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891,164 tons. Japanese shipping in the foreign 61,644,342; navy, 40,887,512. Public debt, trade receives government subsidy. Merchant March 31, 1913, 2,493,969,745 yen; March 31, marine, Jan. 1, 1914: vessels of European con- 1914, 2,545,070,505, of which 1,054,633,854 instruction, 2072 steamers, of 1,528,264 tons, and ternal and 1,490,436,651 foreign. 7343 sail, 571,872 tons; sailing craft of Japa- ARMY. In 1915 the army of Japan was maknese construction, 20,635.

ing further progress towards organization esCOMMUNICATIONS. The reported length of tablished by the law of 1907, which contemplated railway (including the railway of Korea and an army of 1,637,000 trained men, of whom Formosa) in operation March 31, 1913, was 742,000 were in the standing army, 780,000 in 10,986 kilometers, of which 7837 kilometers state the reserve, and 115,000 in the last reserve. and 3149 kilometers private. Electric tramway, Each year 450,000 men reach military age, but 1098 kilometers.

the annual recruit list amounts to only 130,000, The final plans for the construction of the and the training commences December 1st. government railway line from Tokyo to Koté, Every male subject between the ages of 17 and cutting off the haul over the Hakone Mountains 40 is liable for service, and the recruit conby boring a tunnel through the mountains near tingent is obtained by general conscription. In Atomi, were adopted during 1914. It was pro- the army the length of service is two years for posed to use electric power for hauling through the infantry, and three years for the other the tunnel. During the year 1914 the Imperial branches, while in the navy it is four years. Japanese government opened 175 miles of new Service in the first line reserve is four years sections of railway. The 1914 extension in- for the army, and three years for the navy; in cluded 25 miles on the Tokushima line, 23 on the second line, ten years for the army, and five the Sakata line, and 20 miles each on the Mura- years for the navy. There are also first and kami and Gwanyetsu lines. The new central second levies on the last reserves consisting of station in Tokyo was completed in 1914, and a those who have passed out of the reserves and government electric railway was opened between those who have been excused from service. NonTokyo and Yokohama. This parallels the exist- commissioned officers are selected from privates ing steam track and is 19 miles in length, with who show the requisite capacity, while the offi14 intermediate stations. Soon after this rail. cers come from military academies and from way was opened in 1914, for a few days at the civil life, on a basis of family standing and end of the year, it was necessary to discontinue competitive examination. Those failing to reach the service, as trouble developed with the over- a certain grade by a certain age come to the head equipment.

inactive list, so that a young corps of officers is A general plan of railway construction was provided, while a corps of reserve officers is adopted in 1915. This contemplated the com- maintained. pletion of the railway system for the country The army consists of 1 guard and 18 line within 10 years, and the addition of 1219 miles divisions, the former being recruited from the to the mileage already operated. During the whole country, while the 18 line divisions, of fiscal year new lines of 79 miles were to be which the 9th and a special brigade are in Korea, completed and opened to traffic. Within the and the 5th and a brigade for a railway guard succeeding six years 238 miles were to be com- are in Manchuria, come from districts, each displeted. Lack of capital prevented the announce- trict for recruiting and mobilization purposes ment of a programme for the remaining con- furnishing a division. A division is composed struction. All the light railway lines, with a of 2 infantry brigades, each brigade of 2 regitotal length of 331 miles, were to be postponed ments of 3 battalions of 4 companies, and of a until the year 1916–17, or later.

machine gun section with six guns each. A diTelegraphs (1913), 4478 offices, with 40,379 vision has a cavalry regiment of 3 squadrons, kilometers of line and 179,295 kilometers of 1 regiment of field artillery, and six 6-inch wire. Radiotelegraphic stations, 31, and sta- batteries, 1 three-company battalion of engitions on board ship, 20. Post offices (1914), neers, and 2 companies in the train. The guard, 7983.

