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ported correctly, she was at that time the fastest that the Italian government was busily prevessel of that type afloat. The Conte di Cavour, paring the army for the great event. the Leonardo da Vinci, and the Giulio Cesare PARLIAMENT IN FEBRUARY AND MARCH. When (all dreadnoughts) were completed in 1913. Parliament convened, February 18th, intervenTwo others of the same type, the Andrea Doria tion was the question of the hour. Republicans, and the Duilio, were laid down, one in March, Reformist Socialists, Radicals, and Nationalists the other in April, 1911. Authorized were two with a single voice demanded participation in more, the Morosini and the Dandolo. The the war against the Central Powers. In reply cruiser Quarto was completed in 1912 and the to the importunities of Deputy E. Chiesa, FebNino Bixio and the Marsala were launched. ruary 19th, Premier Salandra refused to commit The new destroyers have a speed of 30 knots; the government to immediate action, but on the new torpedo boats 26 knots.

February 26th the premier declared: “Italy The number and displacement, April 1, 1914, does not desire war for war's sake, or neutrality of warships built of 1500 or more tons, and of at any price, but is ready to make any sacrifice torpedo craft of 50 tons and over, were as fol- to realize her ambitions." He was warmly suplows: 3 battleships (dreadnought type), having ported by the Chamber of Deputies. Bills were a main battery of all big guns, 11 inches or introduced in March to authorize rigorous treatmore in calibre, of 62,644 tons (and 7, of 87,150 ment of spies, of contraband dealers, and of tons estimated, building); 8 battleships (pre- persons indiscreetly publishing data regarding dreadnought type of 96,100; 9 armored cruis- İtaly's military preparations. The government ers, of 74,020; 6 cruisers, of 18,830 tons (and 2, was empowered to control industries vital to of 1888 tons, building) ; 36 torpedo-boat destroy. national defense, as well as wireless and aviation ers, of 16,807 tons (and 15, of 14,203 tons, build- establishments. After passing these and other ing); 68 torpedo boats, of 11,584 tons (and 2, of warlike measures, the Chamber adjourned, 272 tons, building); 19 submarines, of 5475 tons March 22nd, to the middle of May. The senti(and 8, of 5842 tons, building) – -a total tonnagement of the press was meanwhile becoming ever built of 285,460, and 212,355 building, making a more emphatic in favor of war. On March 7th, total tonnage built and building of 497,815. to quote but a single instance, the Giornale Excluded from the foregoing are ships over 20 d'Italia declared: “It will be extremely diffiyears old, unless reconstructed and rearmed cult for Italy longer to remain neutral.” within 5 years; torpedo craft over 15 years old; THE CRISIS. While the nation was unmis. transports, colliers, repair ships, torpedo-depot takably preparing for war, the government conships, and other auxiliaries. See also Naval tinued negotiations with Austria-Hungary, with PROGRESS.

the object of obtaining, if possible, substantial GOVERNMENT. The King (Victor Emmanuel territorial concessions as the price of Italy's III) is the executive, acting through a responsi- non-intervention. Prince von Buelow, the former ble council of 11 ministers. The legislative German Imperial Chancellor, who had been disauthority is vested conjointly in the King and patched as Extraordinary Ambassador to the a Parliament composed of a Senate (318 mem- Quirinal in December, 1914, indefatigably labored bers) and a Chamber of Deputies (508 mem- for the reconciliation of Austria-Hungary and bers). The King is required to convoke the Italy. Popular sentiment in Italy, however, was Parliament annually, but may dissolve it at will. by this time in so belligerent a mood that even Heir-apparent, Prince Humbert, born Sep. 15, though Austria-Hungary offered to make im1904.

