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United States, however, consisted not so much 480-pound projectile, was, at the same elevain lack of matériel as of personnel. The manu- tion, to have the same range. An anti-aircraft facturing plants were able at the end of the gun, projectile 6 pounds, with muzzle velocity year to turn out work at the rate of two flying of 2400 foot second, was developed. A proper machines per day, and the rate could have been type of self-contained horizontal base rangeincreased. It was nevertheless pointed out by finder having been determined by service tests, Mr. John Hays Hammond, Jr., that it would orders for manufacture in quantity were given. take years for the United States to increase its T he field artillery regulations were under remilitary organization to the point where it vision by a board of officers. Camps of instruccould equal the standard of any possible enemy. tion were held at various points for the inHere time counts, not money. But an invalu. struction and training of National Guard batable unit of defense could be organized by ap- teries, 125 of which took advantage of the opplying radio systems to aëroplanes and estab. portunities offered. lishing aëro scouting districts along the sea. Miscellaneous. The Vickers-Maxim light gun board. Coöperation could be effected between was, after competitive test, adopted as the servo the navy and the land defenses, so that the ice machine gun. The school of musketry was latter could be handled to the best advantage. transferred to Fort Sill, Okla., and opened on

Coast Artillery. Turrets for installation on August 20th with a capacity of 60 student ofEl Fraile Island in Manila Bay were under ficers, and 142 student non-commissioned offitest. Fourteen-inch wire wound guns weighing cers. 70 tons were to be emplaced. At a muzzle veloc Much experience was gained in the matter of ity of 2360 foot second, the projectile will pene- motor transport. This method of carriage was trate 12 inches of the best armor at 15,000 yards. found trustworthy even on bad roads. The 1.5For the proposed forts at Cape Henry, 16-inch ton truck gave the best results for field servwire wound guns were recommended by a com- ice. Trailers were not recommended unless mittee of the Fortification Board. This gun is roads were good; this condition satisfied, their 45 calibres long, is to be mounted on a disap- use was economical. Steady improvement was pearing carriage, and will throw a projectile announced from the remount depots in type, weighing 2200 pounds. It will be the main breeding, and appearance of young horses purtype for main batteries of new works. During chased by the War Department, as the result the year, 5 additional 14-inch, 40 calibre, guns of the remount service. According to reports were manufactured. These guns were designed from a majority of cavalry officers received durfor 1660 pound projectiles, giving at 15° eleva ing the year, the single rank formation is better tion with 2250 foot second muzzle velocity, a for our service than the double. maximum range of 18,000 yards. By enlarging The first aëro squadron changed station by the powder chamber, however, the muzzle veloc- flight in November, from Fort Sill, Okla., to ity was raised to 2350 foot second, thus increas Fort Sam Houston, Texas. The supply train ing the maximum range to 19,300 yards at 15°, accompanied the flight on auto trucks. With a 1200 pound projectile, the muzzle veloc- The aviation section of the signal corps made ity could be increased to 2775 foot second, with four records during the year: a maximum range of 21,400 yards.

Altitude with passenger. Lieutenant CarIt was recommended that mobile guns of berry, with Lieutenant Christie as passenger. at least 12-inch calibre, mounted on specially American record, 11,680 feet, Jan. 5, 1915; constructed railroad carriages or dragged by duration, 1 hour, 13 minutes. suitable motors, were needed to complete the Duration. Lieut. B. Q. Jones, Jan. 15, 1915. system of coast defense, by protecting unde- In air 8 hours, 53 minutes. American record. fended harbors, by preventing hostile ships from Duration with two passengers. Lieut. B. Q. landing troops out of range of coast forts, and Jones, pilot, with Corporals Hale and Houser, by helping mobile troops to defend the ap- passengers, on March 12, 1915. In air 7 hours, proaches and rear of those forts. The subma- 5 minutes. World's record. rine mine matériel was still incomplete at the American duration for pilot alone. Lieut. end of the year.

