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Court of Abundance, the Court of Flowers, the must be considered an unqualified success. See Avenue of Palms, the Avenue of Progress, and also AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION; and BUILDING the Court of Mines. To understand the point of OPERATIONS. view properly, then, it is essential to conceive C HURCHES. Ecclesiastic architecture during of courts and avenues only, and not of build- 1914 is not of certain trend; the decided domiings, for the latter changed front chameleon- nation of the Gothic of Cram and Ferguson, as like in accordance with the surrounding open well as that of B. G. Goodhue, is not much in areas; thus each building in the main block, at evidence, although the mediæval styles are still least, was subject to four or five influences in de- in great favor. The Colonial manner is represign. While no general scheme of design in a sented by one or two examples and the Italian definite sense controlled the whole exposition, the Renaissance is well exemplified in two others. courts themselves were marvels of imagination In general, however, the church building of the and manipulation of ornamental forms; great year is of modest proportions both in the numability likewise appeared in the mural paintings ber and quality of buildings. Several good plan and sculptural units. The styles illustrated solutions are noteworthy, as, for instance, those varied from a Spanish Renaissance-Gothic combi- of Trinity Lutheran Church at Akron, Ohio, by nation to Italian and French Renaissance, and J. W. C. Corbusier, and Christ Church, Los from suggested Roman Classic to entirely novel Altos, Cal., by Coxhead & Coxhead. Brick is conceptions, such as that of the remarkable finding always greater favor for the smaller Tower of Jewels, facing the southern gardens. church buildings, due in part to the more freIn color scheme this exposition far outstripped quent use of the north Italian styles, both in its predecessors; a fine travertine texture and Romanesque and in Renaissance. Good brick color prevailed, softening all highlights and examples are Carrollton M. E. Church, New eliminating glare. The night illumination was Orleans, La., by Sam Stone, Jr.; First Church a wonder of ingenuity and colored light, both di- of Christ Scientist, Los Angeles, Cal., by Elmer rect and indirect, reflected and diffused; most Grey; the Ravenswood Presbyterian Church at actual light sources were concealed, electric Chicago, by Pond & Pond; and the church and scintillators coming largely into requisition. rectory of St. George, New York, by Robert J.

Panama-California Exposition. The splendid Reiley. Among the best designed examples may monumental quality of the San Francisco groups be mentioned the quiet and attractive Chapel was not present at San Diego; it was, indeed, of Divine Love, Philadelphia, by Paul Monastudiously avoided. Instead, there was at once ghan; the Italian Romanesque St. Patrick's apparent a picturesqueness and irregularity that Church in the same city, by Lafarge & Morfound an immediate appeal. The treatment ris; the House of Hope Presbyterian Church, throughout indicated a more homelike quality St. Paul, Minn., by Cram & Ferguson; the concomitant with its more individual purpose Italian Renaissance Church of St. Vincent Ferof exploiting a single State; it had not an in- rer, New York, by Bertram G. Goodhue; and ternational purpose. The color scheme was a the chapel of the Dominican Sisters of St. Agnes, simple white without glare; the architectural Sparkill, N. Y., by Davis, McGrath & Kiessstyle was uniformly Spanish-Colonial, involving ling. Other examples are: St. Mark's, Dorthe use of finely wrought detail relieved against chester, Mass., by Brigham, Coveney & Bisplain wall areas. The plan maintained a prin- bee; St. Henry's, Bayonne, N. J., by T. H. Poole cipal east and west axis, and to a certain ex- & Company; First Congregational Church, tent two minor axes. The former of these was San Francisco, by Reid Brothers; Emanuel El Prado, a broad roadway continuing the line Church of the Evangelical Association, in the of the Puente Cabrillo, an exceptionally attrac- same city, by Falch & Knoll; St. James's Prestive engineering feature bridging the deep can byterian Church, New York, by Ludlow & Peayon of a small brook, with a highroad and lake, body; First Presbyterian Church at San Diego, all named after Cabrillo, the founder of the city Cal., by Robert H. Orr; First Presbyterian of San Diego. The arrangement of buildings Church at Spokane, Wash., by L. B. Valk; First and squares was dependent upon the axes, but Church of Christ Scientist, Worcester, Mass., by at the same time suggested a random feeling 0. C. S. Ziroli; St. Luke's, Evanston, Ill., by which was one of the exposition's greatest Lowe & Bollenbacher; First Church of Christ charms. Thus the great Plaza de Panama ran Scientist, Seattle, Wash., by Charles H. Bebb north and south, was of longish oblong plan, and & L. L. Mendel; All Saints Episcopal Church, made a right angle with the Prado, instead of Newbury, Mass., by Clark & Russell; Plymforming in symmetrical fashion a regular widen- outh Congregational, at Chicago, by Riddle & ing of the main avenue; in the same manner the Riddle; St. Rita's, Philadelphia, by George I. Plaza in turn narrowed into an Esplanade ter- Lovatt; St. Elizabeth's, Philadelphia, by Baily minated by a hemicycle motive centring about a & Bassett; the temple of B'Nai Jeshurun, at giant open-air organ. In both expositions the Newark, by Albert S. Gootlieb, is the only noteamusement concessions, as well as the areas de worthy synagogue erected during the year. voted to cattle exhibits and athletic contests, SCHOOLS. While the output of school buildwere not accorded with the main scheme of de- ings is not characterized by a memorable insign; but on the other hand, all concessions, as crease numerically, it is notable for the high well as the spaces assigned to State Buildings at quality of planning skill everywhere in evidence. San Francisco or to County Buildings at San At Coronado, Cal., Quayle Brothers & Cressey Diego, were carefully treated with reference to produced a particularly good result. The same their own planning needs. At San Diego, espe- may be said of Francis W. Parker School at San cially, the natural features were of great advan Diego, by Templeton Johnson. This is named tage, the climate of Southern California being in after the well-known philanthropist whose benefact a bona fide assistant in the work of con- factions in Chicago and generally in Cook struction. Judging the whole conception prop- County, lll., have largely taken the form of erly as a State exposition, the San Diego groups school improvements. The school in question is

