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1915, the increase continued, and in October the pensions on account of service in the Indian increase over October, 1914, was 7.5.
wars. Parcel Post. The parcel post service is now BUREAU OF MINES. Joseph A. Holmes (q.v.), carried on with 52 foreign countries and colonies. director of the bureau, died during the year. Notwithstanding a decrease in the trans-Atlantic Investigations carried on by Dr. Walter Ritt. station schedule caused by the war, frequent mail man, resulted in the perfection of the process service to each of the European countries was whereby refiners may obtain from crude oils 20 maintained throughout the year. The mails for per cent more gasoline than was obtained by belligerent countries were so routed as not to old methods. Dr. Rittman also devised a second require transit through any country with which process whereby benzol and tuluol, used in the such countries were at war. The only mails for manufacture of synthetic dyes and high explostrans-Atlantic countries which were lost, were ives, could be made from petroleum. The bureau those dispatched by the steamship Lusitania, also devised methods for the production of which was sunk off the coast of Ireland on radium from carnotite ores of Colorado and May 7th.
Utah, at an average cost of $36,500 a gram, twoAt the commencement of the war the parcel thirds less than the price asked by foreign propost service with Germany, Austria-Hungary, ducers. Belgium, and France was suspended owing to the The bureau continues its additional work inability of those countries to conduct that serv- among the miners, instructing them in safety, ice on their side. Service with France was re- rescue, and first aid needs. The result of this sumed on Nov. 3, 1914, and with Germany and work is shown by the fact that during the year Austria-Hungary on the 30th of the same month. there was a decrease of 458 deaths from acciAt the end of the year Belgium was the only dents in mines. country with which the service was not re- DIPLOMATIC SERVICE. The chief interest in sumed.
American diplomatic circles in 1915 centred The domestic parcel post continued to grow in about the activities of the German and Austrian proportions during the year. A comprehensive diplomats and diplomatic agents in the United review and investigation into the rural delivery States. An account of their activities, which reservice was undertaken during 1915. New serv. sulted in the recall of Dr. Dumba, Austrian ice established provided rural delivery for fully ambassador, and several officials of the German 2,000,000 additional patrons. Motor vehicle Embassy, will be found in the article UNITED service was authorized under a joint resolution STATES AND THE WAR. passed in Congress.
The representatives of the United States in POSTAL SAVINGS SYSTEM. There was an in the warring countries, to whom were entrusted crease during the year both in the number of the interests of the belligerents, had in many deposits and in the amount deposited in the cases arduous tasks to perform. This was notpostal savings banks. Conditions brought about ably true of Ambassador Gerard in Berlin, and by the European war contributed largely to the Minister Whitlock in Belgium. Ambassador gain. On June 30, 1915, the number of depos- Page, in London, too, had many matters of diffiitors was 525,414, a gain of over 35 per cent culty and importance to manage. There were during the year. The amount of deposits was no important changes among ambassadors and $65,684,708, a gain for the year of $22,240, ministers of the United States in Europe. All 437, or 51 per cent. The largest increase the ambassadors and ministers retained their was in New York City, which was 199.4 per posts. cent.
During 1915 United States embassies, legaPENSIONS. There were on the pension rolls at tions, or consulates, representing the interests of the end of the fiscal year 748,147 names, a net foreign governments, were as follows: loss of 37,092 during the year. The percentage In Serbia, German and Austrian; in Austria, of deaths of Civil War soldiers from 1909–15 in French, British, and Japanese; in Russia, Auscreased gradually from 5.2 to 7.7 per cent, but trian and German; in Germany, French, British, the actual number of deaths does not always Japanese, and Serbian; in France, Austrian, show an increase year by year. The number of German, Turkish, Guatemalan, and Nicaraguan; deaths of Civil War soldiers who were pensioners in Belgium, Austrian, German, British, Serbian, was 33,255, as against 33,369 in the fiscal year Japanese, Danish, and Turkish; in Great Brit1914. The number of deaths of widows on the ain, Austrian, German, and Turkish ; in Japan, roll during the year 1915 was 17,915. The Austrian and German; in Egypt, German, Braamount appropriated for the payment of pen- zilian, and Swiss; in Turkey, French, Serbian, sions was $169,000,000. There was unexpended British, Belgian, and Swiss. at the end of the year about $3,700,000. The One of the most important and interesting ap; appropriations for 1916 were $164,000,000. The pointments of representatives to the United total amount of disbursements for pensions from States was that of V. K. W. Koo, as minister July 1, 1790, to July 1, 1915, was $4,895,475,637, from China, to succeed K. A. J. Fu Shah. Mr. of which amount $4,614,643,267 is charged to al. Koo was educated in Columbia College, where lowances made on the basis of service rendered he made a brilliant record. He is known to have during the Civil War. It is estimated that the a good understanding of American political life total number of Civil War soldiers at the end and problems. He had previously served as minof the year was 396,370, out of a total number ister to Mexico, Peru, and Cuba. His appoint enlisted of 2,213,365. Outside of the Civil War ment was announced on October 25th, and Mr. veterans, there were 24,370 pensioners of the Koo sailed for the United States at once, arriv. war with Spain, on the rolls, and 15,242 pen- ing on October 28th. sioners of the regular army. There were 134 The diplomatic representatives of the United widows of the War of 1812, and 680 survivors, States in 1915, and the representatives of forand 4253 widows of the war with Mexico. There eign countries in the United States are given were 786 survivors and 2046 widows drawing in the accompanying table:
WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN AND ROBERT LANSING Mr. Bryan resigned the portfolio of Secretary of State on June 8, and Mr. Lansing, previously counsellor of the State Department, was appointed on June 23, 1915
Accredited by United States Argentina .....