1st, 8th, and 15th divisions possess about twice FINANCE. The standard of value is gold; the the cavalry and artillery strength of the others. monetary unit is the yen, having a par value The total strength of the Japanese army in of 49.846 cents. In 1911-12, revenue and ex- organization consists of 248 battalions of inpenditure amounted to 657,192,221 and 585,374, fantry, 89 squadrons of cavalry, 152 field bat613 yen, respectively; in 1912–13, 687,392,484 teries, 9 mountain batteries, 57 heavy artillery and 593,596,445. For 1914–15, revenue was es batteries, and 57 engineer companies, 12 railway timated at 654,282,173 yen, and expenditure at companies, 6 telegraph companies, 1 aëro bat559,759,598 yen; for 1915–16, estimated revenue talion, and 36 companies of train troops. On a and expenditure balanced at 556,396,000 yen. In war strength each division possesses 12,000 the 1914–15 budget, ordinary revenue was placed rifles, 450 sabres, 36 field pieces, and 24 machine at 534,065,202 yen, and extraordinary at 120,- guns. The arm of the infantry is the Arisaka 216,971; ordinary expenditure, 414,682,071, and rifle, model of 1905, calibre 65 mm. extraordinary, 145,077,527. The larger items of The Budget Committee of the Japanese Diet estimated ordinary revenue for 1914–15 were: approved during the year a measure providing public undertakings and state property, 133,- for an addition of two divisions, about 24,000 671,011 yen; liquor tax, 91,030,740; land tax, men, to the Japanese army. 75,120,976; posts and telegraphs, 60,824,265; Navy. The number and displacement of warcustoms, 57,863,480; monopolies, 54,151,634; in- ships of 1500 or more tons, and of torpedo craft come tax, 31,296,279; stamps, 30,531,533; busi- of 50 or more tons, built and building, on July ness tax, 26,433,398. The larger estimated dis- 1, 1914, are reported as follows: Dreadnoughts: bursements for 1914–15 were, by departments : built, 2, of 41,600 tons; building, 4, of 122,400 finance, 188,463,862 yen (including interest on tons. Predreadnoughts: built, 13; building, the debt); army, 75,542,228; communications, none. Coast defense vessels: built, 2, of 9086


tons; building, none. Battle cruisers: built, 2, the Opposition who considered Japan's demands of 55,000 tons; building, 2, of 55,000 tons. Ar- quite unjustifiable could count also upon the mored cruisers: built, 13, of 138,483 tons; build- support of the extreme chauvinists who coming, none. Cruisers: built, 13, of 57,915 tons; plained that the Japanese government was albuilding, none. Torpedo-boat destroyers: built, lowing itself to be hoodwinked by the dilatory 50, of 20,487 tons; building, 2, of 1676 tons. tactics of Chinese diplomacy. With characterTorpedo boats: built, 27, of 3017 tons; building, istic political shrewdness, Count Okuma, by pre

Submarines: built, 13, of 2672 tons; senting an ultimatum to the Chinese government, building, 2, of 1200 tons. Total tonnage built, May 7th, forced China to accept most of the 519,640; building, 180,276. Excluded from the Japanese demands, May 9th, about a week beforegoing are: ships over 20 years old from date fore the Japanese Diet was convened, so that the of launch unless reconstructed and rearmed Diet could have no opportunity of interfering within five years; torpedo craft over 15 years with the negotiations, but only the thankless old; transports, colliers, repair ships, torpedo- task of criticising a fait accompli. The newly depot ships, and other auxiliaries; vessels not elected House of Representatives met for the actually begun or ordered, although authorized. first time on May 17th, and elected as its presiOn July 1, 1914, Japan was fifth among the na- dent, Saburo Shimada, who, by the way, was a tions in the amount of warship tonnage both conspicuous opponent of a large Japanese navy, built and building. See also NAVAL PROGRESS. on the ground that Japanese naval aggrandize

GOVERNMENT. The executive authority is the ment might antagonize the United States. The Emperor, acting through a cabinet of ministers Diet was formally opened by the Emperor, May whom he appoints and who are responsible to 20th. Before passing to the consideration of him. The legislative power is vested in a par- the Chinese question, the Diet briefly discussed liament, or imperial diet, consisting of two the California land question. Baron Kato, minchambers-a house of peers having 366 members, ister of foreign affairs, explained that the Govand a house of representatives having 379 mem- ernment of the United States was cordially disbers elected for four years. The Emperor is posed towards Japan, and that the Japanese Yoshihito, born at Kioto, Aug. 31, 1879, and government expected an amicable settlement of succeeded his father, Mutsuhito, July 30, 1912. the California land dispute. The California The accession ceremony took place Nov. 10, 1915. question having been debated, and the military Yoshihito married Princess Sadako, May 10, programme approved (supra), the Diet pro1900. Heir apparent, Prince Hirohito, born ceeded with the criticism of Count Okuma's dealApril 29, 1901.