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of the southwestern patio plan, one story high, Collens in Taylor Hall, at Vassar College, all rooms facing and actually open toward the Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Gilman Hall and other courtyard; the result is practically that of an buildings on the new site of Johns Hopkins Uniopen air group of class rooms. Another notable versity, by Parker, Thomas & Rice, and by example in this field is that accomplished by E. Joseph Evans & Sperry; Green Hall AudiF. Guilbert in the McKinley School at Newark, torium, at Smith College, Northampton, Mass., N. J. This is designed in stucco with decora by Charles A. Rich; an art building for Oberlin tive motives in tapestry brick and colored tile, College, by Cass Gilbert; a men's gymnasium following in general the manner of the Italian for Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H., by Renaissance. The building constitutes more of a Charles A. Rich, and a similar building at cheerful neighborhood centre, than simply a Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, school of text-book instruction. Several of the Cal., by Bakewell & Brown; an Infirmary for rooms are of the open air type and a large play Haverford College, at Haverford, Pa., by Baily court is provided at street level. The solution & Bassett; and a large concrete stadium for of the problem involved, in view of the irregu- the College of the City of New York, by A. W. larity of the site, is without question very Brunner. With these should also be included creditable. Brick is still largely favored in the the Nelson Morris Memorial Institute for MediEast and Middle West, while stucco naturally cal Research, Chicago, by Richard E. Schmidt, predominates in the Far West. Good brick ex- Garden & Martin. amples of notable design are: the Trenton School HOSPITALS. In the field of hospital construcof Industrial Arts, by Cass Gilbert, in which tion it is interesting to note that the last five tapestry brick and tile appear; the Regis High years witnessed the greatest contribution in the School, New York, by Maginnis & Walsh, a way of bequests and direct donations that has monumental Italian Renaissance building; the ever accrued to any single type of building. The brick and half-timber Donners Grove Kinder- six most important examples, of which four are garten at Donners Grove, Ill., by Perkins, Fel- also teaching hospitals, are the following: that lows & Hamilton, undoubtedly one of the best at the University of California, Berkeley, Cal., designed examples in several years; the collegio $615,000; the Isaac L. Rice Hospital, New York ate Gothic St. Ignatius's Loyola Day Nursery (not yet begun), $1,000,000; the New Haven New York, by W. Weissenberger, Jr.; the South Hospital, used by the Yale Medical School, New Side High School, Newark, N. J., by E. F. Guil. Haven, Conn., $1,500,000; the Burke Convalesbert; the Fresno Normal School, Fresno, Cal., cent Hospital, White Plains, N. Y., $5,000,000; by the Architectural Division of the California the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, connected with State Department of Engineering; the grouped Harvard University, Boston, Mass., $7,000,000; scheme of three buildings in the Edward Devo- and the large project to be undertaken by the tion School, Brookline, Mass., by Kilham & Presbyterian Hospital of New York and ColumHopkins; the Crookston High School, Crookston, bia University upon a new site in upper ManMinn., by Bert D. Keck; the Dickerman School, hattan, $8,500,000. In this connection the folBoston, Mass., by J. R. Schweinfurth; the dining lowing well planned buildings and groups should hall of the Hill School, Pottstown, Pa., by Hewalso be noted: the Cincinnati General Hospital, itt & Bottomley. Other examples are: the by Samuel Hannaford & Sons; the Jewish Walker School, Concord, N. H., by H. Tem- Maternity Hospital, Philadelphia, by Hewitt, pleton Blanchard; the Addison School, Cleve- Granger & Paish; the Abington Memorial Hosland, Ohio, by F. S. Barnum & W. R. McCor- pital, Abington, Pa., by Bissell, Sinkler & mack; a parochial school at Holyoke, Mass., by Tilden; the Central Dispensary and Emergency John William Donohue; the South Park High Hospital, Washington, D. C., by Nathan C. School, Buffalo, N. Y., by Green & Wicks; the Wyeth; the Highland Private Hospital, Fall Norwood High School, Norwood, Ohio, by Ban River, Mass., by Parker M. Hooper. smith & Drainée; a public school building at PUBLIC BUILDINGS. Among the Federal strucRiverton, N. J., by Heacock & Hokanson; the tures erected during the year, the most imporHigh School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass., by tant were the Post Office and Court House at Kirkham & Parlett; and the Hebrew Institute, Denver, Colo., by Tracy, Swartwout & LitchChicago, by Ottenheimer, Stern & Reichert, a field; the United States Treasury Building, San structure entirely of concrete, the design sug- Francisco, by J. Milton Dyer; the Post Office, gesting certain German work, and achieving a Washington, by Graham, Burnham & Comdecidedly interesting result.

