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1900, from 89,000 to 114,000, and very much fessor, in private conversation, of an unfavorfaster between 1880 and 1890, from 64,000 to able judgment of their qualifications for office 89,000.”

would be a ground for dismissal. This attitude, ACADEMIC FREEDOM. Two cases of difficulty unjustifiable in general, the committee regards between instructors in universities and the ad- as especially unsuitable in officials of a State ministrative authorities have received a great university. deal of attention during the year. At the Uni- The trustees of the University of Pennsylversity of Utah the president did not nominate vania terminated the connection of Dr. Scott four professors and instructors for the academic Nearing with the institution. Their action year 1915–16. The faculty, alumni, students, called forth a great deal of discussion and critiand many citizens objected to this action, but cism on the part of alumni of that university on March 17th the regents sustained the presi. and others interested in university administradent and reëlected him for a term of two years. tion. It was claimed that, for the past two As a result 17 members of the faculty resigned years, it had been repeatedly stated by the press their positions on the ground that it seemed to that Dr. Nearing would be dismissed because them "impossible to retain their self-respect his views differed from those of the trustees. and remain in the university.” To justify their The trustees unanimously adopted a resolution position the regents issued a statement in which in which the following statement of conditions they said: “The university enters into contracts occurs: "In order to discharge the duty laid with its professors and instructors for one year upon the board by the charter, the trustees are at a time. When these contracts expire the pro- required to observe and determine the qualificafessors and instructors are at liberty to decline tions of prospective teachers before appointing further employment with the university. The them as professors. The usual routine is an board has the same right to decline again to engagement as an instructor, an advance to an employ them. Professors and instructors look assistant professorship, followed—if justifiedafter their best interests from their own view by appointment as professor. Dr. Nearing folpoint. The university does the same. Not in- lowed this usual course. He was found to have frequently professors decline further employ an attractive personality and many good qualiment and leave the university because they can ties as a teacher. During the entire period of obtain better positions or more remuneration the few years in which he was connected with elsewhere. The board considers that both par- the university, however, his efforts—although ties have equal rights as to freedom of con- doubtless perfectly sincere were so constantly tract." They charged that one instructor had and continuously misunderstood by the public “geen fit to belittle the university and to speak and by many parents of students, that, much in an uncomplimentary way of the administra to the regret of the trustees, they felt unable tion,” that another instructor had "seen fit to to give him the promotion to a professorship speak very disrespectfully, if not insultingly, which he would otherwise have obtained. The of the chairman of the board of regents.” The termination of his temporary engagement was, council of the American Association of Univer- therefore, absolutely in the line of the duty laid sity Professors authorized the appointment of upon the trustees by the charter and in justice a committee of inquiry to report upon the case. to Dr. Nearing himself, who was thus free to

A number of departments were involved in employ his talents in fields not circumscribed the difficulty. It seemed best to the council of by either requests or promises to avoid strife the American Association of University Pro- and turmoil, which are neither necessary nor fessors "to take measures to secure a thorough desirable accompaniments of the objects for investigation of the conditions of professorial which young men are sent to college by their service in the university.” A committee was parents." therefore appointed to investigate and report on As one of the results of the dropping of Dr. the case. The results of their work are con- Nearing, members of the faculty of the univertained in a pamphlet of 82 pages entitled The sity urged "the definition of the conditions unReport of the Committee of Inquiry on Condi. der which professors may be appointed or dig. tions at the University of Utah. The charges missed.” At a recent meeting of the trustees made by President Kingsbury against certain an important amendment to the statutes was of the professors are summarized as follows: adopted. It provides: “There shall be four (a) "speaking in a very uncomplimentary way grades in the faculty-professor, assistant proabout the administration;" (b) ""speaking very fessor, instructor, and assistant. Professors are disrespectfully of the Chairman of the Board to be appointed for an indefinite term. An of Regents;" (c) “speaking in a depreciatory assistant professor will receive a first appointway of the university before classes ;” (d) ment for three years, and reappointments for “working against the administration.” With terms of five years. Instructors and assistants regard to the charges specified above the com- will be appointed for one year.” The section mittee finds as follows: (1) Of the four charges dealing with the removal of a professor or asbrought against these professors, two specify sistant professor is as follows: "A professor acts-namely (a) uttering in a private con- or an assistant professor shall be removed by versation with a colleague an unfavorable opin- the board of trustees only after a conference ion of the chairman of the board of regents, between a committee, consisting of one repreand (b) speaking, in private conversation, in sentative from each of the faculties in the uni"a very uncomplimentary way of the university versity (such representatives being chosen by administration"-which are not proper grounds the faculty of which the representative is a for the dismissal of university teachers. (2) member), and a committee of equal number from The president of the university and the chair- the board of trustees, at which conference the man of the board of regents, by sanctioning the provost shall preside, and upon a report from recent action and publication of the board, vir- such conference to the board of trustees for contually gave notice that the expression by a pro- sideration and action by them."