portant concessions, war was insistently de

manded. On May 4th Italy denounced the HISTORY

Triple Alliance treaty with Austria-Hungary. DEVELOPMENT

WAR SPIRIT. From On May 5th, Gabriele d'Annunzio, the poet of the historic parliamentary session of Dec. 3, Italian chauvinism, made a fiery speech in favor 1914, in the course of which Premier Salandra of intervention. On May 10th the Idea Nazionhad declared his policy of “armed, alert neu- ale declared: “Italy desires war: (1) In order trality,” to the final rupture between Italy and to obtain Trent, Trieste, and Dalmatia. The Austria-Hungary, May 23, 1915, the war spirit country desires it. A nation which has the opin Italy constantly gained in strength. Not- portunity to free its land should do so as a matwithstanding the protests of Socialists (see So. ter of 'imperative necessity. . . . (2) . . . in CIALISM) whose internationalist convictions order to conquer for ourselves a good strategic were opposed to aggressive wars; notwithstand frontier in the North and East. (3). ing the pro-Austrian sentiment expressed in cer- because to-day in the Adriatic, the Balkan Penintain clerical circles; and in spite of the desire sula, the Mediterranean, and Asia, Italy should of the Giolitti party for "strict neutrality," the have all the advantages it is possible for her movement for the achievement of "national as- to have and without which her political, ecopirations” rapidly gathered headway. The dip- nomic, and moral power would diminish in prolomatic efforts of Prince von Buelow, Germany's portion as that of others increased. . . . If we persuasive representative, and the strong influ- would be a great Power we must accept certain ence which German industrial interests in Italy obligations; one of them is war in order to keep were supposed to exert, proved powerless to stem

great Power.” Two days later the the current. In January the leaders of the Giornale d'Italia proclaimed that “Italy is deRadical Party removed all doubt as to their termined to realize her national aspirations, position by boldly pronouncing for war in behalf cost what it may.” As a test of his strength, of Italian aspirations. Count della Torre de- Premier Salandra offered his resignation, May clared that even the clerical faction, which had 14th, but on May 15th, in response to an outbeen suspected of pro-Austrian inclinations, was burst of warlike enthusiasm, the King requested willing to support intervention in the war, if Signor Salandra to retain the office. The renecessary for the realization of national ideals. instatement of the Salandra cabinet marked the At the same time, recurrent reports indicated definite failure of ex-Premier Giolitti's opposi

OF

THE

us

a

son.

tion to the war. On May 20th, Premier Salan- CHURCH; SOCIALISM; UNITED STATES AND THE dra asked Parliament to ratify his war policy. WAR; WAR OF THE NATIONS, passim. In a veritable frenzy of patriotism the Chamber IVINS, WILLIAM MILLS. American lawyer, cheered and applauded the premier's declara- died July 23, 1915. He was born in Freehold, tions. By an overwhelming majority of 407 to N. J., in 1851, and received an academic educa74, only the Socialists and a few of Giolitti's tion in Brooklyn. He studied law at Columbia followers opposing, the Chamber voted a bill Law School, graduating in 1873, and was admit. conferring extraordinary powers on the govern- ted to the bar in the same year, beginning the ment and practically authorizing the cabinet practice of law in Brooklyn as a member of the to make war. The Senate likewise approved the firm of Bergen & Ivins. At the same time he government's intentions and ratified the bill by began to take an active interest in politics, joinan almost unanimous vote, May 21st. War was ing the movement headed by General Slocum declared May 23rd, and begun May 24th. The against the "Brooklyn Ring.". This fight was international aspects of this step, and the de- directed against Hugh McLaughlin, then the untails of the Austro-Italian negotiations, are disputed boss of the Brooklyn Democratic ordiscussed in the article on the WAR OF THE NA- ganization, and it was so successful that it drove TIONS (q.v.). In this place, however, it may McLaughlin into retirement for three years. In not be amiss to mention the interpretation which 1881, Mr. Ivins became private secretary to the German Imperial Chancellor in his speech Mayor William R. Grace. He joined the County of May 28th placed upon the action of Italy. Democracy and was active in opposition to “According to the observation of the best judge Tammany Hall until the election of Mayor Edof the situation in Italy, in the first days of In 1882 he was appointed a school commisMay four-fifths of the Senate and two-thirds of sioner of the city and served until 1885. He dethe Chamber were against war, and in that ma- voted himself to the study of industrial educajority were the most important and responsible tion. He was chamberlain of New York City statesmen. But common sense had no voice. for two terms, returning thereafter to the pracThe mob alone ruled. Under the kindly dis- tice of law. In 1891 he was counsel for the posed toleration and with the assistance of the Senate Investigating Committee which was apleading statesmen of a cabinet fed with the gold pointed to examine into the government of New of the Triple Entente, the mob, under the guid- York City. His cross examination of Richard ance of unscrupulous war instigators, was roused Croker during this proceeding revealed him as to a frenzy of blood which threatened the King one of the most brilliant cross-examiners ever with revolution and all moderate men with mur: produced by the bar, and his elaborate report of der if they did not join in the war delirium." the work of the committee established his repuPremier Salandra, in a speech on June 2nd, tation as an expert in municipal affairs. In replied to the chancellor's insinuations, and re- 1892-93 he was counsel to the Brazilian governtaliated by vehemently denouncing the endeavors ment in a contest with the Argentine government of Prince von Buelow to bribe Italy to keep the over the Misiones territory, a matter which was peace.

