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In the eastern European theatre alone more with any of the former, was not set during than half the Jews of the world are directly af- 1915. But the unwonted unanimity thus mani. fected by the clash of arms, and it is estimated fested is in itself one of the most significant that over 250,000 of them have already been Jewish events of the year, if not of the century. killed or incapacitated at the various war fronts. DISABILITIES AND PERSECUTION. While the While in 1914 the greatest Jewish suffering pre- Jew's readiness to serve with the colors of his vailed in Galicia, this year the changing for respective domicile has silenced considerable hostunes of war have wrought the greatest havoc tile criticism of the Jewish race, there has been among the Jews of what was formerly Russian no appreciable lessening of his disabilities or Poland. In the German capture of Warsaw abatement in his persecution during the second alone upwards of 306,000 Jews were concerned year of the war. The only two instances of the directly—and perhaps twice that number indi- former were the extension of the Pale of Settlerectly, since this great Polish city (with its ment by Russia, which, forced to accommodate 306,061 Jewish inhabitants in 1910) was the the large influx of Jews from Poland, thus made largest Jewish centre in Europe and the very a virtue of necessity; and the granting of equal heart and soul of east European Jewry. Like- educational rights by Germany to her new Jewwise, with the fall of Kovno the greatest centre ish subjects in the conquered Polish territory. of Jewish culture in Russia was temporarily or But even this seemingly clear gain appears to permanently destroyed. Indeed, appears that have been offset by a loss in religious rights. all the open country of Poland has been entirely The truth of the matter is that neither Russia denuded of its Jewish population, where it con- nor Germany has shown a true change of heart stituted one-sixth of the total number of in- so far as the Jews are concerned, although in habitants. Such of them as have not fled to the the former many strong pleas were made in their interior of Russia are now under German do- behalf in the last Duma. Both evinced some minion, and the uncertainty of their social and eagerness at times, especially when the wavering political status makes their lot unusually pre- fortunes of war on the plains of Galicia and carious. Nor has the situation of the Pales- Poland made military aid precious, to conciliate tinian Jews improved during the year. Even the Jews. But the moment the steam roller of the herculean efforts of Ambassador Morgenthau the victorious army would pass, new horrors of could not check the Turkish atrocities, which not abuse and persecution would be enacted. Thus, only have ruined the prosperous Zionist colony, when Przemysl was taken by the Russians (with but encompassed the ruin and expulsion of the the help of many Jewish soldiers, to be sure) rest of the Jews who would not embrace Mo- about 7000 Jews were expelled from that Gahammedanism and swear allegiance to the Cres- lician city. A somewhat similar act of ingraticent.
tude to the hundreds of thousands of Jews fightUnder such untoward circumstances, all nor- ing under the Russian colors was the Tsar's susmal Jewish communal life has necessarily lan- pension of every Jewish newspaper or periodical guished. Instead, all Jewish organized activity in the summer of 1915, while the postal edict in the non-belligerent countries—and more espe- against all Yiddish correspondence remained in cially in the United States-has been directed to full force, thus making impossible all written measures of relief, appeals for which from Jew. intercourse for thousands of Jews knowing but ish war-sufferers, as from all others, taxed all their own language. At the same time the Jews the available resources. To cope with this un- in the Russo-Prussian war-zone became the milprecedented task, for which all the existing phil- itary scapegoats, whom the losing side would anthropic organizations soon proved woefully in- invariably blame for the changing fortunes of adequate, three special relief organizations were war, charging them with espionage and other formed during the year—The American Jewish connivance with the enemy. In this way over Relief Committee, The Central Relief Committee, 500,000 Jews were expelled during the year from and The People's Relief Committee—in the the eastern war-zone alone, while the treatment United States alone. The very energetic work of those who were spared was but little better of these organizations, all of which have their than downright expulsion. The only slight conheadquarters in New York City, may be set down cession to Jewish pride by either Slav or Teuton as one of the greatest events of the year in in the year under review—and this so obviously Jewish life. Several million dollars have al- a military measure-was Germany's prohibition ready been paid or pledged to the above-men- of the circulation of picture-cards casting reflectioned committees (over a million at a single tions on Jewish soldiers. mass meeting on December 21st in Carnegie LABOR AND LEGISLATION. The year has been Hall, New York) for Jewish relief in the war unusually free from large labor strikes involving zone, and the $5,000,000 mark will probably be the Jewish trades. Nor was there much legislareached early in 1916.