A committee of inquiry of the American As- lessness and friction, but that there is not more. sociation of University Professors, of which A system inherently absurd in the present sitA. 0. Lovejoy of Johns Hopkins University is uation has been made workable because of the chairman, is preparing a report on the case. reasonableness and good will of the governors on

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY one side and, even more, of the governed on the PROFESSORS. A meeting called for the purpose other. ... Let me add that I can think of nothof organizing the American Association of Uni- ing 80 well calculated to lift discussions of versity Professors was held in New York City educational defects and possibilities from the Jan. 1 and 2, 1915. Over 250 were in attend- plane of emotion to that of intelligence as the ance. Prof. John Dewey of Columbia Univer- existence of a truly representative body of prosity was elected permanent chairman, and Pro- fessors. The best way to put educational prinfessor Overstreet of the College of the City of ciples where they belong-in the atmosphere of New York was made recording secretary. The scientific discussion is to disentangle them meeting decided upon the principles involved in from the local circumstances with which they the several articles of the constitution. A com- so easily get bound up in a given institution. mittee was appointed to draw up the text of a So to free them is already to have taken a step provisional constitution in conformity with the in their generalization. The very moment we action taken by the meeting. This draft was free our perplexities from their local setting to be submitted for ratification at the next an- they perforce fall into a truer perspective. Pasnual meeting, held in Washington, D. C., De- sion, prejudice, partisanship, cowardice, and cember, 1915. The decisions with respect to truculence alike tend to be eliminated, and imsome of the principal features of the plan of partial and objective considerations to come to organization were as follows: Any person may the front. The very existence of a recognized be nominated for membership who holds, and free forum of discussion with one's fellows gathfor 10 years has held, a teaching or research ered from all parts of the country will make position in any one, or more than one, American for sanity and steadiness quite as much as for university or college, or in a professional school courage." Newspaper reports had frequently of similar grade; provided, that no person not asserted that the purpose of the association was having teaching or research for his principal to safeguard the cause of academic freedom. occupation, and no administrative officer not Professor Dewey maintained that cases of ingiving a substantial amount of instruction, shall fringement upon the rights of instructors were be eligible. For the guidance of the council in “too rare to demand or even suggest the formaacting upon nominations, it was voted, upon tion of an association. Existing learned sociemotion of Professor Janeway, that “it is the ties are already disposed to deal with cases of sense of this meeting that the association shall infringement as they may come to light. The be composed of college and university teachers existence of publicly recognized and enforced of recognized scholarship or scientific produc- standards would tend almost automatically to tivity.” In an introductory address Prof. John protect the freedom of the individual and to se Dewey discussed the purposes of the proposed cure institutions against this abuse." association. He said: “We are in a period of BENEFACTIONS. The aggregate of gifts and intense and rapid growth of higher education. bequests, including grants, of the different cit. No minister of public education controls the ies and municipalities reported for the year growth; there is no common educational legis- 1913–14, is $26,670,017, an increase of $2,018,lature to discuss and decide its proper course; 059 over the previous year. Of this amount no single tribunal to which moot questions may $4,598,372 was designated for increase of plant, be brought. There are not even long-established $3,648,789 for current expenses, and the retraditions to guide the expansive growth. mainder, $18,422,856, for endowment. FortyWhatever unity is found is due to the pressure five institutions reported gifts above $100,000. of like needs, the influence of institutional imi. During 1915 the following institutions have antation and rivalry, and to informal exchange of nounced gifts and bequests: Barnard College, experience and ideas. These methods have ac- $500,000, by Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, for a students' complished great things. Within almost a sin- building; University of Buffalo, property worth gle generation our higher education has under $140,000, by Women's Educational and Indusgone a transformation amounting to a revolu- trial Union; University of Cincinnati, $250,000, tion. And I venture to say that, in spite of the by Mrs. Mary M. Emory for a Medical College deficiencies we so freely deplore, no country has Building, contingent upon raising of additional at any time accomplished more in the same $250,000, which was accomplished by July 1st; number of years. ... The need of a voluntary Cornell University, $100,000, by George F. Baker, organization is the greater because of certain for dormitory; Delaware College, $500,000 by facts in the history of the American university one who refused to divulge his name; Harvard The rapid growth already referred to has oc- University, $150,000, by will of Mrs. Eunice curred under a machinery designed for very dif- Melles Hudson, to found a professorship in ferent conditions. We are doing our educa Archæology; $250,000, by Mr. James J. Hill and tional work under methods of control developed others, for establishment of instruction in sciendecades ago, before anything like the existing tific railroading; $100,000 by will of James J. type of university was thought of. Our official Myers; Harvard College Observatory, $150,000, methods of fixing fundamental educational pol- by will of Mrs. Mary Anna Palmer; University ity as well as of recruiting, appointing, promot- of Illinois, $215,000, by Capt. Thomas J. Sniith; ing, and dismissing teachers, are an inheritance Illinois Wesleyan University, $200,000, from from bygone conditions. Their lack of adapta. Mrs. Martha Buck; Massachusetts Institute of tion to the present situation is due not to sin Technology, two anonymous gifts of $150,000 ister intent, but to the fact that they are a heri. and $100,000, for dormitories; Miami Univertage from colonial days and provincial habits. sity, $270,000, by will of Mrs. Laura L. Ogrien The wonder is not that there is so much rest. Whaling; Middlebury College, $200,000, by Bar ton A. Hepburn, for men's dormitory; North- the Bureau of Education conferred 26,533 bacwestern, estate valued at $1,005,000, by will of calaureate, 5248 graduate and 749 honorary de. John R. Lindgren; Oberlin College, $3,000,000, grees in 1914. The B.A. degree was conferred by will of Charles M. Hall; $165,000, by Mrs. D. upon 7368 men and 7331 women, the B.S. upon F. Allen, for erection of an art building; Pomona 5026 men and 1069 women, the M.A. upon 1680 College, complete endowment fund of $1,000,000; men and 853 women, and the Ph.D. upon 446 Princeton University, $125,000, from Mrs. Wil men and 73 women. According to Science, Oct. liam Church Osborn to establish Dodge pro- 22, 1915, 556 degrees of Doctor of Philosophy or fessorship of mediæval history; $100,000 froin Science were conferred in 1915. Of these 309 anonymous giver to endowment of professorship were in the natural and exact sciences. Eightyin economics; Sheffield Scientific School, Yale five were given in Chemistry. This is more University, $100,000, by Frederick W. Vander- than twice the number found in any other subbilt; $100,000, by graduate of class of 1887; Sim-ject. The University of Chicago conferred 79, mons College, $100,000, by will of Miss Helen Columbia 70, and Harvard 58. Collamore; Stevens Institute, $100,000, by Wil- GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD. During the year liam Hall Walker, for laboratory of mechanical the General Education Board announced the arts; Teachers College, Columbia University, following gifts: Vassar College, $200,000; Den$500,000, by will of Miss Grace Hoadley Dodge; nison University, $125,000; Pomona College, University of Virginia, $100,000, from John B. $100,000; Rural Schools in the South-White Cobb, for a new laboratory; Wellesley College, and Colored, $146,000; Farm Demonstrations completed endowment fund of $2,000,000; Yale and Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Maine, $21,000; University, about $1,000,000, by will of Justus Farm Demonstrations and Boys' and Girls' S. Hotchkiss; an amount estimated from $750,- Clubs, New Hampshire, $10,000; Carlton Col000 to $1,500,000, by will of Gen. Brayton Ives; lege, $100,000; Hobart College, $50,000; Lafay$350,000 for Anna M. R. Lauder Memorial ette College, $200,000; Kalamazoo College, $25,Foundation, School of Medicine; Yale College, 000; Hampton Institute, $25,000; University of $150,000, from Charles H. Pine for scholarship Chicago, $75,000; Stevens Institute of Technol. fund.