....F. J. Stimson, Mass. 1914 Austria-Hungary ...........Frederic C. Penfield, Pa. 1913 Brazil ...
....... Edwin V. Morgan, N. Y. 1913 Chile .........................H. P. Fletcher, Pa. 1913 France .....
....W. G. Sharp, Ill. 1912 Germany.....
.James W. Gerard, N. Y. 1913 Great Britain ......... . Walter Hines Page, N. Y. 1913 Italy .........
. Thomas Nelson Page, Va. 1913 Japan.
.. George W. Guthrie, Pa. 1913 Mexico Russia ..........
: George T. Marye, cal.
1914 ..Joseph E. Willard, Va. 1913 Turkey ................... Henry Morgenthau, N. Y. 1913
Accredited to United States
1911 Eduardo Suárez ...
1911 J. J. Jusserand .
1903 Johann Heinrich, Count von Berns.
torff ......................... 1908 Sir Cecil Arthur Spring-Rice .... 1918 Count Vincenzo Macchi di Cellere .. 1914 Viscount Sutemi Chinda
George Bakhméteff ...
... 1911 Don Juan Riano y Gayangos. ................................ ....
MINISTERS PLENIPOTENTIARY Belgium .......... ...Brand Whitlock, 0. 1913 E. Havenith ...
. 1911 Bolivia ........... ...John D. O'Rear, Mo. 1913 Ignacio Calderón ...
.. 1904 .... Paul S. Reinsch, Wis. 1913 V. K. Wellington Koo ..
... 1915 Colombia ..........Thaddeus Austin Thompson, Tex. 1913 Don Julio Betancourt
... 1912 Costa Rica. .. Edward J. Hale. N 1913 Manual Castro Quesada ..
.. 1915 Cuba. .. William E. Gonzales, S. O. 1913 Carlos M. de Céspedes
.. 1914 Denmark .... ..Maurice F. Egan, D. O, 1907 Constantin Brun ....
.. 1913 Dominican Republic ......W. W. Russell 1915 Dr. A. Perez-Perdomo .
... 1915 Ecuador ... Charles S. Hartman, Mont. 1913 Dr. Don Gonzalo S. Córdova .
... 1913 Greece * .. ........ Garrett Droppers 1914 E. A. Coromilas
• 1909 Guatemala .. William H. Leavell, Miss. 1913 Joaquin Antonio Mendez ....
.. 1912 Haiti ....... Bailly-Blanchard. Wis. 1914 Solon Menos ...
....1914 Honduras ........................John Ewing. La. 1913 Dr. Alberto Membreno .. ... 1912 Netherlands + .... Henry Van Dyke, N. J. 1913 W. L. F. 0. Van Rappard ..
... 1913 Nicaragua ............. Benjamin L. Jefferson, Colo. 1913 Emiliano Chamorro .....
.. 1913 Norway .... Albert G. Schmedemann, Wis. 1913 H. H. Bryn
... 1910 Panama . William J. Price, Ky. 1913 Don Eusebius A. Morales
.. 1913 Paraguay ........ ... Daniel J. Mooney, N. Y. 1909 Hector Velazquez
... 1913 Persia .......... .....John L. Caldwell 1914 Mehdi Khan
... 1914 Peru ... Benton McMillin, Tenn. 1913 Federico A. Pezet ..