tion enacted affecting Jews in particular. In Along with these efforts toward temporary the United States Jewish interests were directly alleviation of want and suffering among their favored in several ways. Of these, the law war-ridden co-religionists, the Jews of America passed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania (emuhave been making plans for the permanent bet- lating that previously enacted by the Empire terment of Jewish life after the war. These in- State) prohibiting all racial or religious disvolve the calling of a Jewish Congress, as soon crimination in hotel or boarding-house advertiseas circumstances are favorable, to consider waysments is socially the most important. The new and means for safeguarding Jewish interests in New York law making it a misdemeanor falsely all belligerent countries when peace shall have to label meat or other food “Kosher" (that is, been made. Naturally, the date for such a con- strictly in compliance with Jewish dietary prinvocation, which won the favor during the year ciples) is another instance. Of general legislaof 23 large national and central Jewish organization concerning Jews, together with other foreign tions (with a total membership of 914,849) and races, mention should be made of the defeat of of 950 independent organizations not affiliated the literacy test for voters in the State of New
York; the spread of the movement against Bible. This was the use of itinerant automobiles or reading in public schools; and the Supreme auto busses known as “jitneys,” a term that Court ruling, reversing two lower Federal originated in Los Angeles and originally repreCourts, that only the fitness of the immigrant, sented the five-cent piece. The first jitneys were and not the external conditions of the place of to be seen in Los Angeles, and from that city his destination, should determine his admissibil. the idea spread to San Francisco, Seattle, and ity to the United States. On the other hand, other coast cities, Texas, to Detroit, Toledo, and the compulsory Sunday-closing law, so onerous throughout the United States. The vehicles emto Jewish storekeepers, remained on the statute ployed varied all the way from four-passenger books of New York and other States. The infa- cars, which often were loaded far in excess of mous Frank case furnished the only semblance their capacity, to large busses, and the routes of anti-Semitism in the United States during the selected were along the most traveled highways. year.
The rule was to receive five cents for any length LITERARY AND MINOR EVENTS. The exodus of of ride within the limits of operation, and many Jewish writers and scholars from belligerent owners of cheaper cars rushed into this business Europe to the United States greatly dimin- which originally was carried on without franished during 1915. Literary activity, however, chise or municipal regulation. Naturally the has been stimulated considerably by the impor- competition was felt by the street railway or tant arrivals of last year, as well as by the re- omnibus lines operating under franchise and in newed general interest in Jews and Judaism many cases returning to the city a portion of incident to the war. By far the greatest Jewish their receipts for the privilege of carrying on literary event of the year was the actual com- such service. Like other civic ideas with so pletion of the new version of the Bible, upon rapid a spread, the jitney flourished for a few which an eminent board of Jewish scholars and months, and while it continued in a certain numtranslators had been engaged for seven years. ber of cities on more favorable routes, yet it was Of somewhat similar, though lesser importance, not considered a permanent feature. The dewas the conference of Hebrew scholars, held on preciation, even on the cheaper cars employed, August 19th, to consider plans for the publica- was too much to make the undertaking profittion of the Hebrew classics. The formation in able, and while the public was anxious to avail England of The Society of Hebraic Studies, with itself of such cheap means of transportation, the the object of encouraging, Jewish learning and operators soon came to realize the lack of profit. research, may be regarded as one of the most Municipal councils were called upon to propromising literary-educational Jewish events of tect the holders of franchises as well as the the year. Among minor and miscellaneous users of the streets by adopting license reguevents of Jewish communal or religious life, we lation systems which interfered materially with may mention the celebration of the 25th anni. the ease with which the jitney could be put to versaries of the Baron de Hirsch Fund, the Edu- work. cational Alliance of New York, and the Relief JOFFRE, JOSEPH JACQUES CÉSAIRE (1852—). Societies of Newark and Kansas City; the golden A French soldier and mathematician, born in jubilees of the Temple Israel of Akron, and the Rivesaltes, Pyrénées. He was a student of miliJewish Hospital of Philadelphia; the 70th anni. tary engineering at the Ecole Polytechnique when versary of the Temple Emanu-el, which has the Franco-Prussian War broke out. He served thrown its doors open during the year to daily with an artillery battery during that war. He noon-hour services; and the 75th anniversary of became a captain in 1874 and fought at Tongthe Beth Israel Congregation of Philadelphia. king and in Dahomey. He took an active part In this connection, the dissolution of the Jewish in the French occupation of Timbucktu (1894) Social Service Federation of Denver, Colo., might and in the campaigns in Madagascar (1897). also be mentioned.
