria

2 5,278 1,077,473 1.197,231 and the output in metric tons in 1912; and the Lombardy

24,085 4,282,728

4,799,473 value, in lire, of the output for 1910 and 1912: Venetia

24,547 3,134,467 3,527,360 Emilia

20,701 2,445,035 2,681,201 Tuscany 24,105 2,549,142 2,694,706

No. M. tons Lire 1912 Lire 1910 The Marches 9,712 1,060,755 1,093,253

Iron

27

582,066 12,406,837 7,619,031 L'mbria 9,709 667,210 686,596 Manganese

2,641 99,160 134,793 Rome 12,081 1,196,909 1,302,424 Copper

86,001 1,583,921 1,036,674 Abruzzi e Molise. 16,529 1,441,551 1,430,706 Zinc

149,776 18,286,272 14,803,100 Campania 16,295 3,160,448 3,311,990 Lead

94 41,680 7,785,269 5,803,855 Apulia 19,109 1,959,668 2,130,151 Lead and zinc

300

5,400 3,600

8 8 8 8 4 1 1

5 7

5 3

1909

No. M. tons Lire 1912 Lire 1910 Imports

1000 lire Exports

1000 lire Silver

1
27 77,200 42,400

Cottons

49,200 Rubber mfrs. 50,000 Gold

2 2,366 66,356 58,730 Ships and boats 26,330 Wooden wares 40,000 Antimony 2 1,878 112,245 149, 769 Stone

40,100 Chem. products 98,300 Mercury 8 88,200 4,370,400 3,729,352 Wooden wares

39,300 Woolens

33,800 Pyrites 11 277,585 5,966,819 2,864,531 Oil seed

38,400 Jute mfrs.

31,300 Min, fuel 42 663,812 6,111,034 4,925,950 Copper, etc. 80,200 Meats

28,900 Sulphur 358 2,504,408 29,600,684 32,383,409 Rubber mfrs. 32,700 Rice

25,700 Asph. & bit.. 18 181,946 3,012,348 2,326,670 Boric acid 7 2,309 900,510 900,720

The export of wines in 1910 was valued at Total 656

*94,213,223 *80,367,479 86,481,113 lire; spirits, 13,361,500; olive oil, * Including other.

66,600,468; cheese, 58,002,150; eggs and poultry,

40,942,200; almonds, 40,095,565; lemons, 28,412,The output of chemical industries was valued 175. The total transit trade amounted to 77,in 1912 at 181,000,000 lire. The total number 878,000 lire in 1910, 78,754,000 in 1911, and of industrial establishments returned by the 84,037,000 in 1912. The more important councensus of June 10, 1911, was 243,985, with 2, tries of origin and destination follow, with values 305,698 employees, and 1,573,774 aggregate horse in thousands of lire: power. There were 70,914 persons employed in

Imports

Exports the quarries in 1912; total value of output, 64,

1913
Country

1909 1913 258,333 lire. Employed in lime and brick kilns,

503,464 612,700. Germany .....307,202 343,400 106,730 persons; value of output, 189,211,416 490,643 571,800. U. K. ..167,929 260,500 lire. The output from the quarries was valued 390, 193 522,700. U. S. ...272,374 262,900 in 1910 at 54,567,420 lire; from lime and brick

329,106 283,400. France 198,717 231,500 kilns, at 167,988,073. In the fishing industry, 209,600 237,400.

309,303 264,700. Austria-Hungary .155,087 221,10)

Russia

33,597 60,900 28,402 boats, with a tonnage of 78,981, were em- 120,901 166,600.. Argentina .150,849 185,603 ployed Dec. 31, 1911; persons engaged, 127,792 ;

97,466 146,000.. British India * 23,008 44,800 73,345 77,000. Belgium

38,781

57,800 value of total catch in home waters, 24,265,000 80,498 86,830. Switzerland .216,753 249,200 lire, of which 4,111,000 lire from the tunny 71,426 34,200. Turkey

79,063 44,800 fisheries and 75,320 from coral fisheries. Fish- * With Ceylon. eries products (1909), 3,485,000 lire for tunny, and 22,407,000 for other fish.