finally arbitrated by President Cleveland and deWar AGAINST TURKEY. Although the Hodeida cided in favor of Brazil. Mr. Ivins was largely incident (consult the Year Book for 1914, p. interested in the growing and marketing of rub711) had been settled in January, 1915, relations ber in South America and became president of between Italy and Turkey were strained to the the General Rubber Company. In 1905 he acbreaking point in August, 1915. The Italian cepted the Republican nomination for mayor of declaration of war against Turkey, August 21st, New York City, being defeated by the Demowas prefaced by indignant representations to the cratic nominee, George B. McClellan. Four Porte in respect of Italian nationals, whom, it years later he managed the mayoralty campaign was alleged, the Turkish authorities had de- of William R. Hearst in the three-cornered contained in Turkish ports.

test between William J. Gaynor, Otto T. BanCABINET CHANGE. Toward the end of Sep- nard, and Mr. Hearst. Mr. Ivins, after leaving tomber Vice-Admiral Leone Viale resigned his the County Democracy in the earlier years of post in the cabinet as minister of marine, his political career, became an enrolled Republiand was succeeded by Vice-Admiral Camillo can, but he was notably independent, and did not Corci.

always vote for Republican nominees. He was THE CABINET SUPPORTED. In December, after brought prominently before the public in 1915 six months of fighting, in which Italy had failed as counsel for William Barnes in the latter's to conquer even the territory which Austria- suit for libel against Theodore Roosevelt, his Hungary had offered to cede, the Parliament cross-examination of Mr. Roosevelt and other still unwaveringly supported the Italian govern- witnesses attracting wide attention. His efforts ment in prosecuting the war, in fulfillment of previous to and during this trial were so try. the pledge which Italy had given, promising ing that they resulted in a physical collapse solidarity with the Entente (consult WAR OF which ended in his death. While Mr. Ivins's The Nations). On December 4th Premier Sa- fame was gained as a lawyer, he was a student landra in a speech before the Chamber of Depu- of literature and of modern languages, a colties, reiterated his assurances of ultimate vic- lector of art objects, a brilliant orator, and a tory, and hinted that certain journals hostile keen, capable man of business. He began to to the government would be suppressed. The write a history of diplomacy, but was obliged Chamber of Deputies thereupon passed a vote to lay aside the work. He spoke fluently many of confidence, and a few days later conferred full modern languages, and was especially fond of financial powers upon the government for the reading Greek poets in the original.' His col. next six months. A minority of about 50 depu- lection of Napoleon medals forms a complete ties opposed the ministry.

medallic history of Napoleon. He acquired OTHER Events. Consult also articles

many rare books, among them four folios of ALBANIA; EARTHQUAKES; ROMAN CATHOLIC Shakespeare. He was one of the founders of the

on

Isls.

1908

335 130 218

1
1
1
5

51

335 130 219

51 266 934 27

262
934
27

State Bar Association, and took a leading part

No. Square miles

Pop. in organizing the Reform Club, which aided the Islands Adj.

Adj. Total cause of tariff reform, and the Commonwealth Chishima*

6,024

6,024 3,453 Club, which agitated for ballot reform.

Sado

120,510

Oki IVORY COAST. One of the colonies compos- Awaji

38,349

210,646 ing, the government-general of French West Iki

40.522 Africa. The capital is Bingerville, with 78 Eu

Tsushima

39,264 Riukiu

501,815 ropean and 780 native inhabitants. Other cen- Ogasawarajima i

3,595 tres are: Grand-Bassam, 164 European and 2832 native inhabitants; Abidjan, 110 and 613; La

Total .. 413 145,024 2,633

49,588,804 hou, 78 and 3050; Tiassalé, 17 and 1548;

* 31 islands. Aboisso, 38 and 1241; Assinie, 38 and 1135.