Upon his return to France he taught in the ZIONISM. Whatever is to be the future of Higher War School. In 1911 he was appointed Zionism after this great war—and it is very chief of the general staff. He was an ardent likely to take on new life and meaning as a re- advocate of the three years' military service bill sult of the war's bitter lessons—for the present which became a law in 1913. Upon the outthis spiritual movement is absolutely at a stand- break of the great war in 1914, he was made still. The year under review completed the ruin commander in chief of all the French armies, and of the prosperous and promising Jewish colony was the guiding genius who turned back the in Palestine which, before the war broke out, great German offensive against Paris in the batseemed destined to reach the 150,000 population tle of the Marne (September, 1914). President mark by 1920. At the same time the exigencies Poincaré decorated him with the military medal of war-relief, as already stated, have completely for his efficient service in this war. See FRANCE, diverted all Jewish organized endeavor into History; and WAR OF THE NATIONS. other directions. Under this double set-back, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. An innecessarily accentuated during the second year stitution for higher learning and special educaof war, the Zionist cause has made no progress tion, founded at Baltimore, Md., in 1876. The whatever in 1915. It has, on the contrary, gone total number in all departments (including sumconsiderably backward so far as its objective mer students) in the autumn of 1915 was about manifestation is concerned. Under these cir- 1600. The faculty numbered 256. E. H. Griffin, cumstances, the death during the year of the dean of the college faculty, resigned in June, famous Zionist leader, David Wolffsohn, assumes 1915, and M. P. Brush was appointed acting a somewhat symbolic significance.
dean. The productive funds of the university JITNEY. During 1915 there spread through at the end of the fiscal year 1915 amounted to the western part of the United States, and even about $7,000,000, and the income during 1914–15 in certain Eastern States, a movement in city to $545,149. The library contained about 190,transportation which had its effect on the older 000 volumes. methods and aroused considerable discussion. JOHORE. A native state located at the
southern extremity of the Malay Peninsula, and of city life and discipline. Some investigators under British control. Estimated area, 9000 have estimated the proportion of feeble-minded square miles; population (1911), 180,412, about among child-offenders as high as 25 per cent or half Malays and one-third Chinese. Johore
But Dr. Augusta F. Bronner, assistant Bharu, the capital, has about 20,000 inhabitants. director of the Psychopathic Institute, attached Imports and exports (1913), 9,304,509 and 14, to the Juvenile Court in Chicago, thinks this a 212,850 Straits Settlements dollars. Revenue gross exaggeration. She made a study of 505 and expenditure (1913), 4,378,555 and 3,267,484 boys and girls in the detention home of the Juvedollars; public debt, 8,852,492 dollars. A rail- nile Court. She found 88.9 per cent of these chilway, constructed by the Federated Malay States dren undoubtedly normal, 90.6 percent of the Railways, connects Kuala Gemas on the Negri boys and 87.2 per cent of the girls; 7 per cent of Sembilan border with Johore Bharu (12042 the boys and 11.2 per cent of the girls were miles).