• 1912 Portugal ....... .. Thomas H. Birch, N. J. 1913 Viscount de Alte
. 1902 Rumania I 1.
. Charles J. Vopicka, III. 1913 Salvador ....... . Boaz W. Long, N. Mex. 1914
1915 Siam ...... ...W. H. Hornibrook 1915 Phya Prabha Karavongse ..
1913 Sweden ..., ......Ira N. Morris. III. 1914 W. A. F. Ekengren
1912 Switzerland . Pleasant A. Stovall, Ga. 1913 Paul Ritter .
1909 Uruguay .. ... Nicolay A. Grevstad, Ill. 1911
Carlos María de Pena ...
1911 Venezuela .... Preston McGoodwin, Okla. 1913 Santos A. Dominici
1914 * Accredited also to Montenegro. † Accredited also to Luxemburg. Accredited also to Serbia and Bulgaria.
Dr. Rafael Zaldivar
SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. The persuade that government to take no step that Chief Justice of the United States was Edward would lead in the direction of war. In recomD. White (born 1845, appointed 1910) of Louisi- mending his course Mr. Bryan disclaimed any ana. The associate justices were: Joseph Mc- intention of minimizing the earnestness of PresiKenna (Cal.), Oliver W. Holmes (Mass.), Wil- dent Wilson's note to the German government, liam R. Day (Ohio), Charles E. Hughes (N. Y.), and declared that the United States should send W. Van Devanter (Wyo.), Joseph R. Lamar a note to Great Britain insisting upon her ob(Ga.), Mahlon Pitney (N. J.), James C. McRey- servance of the principles of international law. nolds (Tenn.). Clerk, James D. Maher. Mar- Mr. Bryan was severely criticised for resigning shal, Frank Key Green. Reporter, C. H. Butler. at a time when the affairs of the Department of
CABINET. The only change in the President's State were at such a critical point. Further cabinet in 1915 was the withdrawal of Mr. criticism was directed against him when it deBryan, Secretary of State. His action came at veloped that he had assured the Austrian ama critical period in diplomatic affairs-on June bassador privately that certain communications 9th. Mr. Bryan's ostensible reason for resign- were not to be taken too seriously. Following ing was the fact that he was unable to agree his resignation, Mr. Bryan made a number of adwith President Wilson as to the course to be dresses defending his course, and urging the impursued toward compelling Germany to cease her portance of the United States remaining at submarine method of warfare on the high seas. peace. He declared that he had devoted his energies to- On June 23rd Robert Lansing was appointed ward the prevention of war, and because of this Secretary of State to succeed Mr. Bryan, and was unable to agree to the sending of the note of on August 28th Frank L. Polk, at that time June 8th to Germany in regard to the Lusitania corporation counsel of the city of New York, disaster. In a personal statement issued on was appointed Counselor of the Department of June 9th, Mr. Bryan contended that the diffi- State to succeed Mr. Lansing. culties between Germany and the United States CONGRESS. The Sixty-third Congress, after should be investigated by an international com- nearly two years of continuous sessions, came to mission, and that Americans should be warned an end on March 4, 1915. The most important to keep off belligerent ships or those carrying measures enacted were new tariff and currency munitions through the danger zone. On June laws, amendments to the anti-trust laws, an inlith a speech of his, "addressed to the German- come-tax law, and the constitutional amendment Americans," appealed to those citizens to exert for the popular election of Senators. Among their influence to convince the German govern- other important measures was the so-called ment of the President's desire for peace, and to Stone Bill for the improvement of the foreign
service of the United States. (See Civil SERV. Wise, Gordon Lee, Samuel J. Tribble, Thomas M. Bell,
Carl Vinson. J. Randall Walker, Dudley M. Hughes.
IDAHO.-SENATORS: I William E. Borah, James 19th.
I. Brady. REPRESENTATIVES (Republicans, 2): vas
At large, Robert M, McCracken, Addison T. Smith.