pany; the Post Office, New Orleans, La., by UNIVERSITIES. The year does not offer any James Gamble Rogers; the fine arcaded Florenremarkable examples of planning, such as the tine design of the Post Office at Berkeley, Cal., various general group schemes adopted during by William Arthur Newman & Oscar Wen1914 among the important universities of the deroth; and the additions to the Custom House country. Times of financial stress are apt, at Boston, by Peabody & Stearns. In the last among their first effects, to reduce benefactions named the old building was made a base for a to institutions, and when the slow work of res- tall office tower, erected over an earlier dome. toration of equilibrium gathers strength it shows The fine Senate and House of Representatives its effects in turn upon the dwellings and busi- Office Buildings were also occupied during the ness buildings and only secondarily in institu- year, and the Department of Agriculture comtional structures. A few notable single build- pleted the Bieber Building from designs by Macings are to be put down to the credit of 1915, Neil & MacNeil. All of these edifices are in however, such as the Evans Museum and Dental the Capital city. Among the other public buildInstitute at the University of Pennsylvania, ings, municipal and others, erected during the Philadelphia, by John T. Windrim; Prudence year are to be mentioned: the Hamilton County Risley Hall, in the collegiate Gothic manner, Court House, Cincinnati, Ohio., a $2,500,000 by Miller & Mallory, at Cornell University, structure by Parker, Kellogg & Crane; the armIthaca; the excellent Gothic work of Allen & ory of the Eighth Coast Artillery, New York, by

Pilcher & Tachau; a fine Municipal Building shall & Fox, with 1600 bedrooms; the attractive for Waterbury, Conn., by Cass Gilbert; a City Hotel Pantlind, Grand Rapids, Mich., by WarHall for Burlingame, Cal., by Chas. P. Weeks; ren & Wetmore; the brick and terra cotta Adelthe Town Hall of Bourne, Mass., by James Pur- phia Hotel, Philadelphia, by Horace Trumbauer. don; the remodeling of the Delaware County Other less important examples were: the Hotel Court House, Media, Pa., by Brozer & Robb; an Allerton, New York, by Paul C. Hunter; the annex to the Boston City Hall, by E. T. P. Capitol Park Hotel, Washington, D. C., by A. B. Graham. Two well conceived bath houses Mullett & Co., the Gothic Hotel Fontenelle at should be included in this list: the Fordyce Bath Omaha, Neb., by Thomas R. Kimball; the Hotel House, Hot Springs, Ark., by George R. Mann & Black Hawk at Davenport, Ia., by Temple & Eugene J. Stern, and the South Side Bath House, Burrows, and the Hotel Brunswick at Lancaster, Pittsburgh, Pa., by MacClure & Spahr. One of Pa., by C. Emlen Unbau, involving the use of a the very good buildings of the year is undoubt hot-water heating system in an eight-story buildedly the great Auditorium which forms the per- ing. manent building left as a monumental record of STORES. No important work was accomthe Panama-Pacific International Exposition. plished in this field during the year just closed. This edifice will seat 12,000 persons, and was The largest buildings of the type to be erected erected at a cost of $1,000,000. It is located in were probably the May Store, Cleveland, by GraSan Francisco's new Civic Centre, some distance ham, Burnham & Company, and the Ames Store from the Exposition Grounds.