feeble-minded, and 2.4 per cent were doubtful. JONES, HENRY ARTHUR. See DRAMA, AMER- She emphasized the point that the proportion of ICAN AND ENGLISH,
subnormal was probably not over 10 per cent JOYCE, JOHN ALEXANDER. An American sol- and therefore not nearly so large as careless indier and writer, died Jan. 18, 1915. He was vestigators have led us to expect. born at Shraugh, Ireland, in 1840, and when still THE OHIO BUREAU OF JUVENILE RESEARCH, esa young man removed with his parents to Con- tablished July 1, 1914, works on the principle necticut. He graduated from the Highland Lit. that the welfare of the race requires that artifierary Institute in 1859, and afterwards studied cial restraints be imposed on the undue multiplilaw. He entered the Union service as a private cation of defective stocks. One section of the in 1861, rising to the rank of second lieutenant Ohio statute says, “All minors, who in the judg; in the following year, but was discharged for ment of the court require State constitutional wounds in 1864. After the war he practiced law, care and guardianship, shall be wards of the State at the same time devoting much time to writing and shall be committed to the care and custody of His published writings include: Checkered Life the 'Ohio Board of Administration, which board (1883); Peculiar Poems (1885); Jewels of thereupon becomes vested with the sole and exMemory (1896); Complete Poems (1899); clusive guardianship of such minors." The Oliver Goldsmith (1900); Edgar Allan Poe records of observations and examinations upon (1901); Personal Recollections of Shakespeare children are to be kept in the most scientific (1901); Robert Burns; and The Life of Lincoln. manner and will enable the authorities to deal JUDAISM. See JEWS AND JUDAISM.
with each child much more intelligently than JUPITER, SATELLITES OF. See ASTRONOMY. heretofore.
JUVENILE COURTS. Juvenile courts are JUDGE LINDSEY. Judge Ben B. Lindsey, at present largely restricted to the cities, and in founder of the Juvenile Court of Colorado, was rural communities arrest and conviction are for arrested on the charge of contempt of court and the most part still in use. The West of the of conniving at the commission of perjury. The United States is in advance of the East in this case developed as follows: A 12 year old boy, matter. The advocates of the juvenile court the son of a woman under trial for murder of with its probation officers and social service her husband, testified that he fired the fatal shot work urge that seeking out and remedying social while striving to wrest from his mother's hands conditions is more important than technical the gun which she picked up in self defense. The trials and verdicts. The condition of the child boy was brought before Judge Lindsey and exmust be considered rather than the majesty of amined as to the accuracy of his story after a the law. However, it is felt that the impres- pledge of sacred confidence on the part of the sion must be made that proceedings are con- judge. The judge claimed he desired to make nected with established legal principles. The tests of the boy's veracity because of the value of abolishment of trial by jury and its replace- such psychological experiments in his work as ment by private hearings before the judge, with judge of the juvenile court. Judge Lindsey was the motive of protecting erring and delinquent then called upon to testify at the trial and rechildren as well as their parents, is now very veal what the boy had told him. He refused to widely approved. The delinquent child is con- disclose what he had learned, saying that such sidered in need of the protection and care of the action would destroy the strength of the juvenile State. Clinics are recommended to correct phys- court. He was then tried before Judge Perry of ical defects in children which are held in large the Second Judicial District of Colorado, who degree to be responsible for violations of the handed down the decision that Judge Lindsey law, and such clinics have now been established was guilty. This case was appealed to the Suin most of the larger cities. Mr. Bernard Flex- preme Court of the State. "The whole theory of ner even suggested that in speaking of child de- the juvenile court is founded on the building up linquency criminal terminology be altogether of a relation of trust between the judge and abandoned.
those who come before him in the position of SCIENTIFIC STUDIES. One of the most impor. wards. The successful handling of each new tant phases of the development of the juvenile problem which confronts the judge court idea is the opportunity afforded to make the reputation for fairness and honor which he numerous physical and psychological examina- has established in treating the problems of the tions of delinquent children. Thus the psycho- past." * While opinion was divided as to Judge pathic laboratories and clinics in connection with Lindsey's guilt when viewed from narrow legalthe Chicago Boys' Court, and the juvenile courts istic points of view, there was general belief that at Boston and New York, showed from numerous on broad principles of public policy his action observations that a large proportion of the de- was justified. See also COLORADO, Politics. fendants, especially the repeaters and those ar- KÅISER-WILHELMSLAND. That part of rested on trivial charges, were mentally subnor- what was, until the War of the Nations, the mal and therefore unfit to meet the requirements * The Outlook, 110 : 846.
