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A very bad situation in the fall of 1914 steadily Berkeley, Cal. Missionary work is carried on at improved during 1915. Centralized direction many points among the Icelandic, Norwegian, and supervision of all public agencies dealing and Swedish immigrants of the United States. with the problem, especially the well-developed There are academies at Tarrytown, N. Y., West system of national labor exchanges, was per- Newton, Mass., Springfield, Mass., and Boston. fected soon after the war began. This resulted The periodicals are The Christian Register and in a noticeable shifting of labor to points where The Beacon, published at Boston; The Unitarian needed. That the problem was serious, how- Advance and Unity, published at Chicago; and ever, in the winter of 1914–15 was revealed by The Pacific Unitarian, published at San Fran. the appropriation of $125,000 per month by the cisco. The president of the American Unitarian Berlin government for unemployed relief. The Association is Rev. Samuel A. Eliot, and the secFederal Council issued a decree in 1915 requir- retary is Rev. Lewis G. Wilson. ing all free employment offices to make reports UNITED BRETHREN. See MORAVIANS. to the imperial statistical offices. Numerous de- UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST. This tails were required, the object being to perfect evangelistic denomination, which is practically the collection of information and the distribu. Methodist in theology, was founded by Philip tion of work and workers. According to the re- William Otterbein towards the close of the eighports of 36 trade unions with the total member- teenth century. He came to America in 1752 as ship of about 1,000,000, the proportion of mem- a missionary to the German Reformed Church. bers unemployed decreased steadily from 22.4 per The government of the church is vested in a cent in August, 1914, and 15.7 per cent in Sep- general conference held every four years, and to tember, 1914, to 2.9 per cent in May, 1915, 2.6 which ministerial and lay delegates are elected per cent in June, and 2.6 in September. By in equal proportions. The denomination is diunions the percentages in September varied from vided into two bodies: The United Brethren in 0.4 for tobacco workers, and 0.5 for brewery Christ (Old Constitution), and United Brethren workers, to 11.3 for porcelain workers, and 40.5 in Christ (New Constitution). In 1915 the tofor hat makers.
tal membership of the two bodies was 360,387; UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE. See churches, 4022; ministers, 2185. The United UNEMPLOYMENT.
Brethren Christian Endeavor Union in 1915 had UNION COLLEGE. An institution for 2301 societies, with 93,988 members. It pubhigher education, founded in 1795 at Scheneclishes The Watchword, of which Rev. H. F. tady, N. Y. The total enrollment in all depart Shupe, Dayton, Ohio, is the editor. ments in the autumn of 1915 was 494. The fac- UNITED KINGDOM. See GREAT BRITAIN. ulty numbered 41. There were no notable UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF changes in the membership of the faculty during NORTH AMERICA. This denomination was the year. Benefactions were received amount- founded in 1853 by a union of associate and asing to about $125,000. The productive funds of sociate reformed churches. For several years the college amounted to about $1,000,000, and negotiations leading to a union of this denominathe annual income to $150,000. The library con- tion with the Presbyterian Church in the United tained 49,000 volumes. The president is Rev. C. States have been under way. The denomination A. Richmond, D.D.