In 1910, 142,487 Italian and 13,788 foreign COMMERCE. By royal decree dated Aug. 1, vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 51,213,901, 1914, the export of wheat, rye, barley, oats, were entered, and 142,646 Italian and 13,768 maize, rice, and flour has been prohibited since foreign vessels (51,177,007 tons) were cleared that date. Exceptions may, however, be granted at Italian ports. The total number of vessels to this order. By royal decree dated August entered at Italian ports in 1911 trade was 173,6, the export of the above-mentioned products 437, of 56,056,306 tons, of which 159,647 vesto Italian colonies has been permitted since sels, of 35,924,881 tons, were Italian; cleared, August 8. By decree of January 5, no further 173,353 of 56,082,448 tons, of which 159,552, of modification in the prohibition of rice export 35,945,206 tons, were Italian. In 1912, 176,603 has been permitted. By decree of Sept. 2, 1915, vessels, of 56,858,021 tons, were entered (162,raw cotton was declared contraband of war. The 325, of 35,415,209 tons, Italian), and 176,671, imports for consumption and export of domestic of 56,866,200 tons, were cleared (162,394, of 35,produce-merchandise, and coin and bullion- 428,871). are given below for three years (values in lire): The merchant marine included Jan. 1, 1912,

757 steamers, of 696,994 tons, and 4713 sailing, 1909 1911

1913 of 410,991 tons; a total of 5470 vessels, of 1,Imps. mdse..3,111,710,447 3,389,298,000 3,637,771,000 107,985 tons; 1913, 5532 vessels, of 1,137,109

C. & B.* 18,000,800 28,896,500 21,014,000 tons (893 steamers, of 762,274 tons). Total ...3,129,711,247 3,418,194,500 3,658,785,000 COMMUNICATIONS. Open for traffic March 1, Exps. mdse..1,866,889,562 2,204,927,000 2,603,914,000 operated by the state. Tramways in operation,

1913, were 17,634 kilometers of railway, 13,769 C. & B.* 54,067,700 42,091,900

5150 kilometers. Telegraphs June 30, 1913, 53,Total .1,920,957,262 2,247,518,900 2,584,201,000 518 kilometers, with 335,282 kilometers of wires. * Includes all precious metals.

State telegraph stations, 6356; railway and

other, 1952. Marconi stations, 18; onboard In thousands of lire are given in the table vessels, 159. Telephone lines, urban, 12,089 kilobelow some details of the special trade for the meters, with 192,838 kilometers of wires; inter

urban, 31,662, with 63,321. Post offices, 11,363.

With the outbreak of war the Italian railImports

1000 lire Exports 1000 lire ways passed under military control as had Cereals

488,700 Raw silk .398,000 been arranged in times of peace. The plans Coal and coke ..373,800 Cotton mfrs. 210,200 worked out provided that during mobilization Raw cotton 336,500 Silk mfrs.

service should become entirely Machinery .120,000 Fruits

.128,200 Timber 139,200 Wines

82,500 subject to the military authorities, who reg. Raw silk .178,700 Cheese

73,600 ulate the conditions of operation, not only Pig iron 85,100 Dried fruits

54,100 for military transport, but also for ordinary Wool

113,400 Hemp (raw) Coffee 44,400 Hides

13,400 traffic. In accordance with this scheme, immeInstruments 79,850 Eggs

48,300 diately on mobilization a "Direction of TransHides 26,000 Sulphur

37,200

port" was established with full powers in regard Chem. products ..202,300 Flour

34,000 Iron mfrs.

80,300 Pulp of wheat 34,000 to operations and the Director of Transport was Silk mrs. 44,800 Yarn, etc.

38,500 placed at the head of a special department atFish 63,700 Automobiles

31,900 Woolens 64,400 Fresh vegetables 29,400

tached to the military general staff. The duties Tobacco 44,200 Hats

39,400 of the “Direction of Transport” include repair

year 1913:

109,930 the railway

ing and rebuilding lines and bridges, etc., when under the age of 39. The approximate war necessary, for which purpose it has under its strength of the Italian army was about 3,400,control a special military railway engineering 000, the accompanying statistics giving an aporganization The system proved admirably proximation of the available forces: efficient under actual war conditions. The whole of the mobilization was carried out without sus

Present Minimum Maximum pending the ordinary passenger and freight traf- Permanent Army

515,000 734,401 fic, and the very few cases of temporarily re- Mobile Militia

245,000 320,170 duced service were determined more for eco

Territorial Militia

340,000 2,275,631 nomic than for military reasons. The enormous Total

1,100,000 3,330,202 increase of traffic, in some cases even a hundredfold, was handled on lines whose facilities were

The military forces were organized into four considered inadequate even for normal traffic armies, each of two to four army corps and one requirements without a breakdown, and a record cavalry division. The Italian army corps conof punctuality for the military trains was made. tains two regular divisions, or two and an extra

FINANCE. Revenue and expenditure are given mobile militia division: First case-25,000 men, in lire in the table below for three financial with 104 guns and 18 machine guns. Second years:

case—37,000 men, with 134 guns and 26 machine

guns. 1912-13

Strength of the first line on the outbreak of Revenue ..2,602,163,326 3,252,073,913 2,683,995,971 the war was estimated at 700,000, consisting of Expend. -2,551,286,013 3.248.789,972 2.648,230,072 14 army corps, with 26 Alpine battalions, 38

mobile militia companies, in the second line; Budget totals for 1914–15 follow, in thousands and 26 Alpine battalions in the third line. Beof lire:

hind the foregoing were 54 mountain batteries,

6 battalions of carabinieri, and 23 battalions of Rev. 1000 lire Expend.