ILLINOIS-SENATORS: Jas. Hamilton Lewis, last days of the session, to bring about the lim
Lawrence Y. Sherman. REPRESENTATIVES (Demoitation of debate. The Committee on Rules, crats, 10; Republicans, 16; Progressive Republican, however, on February 12th, reported adversely. 1): At large, Burnett M. Chiperfield, Wm. Elza Wil
liams; Martin B. Madden, James R. Mann, William W. On March 2nd, 41 Democratic Senators asked for
Wilson. James T. McDermott, Adolph J. Sabath, James
McAndrews, Frank Buchanan, Thomas Gallagher, Pred to report on a revision of the Senate rules of de A. Britten, George E. F088, Ira 0. Copley,* Charles bate at the next session. The failure of the E. Fuller, John C. McKenzie, Clyde H. Tavender, Ed.
ward J. King, Claudius U. Stone, John A. Sterling, Shipping Bill and other measures, due largely to Joseph G, Cannon, William B. McKinley, Henry 1. filibustering tactics by their opponents, was the Rainey, Loren E. Wheeler, William A. Rodenberg, cause of the agitation regarding the rules of
Martin D. Foster, Thomas's. Williams, Edward E.
Denison. debate in the Senate.
INDIANA.–SENATORS: 1 Benjamin F. Shively, Post
* John W. Kern, REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, 11; and the Indian Supply bills were * John W. Ker
Republicans. 2): Charles Lieb. William A. Cullop. among bills, introduced later, that failed of
William E. Cox, Lincoln Dixon, Ralph W. Moss, Finly passage.
H. Gray, Merrill Moores, John A. M. Adair, Martin A. Sixty-fourth Congress. At a caucus held on Morrison, William R. Wood, George W. Rauch, Cyrus
Cline, Henry A. Barnhart. Feb. 5, 1915, the Democrats in the House re.
IOWA.–SENATORS: † Albert B. Cummins, Wil. nominated Champ Clark speaker, and chose liam S. Kenyon. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrat, 1; Claude Kitchin of North Carolina chairman of Republicans, 10): Charles 4. Kennedy,
Hull, Burton E. Sweet, Gilbert N. Haugen, James W. the Ways and Means Committee and majority
Good, O. William Ramseyer, Cassius 0. Dowell, Horace leader to succeed Oscar Underwood, who had M. Towner, William R. Green, Frank P. Woods, T. J. been elected to the Senate in 1914. The Sixty- Steele.
KANSAS.-SENATORS: fourth Congress convened on Dec. 6, 1915. Dur
William H. Thompson,
+ Charles Curtis. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, 6; ing the nrst week over 2000 bills were intro- Republicans, 2): Daniel R. Anthony, jr., Joseph Tag. duced. President Wilson, on December 7th, read gart, Philip P. Campbell, Dudley Doolittle, Guy T, Hel. his address. The outstanding features were the
re the vering, John R. Connelly, Jouett Shouse, William A.
Ayres. necessity of military and naval preparedness, KENTUCKY.-SENATORS: Ollie M. James, † J. the recommendation of laws for the prosecution C. W. Beckham. REPRESENTATIVES: (Democrats, 9;
Republicans, 2): of plotters against neutrality, and the procla
Alben W. Barkley, David H.
Kincheloe, Robert Y. Thomas, jr., Ben Johnson, mation of the doctrine of Pan-Americanism. Swagar Sherley, Arthur B. Rouse, J. Campbell CanThe following list gives the names of the Sen- trill, Harvey Helm, William J. Fields, John W. Langley,
Caleb Powers. ators and Representatives in the Sixty-fourth
LOUISIANA.-SENATORS: Joseph E. Ransdell, Congress. The year of expiration of the term † Robert F. Broussard. REPRESENTATIVES (Deinoof service of Senators is indicated.
crats, 7: Progressive-Protectionist. 1): Albert Estopinal. H. Garland Dupré, WHITMELL P. MARTIN,* John
T. Watkins, Riley J. Wilson, Lewis L. Morgan, Ladis(Democrats in roman; Republicans in italics; Pro
lac Lazaro 'J
las Lazaro, James B. Aswell. gressives in SMALL CAPS; Progressive Republicans in MAINE, SENATORS: * Charles F. Johnson, Ed italics with *; Independent in CAPS: Prohibitionist in
win C. Burleigh. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrat, 1; roman with *; Socialist in black letter; Progressive
Republicans, 3): Asher 0. Hinds, Daniel J. McGilliProtectionist in SMALL CAPS with *.]
cuddy. John A. Peters, Frank E. Guernsey. ALABAMA.-SENATORS: I John H. Bankhead.
MARYLAND.-SENATORS: John Walter Smith, + Oscar W. Underwood. REPRESENTATIVES (Democ
* Blair Lee. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, 5; Recrats. 10): At large. John W. Abercrombie: Oscar L.
publican, 1); Jesse D. Price. J. Fred. C. Talbott, Gray, s. Hubert Dent, jr., Henry B. Steagall. Fred L.