had in 1915, 153,651 communicants, 1136 UNITARIANS. The latest available statis. churches, and 1151 ministers. There are 13 tics of membership were for 1906, in which year synods and 72 presbyteries. Missions are mainthe Unitarians had 70,542. According to the of- tained in India, Egypt, and the Sudan. ficial year book for 1914-15 there were on UNITED STATES. POPULATION. The estiJuly 1, 1914, 493 churches in the United States mated continental population of the United and Canada, and 540 ministers. The adminis. States on July 1, 1915, was 100,399,318. The trative body is the American Unitarian Associa population of the several States and territorial tion, whose headquarters are in Boston. The possessions will be found in the articles dealing denomination carries on an active literary propa- with them. ganda and promotes conferences for the promul. AGRICULTURE. The general statistics for ag. gation of Unitarian thought. The social work is riculture in 1915 in the United States and dein charge of the department of social and pub- pendencies will be found in the articles dealing lic service, organized in 1908. The department with agriculture and agricultural products. The encourages the study of social problems, and cul- section Agriculture in each State article gives tivates sympathetic relations between the the acreage, value, and production of the prin. churches and the wage earners. It has an infor- cipal crops in 1915. See also articles AGRICULmation bureau, maintains a library, and pub-TURAL CREDIT; AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION; AGlishes a bulletin. There are also departments of RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS; AGRICULfinance, publicity, foreign relations, comity and TURAL LEGISLATION; AGRICULTURE; HORTICULfellowship, schools and college centres, church TURE; IRRIGATION, etc. extension, religious education, etc. The depart- MANUFACTURES. The statistics of manufacment of comity and fellowship coöperates with tures for 1915 will be found in the articles dealthe State federations of churches in Massachu- ing with the chief industries, as COTTON; TEXsetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York, TILE MANUFACTURING; STOCK RAISING AND MEAT and seeks to substitute coöperative for competi- PRODUCTION; etc. tive methods in Christian work, and to carry out MINERAL PRODUCTS. The production of all the purpose of the American Unitarian Associa metals and minerals in 1914 will be found in the tion to foster union and sympathy among liberal general article MINERAL PRODUCTION OF THE Christians. In 1915 the association aided in UNITED STATES. Under each State in which the supporting over 100 churches and missions as mineral production is important will also be centres of Unitarian thought and influence. Di found a section dealing with that subject. vinity schools of the denomination are main EDUCATION. For information in regard to tained at Cambridge, Mass., Meadville, Pa., and educational matters see articles EDUCATION IN
Harris & Ewing, Washington, D.C.
Photograph by Harris & Ewing, Washington, D. C.
PAUL O. HUSTING
THE UNITED States, and UNIVERSITIES AND FOREIGN COMMERCE. Statistics referring to COLLEXES. In the article on each State and Ter- the foreign commerce of the United States will ritory will be found a paragraph dealing with be found on pages 663-665. In Table I is ofeducational statistics.
fered a summary, in detail and by countries, of RELIGION. For information of the year relat- the total imports and exports for the fiscal years ing to various denominations, see the articles 1914 and 1915; in Table II chief articles of imon these denominations. General information port for fiscal years 1914 and 1915; in Table III relating to religious bodies in 1915 will be found chief articles of export for fiscal years 1914 and in the article RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND 1915. MOVEMENTS.
Twelve months ending June
79,824,478 France ..
54.973 726 ...::...
143,267,019 Norway. ...
39,074,701 Portugal .......
5,080,037 Russia in Europe ...,
38,112,969 Sweden ......
78,273,818 Switzerland :
2,735,788 Turkey in Europe ...
640,201 United Kingdom 293,661,304 256,351,675 594,271,863
911,792,454 Total Europe .......
895,602,868 614,354,645 1,486,498,729 1,971,432,182
33,585,728 34,164,447 5,352,628
Newfoundland and Labrador ..........
........... Other British ....
Total British West Indies ......
. . .... . ..................
1915 CHIEF ARTICLES OF IMPORT, 1914-1915
97,828,243 80,531,785 Art works .............. $35,010,449 $18,475,577 Spirits, wines, and malt Chemicals, drugs, and dyes. 7,241,406 5,851,887 liquors .............
15.938,348 10.641,493 Coffee .................. 110,725,392 106.765,644 Sugar
101,365,561 173.837.646 Copper, and manufactures of 40,624,598 20.358,174
16.735,302 17,512,619 Cotton, and manufactures of 19,456.588 23,208,960 Tin, in bars, blocks, or pigs 39,422,479 30,777,617 Earthen., stone, and china
Tobacco, unmanufactured .. 27.243.668
Wool: Manufactures of ....... 42,420,950 27.791.890
Manufactures of ......
24,019,566 20.530,656 Unmanufactured ..., 25,860.729 20,572,347 Unmanufactured ...... 30,681,759 52,000,0 Fruits, including nuts.... 20,737,365 17,497.187 Furs, and manufactures of. 8,840,321 7,768,348 Hides and skins and other
TABLE III than fur skins ...... 1
110,797,375 98,070,958 India rubber and gutta.
CHIEF ARTICLES OF EXPORT, 1914-1915 percha and crude .... 71,219,851 83,030,269 Iron and steel, and manu
1915 factures of .........
6,375,659 4,598,629 Agricultural implements ... $31,965,789 $10,304,978 Precious stones .......... 17,795,099 8.452,117 Animals .....
77,953,886 Leather, and manufactures of 9,487.969 7.673,516 Automobiles ...
33,198,806 Oils ...................
7,916,980 8,225,485 Breadstuffs ............. 165,302,385 573,823,670