W. R. Taliaferro, Sept. 17, 1915, 9 hours, 48 National Guard batteries to the number of minutes. 125 attended camps of instruction, and of these The Heinrich military tractor biplane was 81 had service practice. The number of officers developed to meet the signal corps' requireand men, whether regular or militia, was still ments of high speed, low landing speed, speed short by several thousands, of the total required variation of more than 50 per cent, climbing for the coast defenses of the United States. power, good gliding angle. The controls are

The subject of aëronautics in coast defense duplicate. A 110-horse-power motor develops attracted attention, but did not go beyond this a speed of 45-80 miles per hour. The gasoline point during the year.

consumption is 10 gallons per hour, and enough Field Artillery. The Ordnance Department for four hours can be carried. The total lifting continued its efforts to develop a mobile artil- area is 285 square feet. lery matériel of greater range and power. A The Cuban army was reorganized on the basis 3.8-inch split trail howitzer gave good results of compulsory service. and a number were to be manufactured. Designs of 4.7-inch split trail guns and howitzers

EUROPEAN WAR were developed, as also of 9.5-inch and 11-inch howitzers. Reports of the 3-inch mountain how The interest shown by the American people itzer showed that it was not entirely satisfac- in the question of preparedness derived its sig. tory. A 7.6-inch siege howitzer and carriage nificance and inspiration from the war raging were under construction; the projectile, 240 in Europe. To that war we turn for illuspounds, at 40° elevation, was to have a range trations of all that is novel in armed strife, of 11,000 yards. The 9.5-inch howitzer, using a and also for some return to ancient methods.

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Our remarks and conclusions must be drawn and respirators were issued and found to be efchiefly from the operations on the western front, ficacious. Inflammable liquids also were used because in the east and the south the strife (by the Germans), petrol, paraffin, and tar, or still retains what, for lack of a better term, we a mixture of these. Little was known of their may call its old-fashioned character.

use; they were propelled a distance of 150 feet. The year 1914 (see YEAR BOOK, 1914) had The use of both gases and liquids was a violation left the contestants on that front virtually be of Article 23, Hague Declaration of 1899. sieging each other. No change in this regard Certain other effects or results developed. took place in 1915. But as the year wore on, The presence of the troops in trenches led to a it became increasingly evident that the strug- preponderance of head wounds. The French ingle was becoming one of resources. To cite only troduced a remedy by the adoption of a steel one item, the consumption of ammunition was helmet 0.7 millimeter thick. It unquestionably at a rate unforeseen by any of the contestants, saved many lives; the British, at the end of even by Germany. To continue the war at all the year were beginning to use them. Other imposed a demand for material unheard of be- forms of armor were proposed and may have fore. Hence what may be denominated the been used. On the French side at least, wire mobilization of industries, a feature that dis- entanglements, formerly to be placed about 100 tinguishes this struggle from any other, and meters in front of the trench, were placed in that will certainly be a factor of dominating immediate contact with it. The use of this obimportance in any future war between powerful stacle was extended by the Turks in the Galrivals. So important is this particular aspect lipoli peninsula to the shoal waters in front of of the question of supply, that the Russian de possible landing places. These entanglements feats of 1915 have been very largely attributed were so thick, so strongly set, and so deep that to the lack of ammunition. It may be laid usually only artillery fire would open a way down as a principle, therefore, that under the through them, though in some cases it was modern conditions of a war of masses, success found possible to throw hooks in among them, depends upon industrial organization and effi- and then to uproot the system by motor cars. ciency. A country cut off from the sea, as is Where possible, the system was electrified before Germany, and not producing within its own bor- an expected assault. Periscopes appeared on ders certain essentials, must face defeat unless the western front for observation in the trenches. it can in advance lay in such a stock of materi- The "clear field of fire” in front of a defensive als as to outlast any possible adversary.