protectorate of German New Guinea, which is in sus was 1,672,545. In 1910 the population was the Island of New Guinea. The area, estimated 1,690,949. at 70,135 square miles, is about the same as that AGRICULTURE. The acreage, production, and of Oklahoma. See GERMAN NEW GUINEA. value of the principal crops estimated by the
KAMERUN. A German protectorate on the United States Department of Agriculture in west coast of central Africa, between Nigeria and 1914–15 were as follows: French Equatorial Africa. Its northerly extension reaches Lake Chad, and its easterly, at one
Acreage Prod. Bu. Value point, the Ubangi River. The coast line is Corn 1915 5,500,000 172,050,000 $87,746,000 broken by Río Muni y Cabo San Juan (Spanish
1914 5,850,000 108,225,000 68,182,000 Guinea). The estimated area is 790,000 square
....1915 8,525,000 106,538,000 94,819,000
1914 8,660,000 177,200,000 168,340,000 kilometers (305,000 square miles, an area about Oats .1915 1,650,000 43,725,000 16,178,000 46 per cent greater than that of Germany, or
1914 1,760,000 58,960,000 24,763,000 nearly three times as large as New York, New Rye
50,000 800,000 608,000
50,000 1,000,000 800,000 Jersey, and Pennsylvania combined). Exclusive
270,000 8,370,000 3,515,000 of the inhabitants of the territory ceded by
1914 240,000 5,880,000 2,764,000 France in 1911, the native population is esti
71,000 5,893,000 4,361,000
1914 72,000 mated at 2,649,000; other colored, 2000; the Hay
1,766,000 a 4,062,000 22,747,000 population of the ceded territory is supposed to
1914 1,650,000 2,492,000 18,441,000 approximate 1,000,000. The number of whites,
a Tons. Jan. 1, 1913, was 1871, of whom Germans, 1643. Missions, three Protestant, and one Roman Cath- LIVE STOCK. The United States Department olic. Government schools, four, with over 800 of Agriculture estimated that on Jan. 1, 1916, pupils. Upwards of 24,000 pupils receive mis- and Jan. 1, 1915, horses numbered 1,109,000 and sion instruction. In the year 1912–13, 72 whites 1,132,000, valued at $ 107,573,000 and $105,276,and 11,229 natives were convicted in the courts. 000; mules numbered 245,000 and 233,000, The military in 1914 included 205 Germans and valued at $25,725,000 and $23,766,000; milch 1650 natives; police, 47 and 1450. Imports and cows numbered 762,000 and 726,000, valued at exports increased in value from 23,806,000 and $46,177,000 and $46,101,000; other cattle num12,500,000 marks respectively in 1907 to 25,580, bered 1,945,000 and 1,768,000, valued at $81,000 and 19,924,000 in 1910, 34,242,000 and 23, 106,000 and $75,140,000; sheep numbered 341,000 336,000 in 1912, and 34,616,000 and 29,151,000 and 316,000, valued at $1,910,000 and $1,548,000; in 1913. Chief exports in 1912 and 1913: Rub- swine numbered 2,815,000 and 2,656,000, valued ber, 11,302,000 and 12,122,000 marks; palm ker- at $25,616,000 and $26,826,000. The production nels, 4,406,000 and 6,226,000; cacao, 3,721,000 of wool in 1915 and 1916 was 1,403,000 and 1,and 5,718,000; palm oil, 1,622,000 and 1,961,000; 456,000 pounds, respectively. kola nuts, 167,000 and 971,000; timber, 696,000 MINERAL PRODUCTION. The production of coal and 941,000; ivory, 536,000 and 824,000. Im- in the State in 1914 was 6,860,988 short tons, ports from and exports to Germany in 1911, 23, valued at $11,238,253. This is a decrease of 047,000 and 18,471,000; in 1912, 27,216,000 and 341,222 tons and $798,039 in value under the 19,841,000. At the end of 1913 there were in output of 1913. There were no strikes of imoperation 310 kilometers (193 miles) of rail- portance during the year. The number of men way, the Northern Railway having an extension employed in the coal mines in 1914 was 12,413. of 160 kilometers, and the Midland, 150; under There were 31 fatal accidents. The output of construction, 133 kilometers. Local revenue in petroleum in 1914 increased by more than 30 1912-13 and 1913–14, 8,900,000 and 11,306,000 per cent. There were produced 3,103,585 barmarks respectively; expenditure, 13,340,000 and rels, compared with 2,375,029 barrels in 1913. 17,260,000; in the former year an additional ex- The value of oil in 1914 was $2,433,074, compenditure of 2,000,000 marks was met by a loan, pared with $2,248,283 in 1913. The total value and in the latter year 15,230,000 marks. The of mineral products in 1914 was $25,866,351. budget for 1914–15 balanced at 32,490,409 marks, EDUCATION. The total school population of estimated local receipts amounting to 14,094,091 the State on June 30, 1914, was 310,803. Of this, marks; imperial contribution, 3,163,318; and 154,047 were males and 156,756 were females. loan, 15,230,000. The administrative headquar. The total number of schools was 14,844. In the ters is Buëa.