† 55 islands.

120 islands, not including the volcanic Iwojima. The principal products for export are mahogany and other woods, palm kernels and oil, rubber, manioc, and ground nuts. Neither the climate bered 51,742,486 (as compared with 45,403,041

The resident population Dec. 31, 1908, numnor the vegetation is conducive to the develop at the end of 1898). The reported resident popment of the grazing industry. The railways under construction are destined to put into com

ulation at the end of 1914 was 53,696,884; the munication with the coast, by way of the equa- population of the dependencies was calculated at torial forests, the regions of Bouaké, Kong, and 19,687,666, making a total of 73,384,550. The Koroko. The main line in operation starts at

area and estimated population of the dependenAbidjan, on Lagoon Ebrié, and extends through

cies are

as follows: Chosen (Korea), 84,106 Dimbokro on the N’Zi, an affluent of the Ban- square miles, 15,508,872 inhabitants; Taiwan dama, as far as Bouaké, a distance of 316 kilo- (Formosa), 13,841 and 3,612,184; Karafuto meters (196 miles). The line will ultimately

(Japanese Sakhalin), 13,155 and 49,463; Kwanreach the frontier. See FRENCH WEST AFRICA. tung (Kwanto), 1221 and 517,147; Hokoto I. W. W. See INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE

(Pescadores), 48 square miles; total, 111,150 WORLD.

square miles, 19,687,666 inhabitants. The reJAMAICA. The largest of the British West ported number of Japanese resident abroad at Indies; a crown colony, with dependencies as

the end of 1913 was 334,950, of whom 77,736 follows: Turks and Caicos Islands, Cayman Is

(66,879 males, 10,857 females) in the United lands, Morant Cays, and Pedro Cays. Area of States. The number of foreigners in Japan at Jamaica, 4207 square miles. Population, 831, the end of 1911 is reported at 15,221, of whom 383 (15,605 white, 163,201 colored, 630,181 8190 were Chinese, 2673 British, 1794 Ameriblack, 22,396 East Indian). Kingston (57,379 cans, 837 Germans, and 543 French. inhabitants in 1911) is the capital and has a fine The number of marriages in 1910 was 442,498, harbor. Available for cultivation, 2,612,480 and the annual average for 1901-10, 402,469; acres; returned as under crops in 1912–13, 922, divorces, 59,681; living births, 1,726,522 and 1,633 (tilled lands, 267,276 acres; guinea grass, 553,754; still births, 157,392 and 154,645; 152,527; commons, 502,830). Area under sugar deaths, 1,073,732 and 1,006,646; marriage rate, cane (1913), 31,160 acres; under coffee, 20,023; 8.74 and 8.37; divorce rate, 1.18 and 1.30; living under bananas, 85,468. Imports (1913), £2, birth rate, 33.9 and 32.2; of living births, the 837,446; exports, £2,430,207 (bananas, £988,236; number of boys per 100 girls, 103.9 and 104.65; sugar, £52,171; coffee, £158,578; rum, £101,328; percentage of still births, 3.35 and 9.06; death dyewoods, £113,839; pimento, £88,148; cacao, rate, 21.1 and 20.9. £114,738; ginger, £36,373; oranges, £58,967).

Resident population of the larger cities as Railway, 197 miles. Revenue (1913-14), £i, calculated for Dec. 31, 1911: Tokyo, 2,099,200; 267,543; expenditure, £1,276,250. Debt (March Osaka, 1,387,400; Kioto, 508,100; Nagoya, 448,31, 1914), £3,810,447.