portion, recommended by all the textbooks beThe fact that this war had become a test, as fore this war, became a thing of the past; it it were, of endurance developed (on the westwas found safer to conceal the trench and, inciern front) trench warfare to a degree never be- dentally, to let the enemy come up without susfore conceived. This condition determined the pecting its existence. We may regard the disapcharacter of the struggle. Troops lived, moved, pearance of this “field of fire" as one of the and had their being in the ground and under positive results in respect of operations. the ground. The "line" became in reality a The machine gun played a tremendous part deep area of successive positions, strongly held in the struggle. The Germans were better proby enormous numbers of men. Mining and vided with this weapon than the Allies, and countermining became general. The proximity had counted on their use in the open field, as of the trenches, sometimes only a few yards much as they were compelled to use them in apart, brought into play ways and means the trenches. Here they proved most effective, either unheard of before, or that had been aban- so much so, that it was remarked “the French doned because of new conditions, themselves not hold their positions with artillery, the British reproduced in the actual struggle. Among with infantry, the Germans with machine guns." these may be mentioned the hand grenade (used The British accordingly organized their maas long ago as the Siege of Saloniki, 904), chine gun service, to be divided into three knives, and even clubs, for close work. The branches: cavalry of the line, infantry of the Germans early introduced their Minenwerfer, a line, motor service. In the cavalry and infantrench howitzer throwing a shell 16 inches in try, brigade machine gun squadrons and comdiameter, and carrying a bursting charge of 86 panies were to be formed, the motor service was pounds of trotyl. This shell was fastened to to have machine gun batteries. It is said that one end of a rod slipping into the bore (2.1 the Germans entered the campaign with 50,000 inches in diameter), and at an angle of pro- of these weapons, and probably increased the jection of 45 degrees attained a range of 1244 number during the year. feet. The startling novelty of the year, in re Inasmuch as the “trenches" on both sides spect to trench attack, was the use by the Ger- were so strong in themselves, and so heavily mans of asphyxiating gases, by way of clearing manned (at the rate, according to some reports, the field for the assault. (See also CHEMISTRY, of 15 men per running meter), frontal assaults, INDUSTRIAL, Asphyxiating Gases.) Apparently about the only kind possible, called for the inthese gases were chiefly the fumes of chlorine tensest artillery preparation. And here, as in and of bromine, but traces of others, such as other cases, the existence of trenches worked a sulphurous anhydride, nitrous acid, etc., were sort of revolution, in that shrapnel, the best found. Various methods of liberating these man-killing projectile thus far known against gases were employed: pipes from stationary gen- troops in the open, or against troops in open erators, with valves to be opened when the wind shallow trenches, became practically useless. was favorable; transportable cylinders carry- Hence resort was had to high explosive shell, ing the gases under pressure; hand grenades to blast away the trenches before an attack and bombs to be thrown at the right moments; could be made. It was only by using this sort shells fired by the Minenwerfer; etc. The effects of shell that the overhead cover of the trenches of the fumes could be felt at a distance of half could be destroyed and their occupants put out a mile; to guard against them smoke helmets of business. The effect of these shells was described as something terrible; literally no liv. this gun fires a 16-pound shell. The split trail ing being, whether animal or vegetable, could opens to 50 degrees in the firing position, and maintain itself under them. Tactically, where admits of elevation to 50 degrees. The French possible, the artillery delivered a tir de barrage, developed a new anti-aircraft gun, firing a 36"curtain fire,” between the assaulting troops of pound shell with a muzzle velocity of 1870 foot its own side and the counter-assaulting troops second. Its calibre is 4-inch, and weight, inof the adversary. Through this curtain, noth- cluding armor and shields, about 213 tons. ing could pass alive.