1000 lire customs guards with militia formations behind Ordinary 2,530,733 Ordinary

2,284,745 them. Extraord. 312,811 Extraord.

578,468 An analysis of the three lines gave the folTotal 2,848,544 Total

lowing distribution of the organization: 2,863,213

1909-10

1913-14

824 180 360 475

Battalions of Infantry Appropriations for the ministries of war and

Squadrons of Cavalry marine were estimated at 380,597,834 and 258,- Batteries of field-guns 396,528 lire ordinary, and 88,310,513 and 21,320,

Batteries of fortress artillery 610 lire extraordinary, respectively.

Capital of the debt June 30, 1915: 9,922,420,- The infantry was armed with the Mannlicher633 lire consolidated debt; redeemable, 4,640,- Carcano 6.5 milimeter magazine rifle, pattern 247,111; permanent, 64,179,773; tribute, to the 1891, and the cavalry with a carbine of the same Holy See, 64,500,000; treasury obligations, 1, calibre and pattern. 236,370,000; floating debt, 3,062,436,330—total, For the field artillery one hundred field-bat18,990,154,847. Assets in the treasury, 182, teries with the 75 milimeter rapid-fire Krupp, 747,717; leaving actual debt, 18,807,407,130 lire. mostly had been replaced by the Deport gun of The interest, including premium, of the total the same calibre, pattern 1911. Siege guns inpublic debt in 1912–13 was 523,084,574 lire, sink- cluded 9, 12, 15 centimeter guns and 15 and 21 ing fund, 1,921,047; in 1914–15, 616,777,824 and centimeter howitzers and a new 30 centimeter 6,500,372 lire.

howitzer was successfully tested at Genoa. The monetary unit is the lira, par value, There was also a machine gun of a new pattern 19.295 cents.

capable of discharging 1400 shots a minute. ARMY. The army of Italy is organized under The Italian infantry experienced considerable the law of July 17, 1910, which provided for the modification as the result of the war of Tripoli, creation of high commands, the organization and although the organization remained practically increase of the artillery, and the reduction of unchanged. An infantry brigade comprises two the auxiliary service. When the war began, in regiments, each of three batallions of four double 1914, one-third of all the Italian regiments were companies. The equipment also improved and in Libya, and the reorganization of the army was excellent, the pack weighing about 30 pounds was still in progress. The artillery was being and including a portion of a shelter tent. As supplied with new guns, the aëro car needed regards the cavalry, each corps had a cavalry reforming, and serious faults were noted in the division, a regiment of cavalry being composed territorial forces. Appropriations from Parlia. of five squadrons excellently mounted, with ment had been inadequate, but when the atten. horses supplied for the most part from governtion of the government and the people was ment operating establishments. Each cavalry aroused liberal provision was made, and troops division had two battalions of Bersaglieri cyand materials were got ready as rapidly as pos- clists, who do no scouting but are intended for sible. The minimum number of men in the army dismounted work. See also MILITARY PROGRESS, was fixed at 1,000,000, and provision was made passim. for increased numbers. In April, 1915, the active Navy. The Italian navy classes armored forces consisted of 600,000 men, whereas in 1914 cruisers as battleships. The authorized perthere were 14,121 officers and 250,000 men. The sonnel is 40,063. The programme projected in territorial militia was increased to 450,000. On 1914 contemplated the completion by 1916 of May 23rd an order for mobilization was issued, dreadnoughts to make a total of 10 in commisand the first reserve militia up to the year 1883 sion. The Dante Alighieri (19,400 tons) was was called out, and the territorial militia, sec- completed in August, 1912, and was the first Italond reserve, up to the year 1876, including those ian dreadnought; if her speed (24 knots) is re

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Photograph by Paul Thompson
Perce BERNHARD VON BÜLOW

Count LUIGI CADORNA
German Ambassador to Italy

Lieutenant General and Chief of Staff FOUR MEN PROMINENT IN ITALY, 1915

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