000; Kobe, 440,800; Yokohama, 396,100; NagaIn May, word was sent to Gen. Sir H. W. saki, 160,500; Hiroshima, 159,600; Kanazawa, Manning, Governor of Jamaica, that the Im- 127,300. perial government had decided to accept the EDUCATION. Japan has a highly efficient eduoffer of the colony to furnish a war contingent cational system. Primary instruction is comfor duty at the front. By July, subscriptions in pulsory. Public primary schools in 1913 numthe colony to various war funds had amounted bered 25,673, with 158,601 teachers (115,187 to £20,000. The Legislative Council also granted male, 43,414 female) and 7,037,430 pupils (3,£50,000 to pay for a gift of sugar to the mother 767,665 male, 3,269,765 female). Secondary country.

schools for boys numbered 315, with 6220 teachers JAPAN. An empire of the Far East, com- and 128,973 students; superior schools for girls, posed of four large and many small islands, to- 299, with 3818 teachers (of whom 1646 male) gether with Korea (q.v.), Formosa (q.v.), the and 75,128 students; normal schools, 86, with southern part of Sakhalin, and the leasehold of 1619 teachers and 27,653 students (of whom Kwantung (q.v.). The capital is Tokyo. 19.007 male); superior normal schools, 4, with

AREA AND POPULATION. The following table 223 teachers and 1750 students (of whom 1091 shows the principal islands and the number of male). Medical schools in 1913, 16, with 6600 adjacent islands composing Japan proper, their students (of whom 242 female); theological area in square miles, and the total legal popu- schools, 23, with 1744 students (of whom 27 felation on Dec. 31, 1908:

male); schools of political science, law, etc., 749,

with 15,821 students (all male); special schools No. Square miles

Pop. . of letters, 12, with 1758 students (of whom 526 Islands Adj. Isls. Adj. Total

female) ; lycées, 8, with 358 teachers and 6537 Honshiu

86,305 470 86,775 37,041,187 students. In addition, there are technical and Shikoku

6,856

7,031

3,288,318 special schools and 4 universities. The univerKiushiu

13,768 1,820 15,588 Hokkaido

30,144 162 30,276 1,134,002 sities are the Imperial University of Tokyo

1908

175

.167

75 . 150

13

1911

1912

1913

1914

(with 5094 students), the Imperial University exports of Japanese produce, and 2,366,921 yen of Kioto (1474), the Imperial University of the in 1912 and 2,933,963 yen in 1913 were reëx. Northeast (1891), and the Imperial University ports. of Kiushiu (487); total number of university The principal articles of trade, with their students, 8946; teachers, 792.

values in thousands of yen (excluding reimport AGRICULTURE. Of the arable land, about and reëxport values), are as follows: three-fifths is cultivated by peasant proprietors, and the remainder by tenants. The taxed land

Imports owned by private persons and local corporations Rice

17,721 30,192 48,472 24 824 Jan. 1, 1914, was reported at 14,839,426 cho Wheat

3,729 4,401 12,351 8,489 (1 cho= 2.4507 acres, or 0.99174 hectares), of Wheat flour

1,703 1,722 1,782 1,266

10,306 10,222 10,392 13,307 which 5,266,094 were under cultivation, 7,827,987 Soya beans

Sugar

9,157 16,047 36,802 21,698 under forest, and 1,285,411 open field.

Raw cotton

145,455 200,824 223,599 218,975 For some of the principal crops, the area in Cotton shirtings and hectares and the yield in metric quintals are

prints

8,053 3,262 2,720 1,004 Cotton satins

1,904 3,119 3,434 2,054 shown in the following table for 1913–14 and Wool

11,263 16,334 15,998 14,784 1914–15, together with the yield per hectare in Woolen yarn

4,783 8,225 10,087 4,111 1913–14 (the figures for 1914–15 are prelimi- Dilocake

10,656 6,911 10,498 9,067

29,362 27,480 39,499 34,860 nary):

Petroleum

13,065 12,433 11,102 8,657

Rice
Wheat
Barley
Corn
Oats
Potatoes
Tobacco

Hectares 1913-14

1914-15 .3,008,313 3,060,510 475,979

475,045 1,333, 110 1,293,075 57,100

58,304 50,323

65,662 75,700

78,662 35,900

31,000

Quintals 1913-14

1914-15 103,088,637 100,728,426

5,890,814 6,441,750
19,891,264 21,230,398
953,316

952,288
844,790
6,804,374 6,825,000
525,000

480,000

ha. 34.3 12.4 14.9 16.7 16.8 89.9 14.6

Live stock at the end of 1912 and 1913, re

1911 1912 1913 1914 spectively: horses, 1,581,743 and 1,582,125; cat- Iron bars, rods, and

plates

5,378 35,600 32,817 24,745 tle, 1,399,498 and 1,388,708; sheep, 3308 and

Engines and rolling 2946; goats, 101,475 and 89,488; swine, 308,970 stock

2,225 2,563 4,461 1.957 and 309,995.