ings with China. On June 2nd an Opposition

speaker introduced a resolution in the House of HISTORY

Representatives voicing the opinion that the atELECTIONS. After the dissolution, Dec. 25, tempt of Japan to gain a privileged position in 1914, of the intractable House of Representatives, China had been a complete fiasco. Instead of which had refused to ratify an increase of two working to establish a firm foundation for peace divisions in the army, elections were called for in the Orient, the Japanese government had March 25, 1915. Although there was evidence caused bitterness between China and Japan and of a strong current of popular opinion against had aroused the suspicions of foreign powers. the bureaucratic methods and against the mili- Furthermore, the concessions granted by China tary proposals of the government, nevertheless (see China) were likely to furnish occasion for the ministerial party was returned victorious future complications, instead of forming the with a majority of some 80 seats in the new basis of friendly relationships. The debate on House of Representatives. If the statements of the resolution gave rise to a heated altercation disappointed opponents of the government may on the floor of the House. Deputies K. Hara, be accepted as trustworthy, the ministerial vic- M. Inukai, and H. Ogawa violently denounced tory was due to the use of corruption (infra) the government. Among the most interesting and the unjustifiable exercise of governmental statements was the assertion made by antagopressure upon the electorate, as well as to the nists of the government that Group V, containing fact that under the very restricted franchise, the most important demands on China, had been which excluded the poorer classes from the suf- dropped by Japan as a result of diplomatic infrage, popular opinion was not adequately or tervention by the Powers. Baron Kato, the forfaithfully expressed.

eign minister, repudiated the insinuation, and VICTORY FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE. The most declared that Japan had modified her demands obvious result of the elections was the approval as a proof of her conciliatory and pacific intenof the government's plans for national defense, tions. After two days' excited debate, the Chamwhich had been vetoed by the defunct House of ber rejected the condemnatory resolution, June Representatives but could now be adopted. The 3rd. army increase was passed, June 1st, without seri- THE CABINET CRISIS. Unable to defeat the ous opposition from the anti-militaristic minor- government on the question of the Chinese neity, by a vote of 232 to 131. The chief feature gotiations, the Opposition resorted to an attack of the military programme was the creation of upon the honor of the cabinet. On June 5th two new army divisions for Korea. The regular the Opposition proposed a resolution expressing naval appropriations were approved at the same lack of confidence in Viscount Kanetake Oura, time.

minister of the interior, on the ground that he CRITICISM OF CHINO-JAPANESE NEGOTIATIONS. had given bribes in an effort to purchase votes If the Opposition could not defeat the military in favor of the Army Bill. Again, on June 7th, proposals of the government, it could at least the Opposition introduced a resolution declaring voice its disapproval of the manner in which the lack of confidence in the entire cabinet on the negotiations for special privileges in China were ground that the ministry had interfered in the conducted (consult China). In attacking Count last election. Viscount Oura denied the charge Okuma's Chinese policy the anti-militarists of that he had attempted to corrupt members of

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the Diet, but following an investigation made Kato realized, however, that Japan would not by the ministry of justice, he suddenly resigned be immune, if Germany were successful; therehis portfolio of the interior. Viscount Oura's fore, he maintained that the country must be in sudden resignation, coupled with the arrest of readiness to send troops to Europe if it became K. Hayashida, chief secretary of the House, who necessary in order to ensure the success of the admitted having received bribes for distribution Allies. With the Chinese situation

finally to Opposition members, caused a tremendous cleared up, Japan, in July, decided to offer aid sensation and an outburst of popular indigna- to the Allies in the form of war munitions. Jaption against the government. Count Okuma, as- anese forts in Manchuria were stripped of their suming responsibility for the actions of his sub- great guns; boots, explosives, ammunition, and ordinates in the cabinet, tendered the resignation gun cases were manufactured in great quantiof the ministry on July 30th. While the Oppo- ties and shipped across Russia to the western sition demanded the installation of ex-Premier front. New munitions factories Saionji as the head of a new cabinet, and other structed in many parts of Japan, turning out adversaries of Count Okuma proposed Baron great quantities of war supplies, for which Goto for the position, the Elder Statesmen ad- France and Great Britain pledged payment. In vised the Emperor, and Tokyo business-men sec- August, the announcement was made that since onded the advice, that Count Okuma be retained the beginning of the war Japan had lost 1200 as premier. The Emperor therefore requested men in killed and wounded. Late in October, the Count Okuma to reconsider his resignation, and Japanese government announced that, in accordon August 8th the latter reconstructed his cabi- ance with a request which had been received net as follows: Premier and minister of foreign ten days earlier, Japan had given her adhesion, affairs, Count Shigenobu Okuma; minister of October 19th, to the Pact of London, binding finance, Tokitoshi Taketomi; minister of ma- herself, as the other Entente Allies had already rine, Vice-Admiral Tomasaburo Kato; minister done, not to conclude a separate treaty of peace of war, Lieut.-Gen. Ichinosuke Oka; minister of with the Central Powers. justice, Yukio Ozaki; minister of communica- For Japanese relations with the United States, tions, Katsundo Minoura; minister of commerce consult UNITED STATES, Foreign Relations; for and agriculture, Hironaka Kono; minister of relations with China, consult CHINA. education, S. Takata; minister of interior, Kito- JAPANESE POWDER. See ANTISEPTICS. kura Ichiki. Four days later Baron Kikujiro JAVA. See Dutch East INDIES. Ishii, ambassador to France, accepted the port