high schools were enrolled 42,831 pupils. The The Anglo-French forces which had begun the total expenditures for educational purposes were invasion of the Kamerun protectorate in the $12,210,174. autumn of 1914 (see 1914 YEAR BOOK) made CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS. The charitable rapid progress in 1915. While a blockade was and correctional institutions under the control of maintained against the coast, a French column the State include the State Sanitarium for Tuadvanced up the Sanaga River, penetrating in- berculosis at Norton, the State Orphan's Home land from Duala and Edea, which had been cap- at Atchison, Parsons State Hospital for Epitured in 1914. A simultaneous attack was de- leptics, State Home for the Feeble-minded at livered in the north from the direction of Yola Winfield, the Osawatomie State Hospital for the (in Nigeria). The forces from Nigeria suc- Insane, Topeka State Hospital for the Insane, ceeded in capturing Garue, on the Benue River, Larned State Hospital for the Insane. The Legon June 1lth. Ngaundere, over 100 miles fur- islature of 1915 provided that at the tuberculosis ther south, fell on June 29th. The German sanitorium, counties should pay three dollars a forces, attacked from both sides, were unable to week for county patients, nd that private paput up any effective resistance, and the greater tients should pay ten dollars per week. part of the colony fell into the hands of the FINANCE. The report of the State treasurer Allies.
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1914, showed KANSAS. POPULATION. The population of a balance on July 30, 1913, of $1,735,276. The the State in 1915 according to the decennial cen- receipts for the period amounted to $8,999,649, and the disbursements to $9,283,607, leaving a 8000. Capital, Alor Star. The soil is fertile, balance on June 30, 1914, of $1,451,318. The and rice, coconuts, and rubber are planted. EsState bonded debt amounted to $1,590,000, and timated revenue for the year 1913, 2,407,195 will be paid in full on Jan. 1, 1916.
Straits Settlements dollars; expenditure, 2,341,TRANSPORTATION. The total railway mileage 238. Native affairs are administered by the Sul. in the State on Jan. 30, 1914, was 7366. Of this, tan (Abdul Hamid Halimshah ibni Ahmat Ta5226 was single track, and 269 second track. judin), or at present, on account of the Sultan's The remainder was yard track and sidings. ill-health, by his eldest son (Tunku Ibrahim) as Railroads having the longest mileage were the regent. There is a British adviser. The loan Missouri Pacific, 2061; Atchison, Topeka, and (2,600,000 S. S. dollars), negotiated with the Santa Fé, 1820; Chicago, Rock Island, and Pa- Siamese government in 1905, was taken over by cific, 1133.
the Federated Malay States government upon the POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT. The Legislature transfer in 1909 of the suzerainty of the state met in 1915 and passed several important meas
from Siam to Great Britain. ures. These included two measures aimed at KELANTAN. A protected native state on strengthening the prohibition law of the State. the eastern side of the Malay Peninsula; adminOne of these provided that the municipality istered by the hereditary Rajah, Muhammed where liquor is sold is liable for damage for in- (IV) bin Almerhum Sultan Muhammed, under jury to persons or property resulting from in the direction of a resident British adviser. The toxication. The other measure was aimed at area is estimated at 5870 square miles, and the those who permit so called "keg parties” to be population (1911) at 286,752 (268,707 Malays, held on their premises. It opposes similar lia- 9844 Chinese, 5355 Siamese, 108 Europeans). bility upon the owner of the property where Chinese laborers are brought in to work on the liquor is sold or given away. (See also LEGISLA- rubber plantations. Kota Bharu, the capital, TION IN 1915; LIQUOR REGULATION.) By rule of has about 12,000 inhabitants, and contains the the State Civil Service Commission beginning Rajah's palace and the British residency. Other with July 1, 1915, all State employees must be towns are Tumpat (4000 inhabitants), Bachak total abstainers. On January 25th, the United (2000), Tabal (2000), Pasir Puteh (2000). Ag. States Supreme Court declared unconstitutional riculture, rubber cultivation, cattle-raising, and the Kansas statute which prohibited an employer fishing are the principal industries; rice and from requiring that an employee should not be a paddy, copra, rubber, and betel nuts are exported. member of the labor union.