Dirigibles on the whole proved to be a disThe artillery in general kept up its suprem- appointment, if not a failure. The long-heracy and efficiency, with the French 75 millimeter alded raids against England accomplished abunquestionably the supreme piece of its calibre. solutely nothing of military value. If dirigiAs a result of the conditions outlined above, bles may be said to have developed a special i.e. that armies have become, as it were, sta- function, it was as sea scouts, and they may, tionary, that combats are of longer duration, as is claimed, have been useful in protecting and will tend more and more to resemble siege the German coast. They were no match for operations, heavy field artillery increased in im- aëroplane attack, and hence were forced to opportance, an importance foreshadowed in previo erate at night. It was, nevertheless, reported ous wars. Moreover, long range guns proved a that the German government had ordered Zepgreat success; indirect fire became the normal peling of larger size than ever, at a cost of case. Hence it is more than probable that $600,000 each. These were said to be blunt heavy pieces will hereafter be the mainstay of nosed, and sharp tailed, to have much higher field artillery. Experience has shown that with speed than their predecessors, and to be fitted motor transportation heavy guns can easily be with tanks for carrying poisonous gas bombs. carried along with the mobile army. The 15- The emplacement of guns on the upper surface centimeter howitzer, range 10,000 meters, may of these giants turned out to be a failure, beprove to be a standard piece. But this should cause of the danger of igniting, by the flash of not be held to exclude the light field gun, here- discharge, hydrogen leaking from the hull. To tofore the classic piece of armies in the field. operate against these airships, the British govAccording to some authorities, the tendency is ernment ordered, according to the press, the soto reduce the weight of this gun so as to in- called “Zeppelin destroyers," the invention of crease its maneuvering ability and improve its an American named MacMechen. This “decoöperation with infantry. Similarly in the in- stroyer" was to bear the same relation to its fantry it was predicted that the substitution of prey as the destroyer of the sea to the dreadthe automatic, or properly speaking, semi-auto- nought, and is said to be 236 feet long, 28 feet matic, shoulder rifle for the hand-operated arm, in diameter, to carry two motors of 200 horse was inevitable. These matters are mentioned as power, to have a range of 300 miles, and a marking the tendencies of the experience gained crew of four. in the war. Two pieces, the German 28-centi- Aviation developed along the three lines of meter howitzer and the Austrian 30.5-centimeter its usefulness, as an instrument of reconnaisautomobile mortar, were mentioned as having sance, as an invaluable coadjutor of the artilwrought the greatest destruction of forts. The lery, and as an engine of destruction. In this Austrian piece with its equipment forms a com- last capacity, its progress was not so great as plete traction set for road transportation; three in the other two. Raids were attempted, howtraction engines, each pulling four trailers, were ever, some of them of great length and in great used for each two mortars. But it should be strength, and instances occurred of damage recollected that in no other war has it been done in these raids as also in shorter flights made so plain that the objective is the defeat against special or accidental objectives near at of the enemy army, not the destruction of forts hand. The aëroplane as an aid in artillery or the capture of provinces. This piece was, fire passed the stage of experimentation, and its however, also used against troops, and its ef- value in reconnaissance became a commonplace. fects were said to have been terrific, such as Experience showed that the biplane is superior for example, the annihilation of an entire bat to the monoplane. Some “battles" took place tery of artillery and of a large number of in- in the air, between squadrons of aëroplanes, and fantrymen by a single shell. Men in the neigh- "duels” were not infrequent. In fact, as exborhood who were not hit, nevertheless were perience accumulated, the belief grew that the killed by the intense air pressure and suffo- best way to get rid of a winged visitor was to cating gases.

attack him in and by another aëroplane. ExIn general, calibres of from 15 centimeters to perience further showed that an aëroplane 21 centimeters were used on the battlefield. A could stand a good deal of punishment in the direct result of the new artillery will be, as it way of hits, before being forced to come down, already has been, the vanishing value of for- as little structural harm is done by bullets. tresses. Strong infantry trenches, in successive However, they may set the petrol tanks on lines, protected by obstacles will become, have fire, which suggested the use of fibre tanks. become, the rule. The guns of these positions In general it may be asserted that during the will be distributed over the lines, thus causing year the art or science of flying was so adthe enemy fire to scatter, and will rely on their vanced that work was possible under almost own concealment for protection.

any conditions of weather. Aëro squadrons The Italian field artillery changed its organ- were formed by the French for the purpose of ization from 6-gun to 4-gun batteries, produc- operating against the enemy's communications ing 294 batteries or 1176 guns. This change just before or during battle. The squadrons resulted in greater efficiency coming from greater employed three different types of machine, the mobility and from an increase in the ammuni- bomb plane, the gun plane, and the chaser, tion. To a part of this artillery, a 75-milli- whose functions are sufficiently well indicated meter gun of the Deport pattern was issued; by their respective names. These squadrons

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