in the same city, by Starrett & Van Vleck. The LIBRARIES. The year's best library buildings severe Arnold Constable Store, New York, by T. were that erected in Denver, Colo., by Ackerman J. Bartley, should also be mentioned. What & Rose and the Widener Memorial Library, by may be the beginning of a new departure in New Horace Trumbauer, at Harvard University, Cam York City architecture is seen in the Standard bridge, Mass. The latter is one of the notable Arcade, by Severance & Van Alen. Two very buildings of 1915 and has at once taken its place good public markets may be properly classed among the foremost library buildings of the here, the Astor Public Market, New York, by country. At Bar Harbor, Me., the Morris K. Tracy & Swartwout, and the Worcester, Mass., Jesup Memorial Library was built from designs Public Market, by 0. C. S. Ziroli, both of well by Delano & Aldrich; Beverly, Mass., built a pub- studied design. lic library building from designs by Cass Gil- OFFICE BUILDINGS. The largest office building bert; while D. Knickerbacker Boyd designed the of 1915 was the Equitable Building, New York, Southwark Branch of the Philadelphia Public by E. R. Graham. This is the largest structure Library. Other examples of note are the Har- of its kind in existence, covering 48,000 square risburg, Pa., Public Library, by E. S. Child, and feet of ground, measuring 545 feet in height, rigthe Warren Library, Chicago, by Wm. E. & ing to 45 stories above the street, and requiring Arthur A. Fisher

foundations 85 feet in depth. Other large examBANKS. The policy of locating banking firms ples are: the Merritt Building, Los Angeles, Cal., in large office buildings continues in favor; in by Reid Brothers; the terra cotta Goelet Buildthis field 1915 exceeds 1914 by about 30 per ing, New York, by Warren & Wetmore; the cent in the number of buildings erected. Cases Hasco Building, New York, by Walter Haefeli; in point are the Boatmen's Bank at St. Louis, the Victoria Building, New York, by Schwartz & Mo., by Eames & Young; the Citizen's National Gross; the Federal Realty Building, Oakland, Bank, Los Angeles, Cal., by John Parkinson & Cal., a devious Gilbert inspiration, by B. G. McEdwin Bergstrom; the First National Bank of Dougall; the Gothic building of the Delaware Pueblo, Col., by R. E. Schmidt, Garden & Mar- and Hudson Company, Albany, N. Y., by Marcus tin; the Murchison National Bank, Wilmington, T. Reynolds; the Hurt Building, Atlanta, Ga., N. C., by K. M. Murchison; the Holston National by J. E. R. Carpenter; the Balboa Building, San Bank, Knoxville, Tenn., by John Kevan Peebles; Francisco, Cal., by Bliss & Faville. The Russell the Hartford National Bank, Hartford, Conn., by Sage Building, New York, by Grosvenor AtterDonn Barber; the Brooklyn Trust Company, bury is the most attractive single example from New York, by York & Sawyer. Smaller banking the standpoint of design. The only newspaper buildings of the year were the Corn Exchange buildings erected during the year were the Farm Bank's Bronx and Eighty-sixth Street Branches, Journal Building, Philadelphia, by Bunting & New York, by H. T. Lindeberg; the Stockton, Slougley; the News Press Building, St. Joseph, Cal., Savings Bank, by Charles W. Dickey; the Mo., by Eckel & Aldrich; and the Circle BuildFar Rockaway National Bank, New York, by ing, New York, by J. C. Greene. The last named Jos. L. Steinam; the Amsterdam Savings Bank, is to be the home of the Hearst papers in New Amsterdam, N. Y., by M. T. Reynolds; the First York. Only two stories have been completed to National Bank, Champaign, Ill., by Mundie & date; a huge tower will ultimately surmount the Jensen; the First National Bank, Allegheny, Pa., long low main body of the building. Other good by F. J. Osterling.

examples of office buildings, without the sky. HOTELS. The great era of hotel building of scraper element, are: the Parkway Exchange of the year 1914 has been succeeded by a decided the Bell Telephone Company, Philadelphia, by falling off in the number of new hotels, although John T. Windrim; the Widener Building, Philano reduction is noticeable in the sumptuousness delphia, by Horace Trumbauer; the Hallenbeckof the larger examples contributed by 1915. Hungerford Building, New York, by William E. The finest of the year was the William Penn Austin. Hotel, Pittsburgh, Pa., by Janssen & Abbott, a FACTORIES, WAREHOUSES. Owing usually to 20-story structure containing 900 rooms; the their lack of architectural merit, factories and enormous Hotel Traymore at Atlantic City, N. warehouses are rarely heralded in the architecJ., by Price & McLanahan; the well-designed tural press; the same holds true to a great exHotel Muhlbach, Kansas City, Mo., by Holabird tent of the loft building type of factory, which & Rocke; the Hotel Morrison, Chicago, by Mar- resembles the office building in construction and

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