Charles P. Coady, J. Charles Linthicum, Sydney E. Blackmon. J. Thomas Heflin, William B. Oliver, John Mordd David J. Lewis L. Burnett, Edward B. Almon, George Huddleston.
MASSACHUSETTS. SENATORS: * Henry Cabot ARIZONA.–SENATORS: * Henry F. Ashurst,Lodge. t John W. Weeks, REPRESENTATIVES (DemoMarcus A. Smith, REPRESENTATIVE: (Democrat, 1): crats. 4: Republicans. 12): Allen T. Treadway, Fred. At large, Carl Hayden,
erick H. Gillett, Calvin D. Paige, Samuel E. Winslow, ARKANSAS.-SENATORS: † James P. Clarke, Jo.
John Jacob Rogers, Augustus P. Gardner, Michael F. seph T. Robinson. REPRESENTATIVES: (Democrats, 7): Phelan, Frederick W. Dallinger, Ernest W. Roberts, Thaddeus H. Caraway, William A. Oldfield, John
Peter F. Tague, George Holden Tinkham, James A. Tillman, Otis Wingo, Henderson M. Jacoway, Samuel Gallivan, William H. Carter, Richard Olney. 20., Wil. M. Taylor. William S. Goodwin.
liam S. Greene, Joseph Walsh. CALIFORNIA.–SENATORS: * John D. Works,
MICHIGAN.-SENATORS: William Alden Smith, + James D. Phelan. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, * Charles E. Townsend. REPRESENTATIVES (Demo3; Republicans, 3; Progressives, 2; Progressive Republi- crats. 2: Republicans, 11): Frank E. Doremus, Samcan, 1; Independent, i; Prohibitionist, 1): WILLIAM uel W. Beakes, J. M. 0. Smith, Edward L. Hamilton, KENT. John E. Raker. Charles F. Curry. Julius Kahn, Carl E. Mapes. Patrick H. Kelley, Louis C. Cramton, Jony I. NOLAN. JOHN A. ELSTON, Denver S. Church, Joseph W. Fordney. James C. McLaughlin, George A. Everis A. Haves. Charles H. Randall, * William D. Loud. Frank D. Scott, W. Frank James, Charles A. Stephens,* William Kettner.
Nichols. COLORADO. -SENATORS: + Charles S. Thomas, MINNESOTA. — SENATORS: Knute Nelson, John F. Shafroth. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, * Moses E. Clapp. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrat, 1; 3; Republican, 1): Benjamin C. Hilliard, Charles B. Republicans, 8; Progressive, 1): Sydney Anderson, Timberlake. Edward Keating. Edward T. Taylor.
Franklin F. Ellsworth, Charles R. Davis, Carl C. Van CONNECTICUT.-SENATORS: † Frank B. Brande. Dyke, George R. Smith, Charles A. Lindbergh, Andrew gee. * George P. McLean. REPRESENTATIVES (Repub- J. Volstead. Clarence B. Miller. Halvor Steenerson, licans. 5): P. Davis Oakey. Richard P. Freeman, THOMAS D. SCHALL. John Q. Tilson, Ebenezer J. Hill, James P. Glynn.
MISSISSIPPI.-SENATORS: * JohnSharp Wil
A. duPont, liams. t James K. Vardaman. REPRESENTATIVES t Willard Saulsbury. REPRESENTATIVE (Republican, (Democrats. 7: vacancy, 1): Ezekiel S. Candler, JT 1): At large, Thomas W. Miller.
Hubert D. Stephens, Benjamin G. Humphreys, Thomas FLORIDA.–SENATORS: † Duncan U. Fletcher, U. Sisson, Byron P. Harrison, Percy E. Quin, James * Nathan P. Bryan. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, W. Collier. 4): Stephen M. Sparkman, Frank Clark, Emmett Wil. MISSOURI.- SENATORS: William J. Stone, son, William J. Sears.
* James A. Reed. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, 14; GEORGIA.–SENATORS: 4 Hoke Smith. I Thomas Republicans. 2): James T. Lloyd, William W. Rucker, W. Hardwick. REPRESENTATIVES (Democrats, 12): Joshua W. Alexander. Charles F. Booher. William . Charles G. Edwards, Frank Park, Charles R. Crisp, Borland Clement C. Dickinson, Courtney W. Hamlin. William C. Adamson, William S. Howard, James W. Dorsey W. Shackleford, Champ Clark, Jacob E. Veeker,
* Term expires 1917. Term expires 1919. † Term expires 1921.
licans, °53?ge ?: McLean. REPRES Frank B. Brande