JEWISH AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSfolio of foreign affairs in the new Okuma cabi- TRIAL AID SOCIETY. See AGRICULTURAL net. It is noticeable that the foreign minister CREDIT. and the finance minister, who had been most se- JEWS AND JUDAISM. It is still imposverely censured by the Diet, were eliminated sible to give reliable and up-to-date statistics of from the reconstructed cabinet. Late in Septem- the world's Jewish population. The most recent ber a preliminary judicial investigation found and authoritative estimate, that of The AmeriK. Hayashida, the secretary of the House of can Jewish Year Book for 1915-16, reckons the Representatives, guilty of bribery in connection total Jewish population of the world as 13,277,with the attempt to secure support for the Army 542, distributed as follows: Africa, 413,259; Bill by corrupt methods. Seventeen members America, 2,500,054; Asia, 356,617; Australia, and former members of the House were likewise 19,415; and Europe, 9,988,197. By countries, found guilty of corruption. The sums given to the same estimate shows 55,000 Jews in the ArSecretary Hayashida by ex-Minister Oura and gentine Republic; 17,287 in Australia; 2,258,262 distributed as bribes amounted in all to about in Austria-Hungary; 15,000 in Belgium; 37,656 40,000 yen ($20,000).

in Bulgaria; 75,681 in Canada; 100,000 in JAPAN AND THE EUROPEAN WAR. Japan's ac- France; 615,000 in Germany; 6127 in Greece; tivities throughout 1914 with regard to the Eu- 43,929 in Italy; 269,015 in Rumania; 6,060,415 ropean war had been mainly confined to the in the Russian Empire; 5729 in Serbia; 4000 in capture of Kiaochow and the imprisonment of Spain; 19,023 in Switzerland; 188,900 in TurGerman and Austrian soldiers and sailors. key; 245,000 in the United Kingdom; and 2,Early in January, 1915, a desire was manifested 349,754 in the United States. Most of these in the French press that Japan be asked to send figures, however, fall considerably below the troops to the western battle front. Prominent actual present populations in the respective counamong those who advocated this action were M. tries. For instance, Russia at the close of 1915 Pichon and M. Clemenceau. The proposition is estimated to have had approximately 7,000,000 was discountenanced in Great Britain on the Jewish inhabitants; the United States, 3,000,ground that Kitchener would soon be able to 000; Galicia, 1,000,000; and Serbia, 6500. But send another British army to the Continent, and the war, by creating a large "floating” Jewish the Japanese would not be needed. Further population in the various war-zones, practically more, Great Britain knew that Japan was likely nullifies the most careful estimates. Likewise, to ask for financial assistance and freedom of ante-bellum estimates for the non-belligerent action in China in return for her military aid, countries having an appreciable immigration in and British statesmen questioned whether the normal times are apt to run too high just to assistance which Japan might offer would be the extent that they are reckoned upon the reguworth this price. Japan, however, had little lar tide of immigration which the war has thought of sending an army into France or Ger- checked. many. Baron Kato, minister of foreign affairs, GENERAL Events. With close to three-quarsaid late in January: "It is a question which ters of a million Jews under arms and more should not be lightly discussed, as it has no di- than three-fourths of the world's Jewish popurect bearing on either Japanese national exist- lation living in the war zone, all accounts of ence or the peace of the Far East, and it further Jewish life and progress during 1915 must still would seriously affect Japan's finances.” Baron be written in terms of the great world-conflict.

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