Machinery

28,289 34,426 24,147 OTHER INDUSTRIES. Value of mineral and

E.rports : metal products in 1912, in yen: coal, 61,412,837 Cotton yarn

40,213 53,631 70,998 78,555 (tons, 19,639,755); copper, 40,252,061; petro- Cotton shirtings 7,382 25,760 33.612 34,844 leum, 8,377,073; gold, 6,799,072; silver, 5,986,- Raw silk

. 128,875 150.325 188,929 161,797 084; iron, 2,304,614; sulphur, 1,372,824; steel, Silk mfrs.

7,786 10,546 10,471 4,673

30,686 26,882 34,882 30,894 745,795; lead, 531,282.

Coal

17,990 20,324 23,671 23,962 The total fisheries products were valued in Matches

10,073 12,044 11,865 11 052 Copper

20,003 24,921 28,184 27.197 1912 at 137,984,518 yen, as compared with 124,

Camphor

3,143 2,827 2,236 2.780 578,815 yen in 1911, and 116,792,553 in 1910. Tea

14,379 13,467 10,077 12.718 On June 14, 1914, there were 42 cotton-spin- Rice

3,941 4,383 4,375 4,974 Matting

3,746 3,758 4.054 2,814 ning companies, with 2,402,573 spindles; con

Earthenware

5,378 5.452 6.639 5.914 sumption, 398,729,214 pounds of cotton; produc- Straw-plait

4,717 17.338 15,692 14.355 tion, 345,738,547 pounds of yarn. Cotton-weav- Sake

2,135 2,223 2.198 2,112 Refined sugar

1,835 8,477 15.831 12.383 ing companies numbered 17, with 24,100 looms; Toys

1,898 2,490 2,592 production, 227,902,240 pounds. Other important manufactures are paper, matches, earthenware, lacquered ware, matting, and leather.

Imports and exports of merchandise by prinCOMMERCE. The following table shows the and 1913, in thousands of yen:

cipal countries were valued as follows in 1912 value in thousands of yen of total imports and exports, distinguishing merchandise from coin

Imports

Eirports and bullion:

1912 1913

1912 1913 U. Kingdom 116,147 122,737 29.792 32,870 1911 1912 1913 1914 France

5,421 5.829 43,871 66.230 Imports mdse. .513,806 618,992 729,432 575,470 Germany

61,076 68,395 18,488 13,132 Imports C. & B. 6,168 11,544 1,021 9,107 Other Europe 20.665 23.229 27.162 40,497

China

54,807 61.223 114 824 154.660 Total 519,974 630,537 730,453 584,577 Kwantung

25,707 30.878 27.545 29.836 Hongkong

882 1.195 28,713 33.622 Exports mdse. .447,437 526,982 632,460 572,706 Fr. Indo-China 10.644 24.700 349 1.055 Exports C. & B.. 24,398 28,325 27,093 29,650 Du. E. Indies 19,063 37,389 4.343 5.149

Br. India

134,742 173.174 23,648 29,873 Total 471,832 555,307 659,554 602,356 Other Asia

14,193 19,396 19,305 21,732 United States .127,016 122.408 168,709 184,475 Other

28,629 38,679 25,233 25,835 Total imports of merchandise in 1912 and 1913, respectively, 618,992,277 and 729,431,644 Total .618,992 729,432 526,982 632,460 yen; exports, 526,981,842 and 632,460,213. Of these totals for merchandise, 618,160,786 yen in SHIPPING. There were entered at the ports 1912 and 728,626,129 yen in 1913 represented in 1913 in the over-sea trade 10,242 vessels, of imports of foreign produce, and 831,491 yen in 24,720,415 tons; of these, Japanese, 6576 ves1912 and 805,515 yen in 1913 represented re- sels, of 12,576,467 tons; British, 2172, of 7,338,imports of Japanese produce; 524,614,911 yen 390 tons; German, 469, of 1,683,800 tons; Amerin 1912 and 629,526,250 yen in 1913 represented ican, 182, of 1,330,594 tons; other, 845, of 1,

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