Gold is mined and tin deposits occur. Roads are STATE GOVERNMENT. Governor, Arthur Cap- building, and a railway from Tumpat is under per; Lieutenant-Governor, W. Y. Morgan; Sec- construction across the state, to connect ultiretary of State, J. T. Botkin; State Auditor, mately with the Federated Malay States system. W. E. Davis; State Treasurer, Earl Akers; At The (1913) imports amounted to 3,948,325 torney-General, S. M. Brewster; Superintendent Straits Settlements dollars; the exports, to of Public Instruction, W. D. Ross; Superinten- 2,022,307; the revenue was 676,020, and the exdent of Insurance, Carey J. Wilson.
penditure, 672,137. Kelantan
formally JUDICIARY. Supreme Court: Chief Justice, ceded by Siam to the protection of Great Britain, William A. Johnston; Justices, Rousseau A. July 15, 1909. Burch, Henry F. Mason, John Marshall, Silas KELP. See FERTILIZERS. Porter, John S. Dawson, J. S. West.
KENNEDY, SIR WILLIAM Rann. An EngSTATE LEGISLATURE:
lish jurist, died Jan. 15, 1915. He was born in
1846, educated at Eton, and King's College, CamSenate
Joint Ballot bridge, and later became a fellow of Pembroke Democrats
College, Cambridge. In 1871 he was made a barRepublicans
84 rister at Lincoln's Inn, and in 1885 was apProgressives Socialists
pointed Queen's Counsel. He was Judge of the
King's Bench Division of the High Court of Majority
Justice from 1892–1907, in the latter year being
made a Lord of Appeal, and knighted. He was KANSAS, UNIVERSITY OF. A State institu
one of the foremost authorities on maritime law. tion for higher education founded in 1866 at He contested several seats in Parliament. Lawrence, Kan. The total enrollment in all de
KENTUCKY. POPULATION. The estimated partments in the autumn of 1915 was 2490. The population of the State on July 31, 1915, was faculty numbered 218. There were no notable 2,365,185. The population in 1910 was 2,289,changes in the membership of the faculty during 905. the year, and no noteworthy benefactions were AGRICULTURE. The acreage, production, and received. The university is supported almost en value of the principal crops estimated by the tirely by legislative appropriations, which United States Department of Agriculture in amounted in 1915–16 to $625,000, and has an en- 1914-15 were as follows: dowment fund of about $150,000. The library contained 100,000 volumes. KAOLIN. See FULLER'S EARTH.
Acreage Prod. Bu. Value KAUSOLITE. See CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL, Corn .....1915 3,800,000 114,000,000 $63,840,000
1914 3,650,000 91,250,000 58,400,000 Erplosives.
900,000 9,900,000 10,395,000 KEDAH. A native state on the west coast
760,000 12,540,000 12,916,000 of the Malay Peninsula, under British protec
210,000 5,460,000 2,621,000
175,000 3,675,000 1,948,000 tion. Area, with the Langkawi group of islands, Rye
24,000 288,000 271,000 3800 square miles. According to the 1911 cen
1914 22,000 301,000 286,000
6,000 180,000 sus, the population was 245,986, of whom 80 per Barley
5,000 142.000 109,000 cent were Malay and 13 per cent Chinese. Sam
51,000 6,426,000 3,534,000 sams numbered nearly 65,000, and Siamese over
50,500 2,450,000 1,890,000
1914 Potatoes .1915