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The Reverend JOSEPH A. MULRY, S.J.

EDWARD C. ELLIOTT, Ph.D. President of Fordham University

Chancellor University of Montana FOUR EDUCATORS PROMINENT IN 1915

ogy, $250,000. At the June meeting of the THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCE- Board it was resolved to enter the field of eduMENT OF TEACHING. The ninth annual report of cational investigation, research, and experiment the president and the treasurer of the Carnegie by assisting research workers connected with Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, institutions of learning, in addition to supportfor the year ending Sept. 30, 1914, shows a total ing independent investigators and experiments. endowment of $14,250,000, a surplus of $1,245, In accordance with this resolution appropria000, an annual income of $746,000, and an an- tions have been made for studying the school nual expenditure of $716,000. Of this $32,000 system of Gary, Ind., for investigating the trainwas spent in administration, $47,000 in educa- ing of teachers in high schools, investigation in tional inquiry and $634,000 in retiring allow- beginning reading, study of the Hampton Instiances and pensions. During the year 29 retir. tute system, and several other projects. ing allowances and 15 widows' pensions were NEW PRESIDENTS. During 1915 the following granted, the average grant being $1648. The college presidents were elected: Frank D. Blodgtotal number of allowances now in force is 332, ett, head of the department of pedagogy, One. the total number of widows' pensions 100, the onta Normal School, was made president of general average grant being $1594. The total Adelphi College; Dr. J. W. Cantwell was elected number of allowances granted since the begin- president of the Agricultural College, Stillwater, ning of the foundation is 595, the total expendi- Okla.; Dr. Harry Means Crooks, president of ture for this purpose being $3,551,000. The Di- Albany College, Oregon, was made president of vision of Educational Inquiry reported threc Alma College, Alma, Mich.; John G. Bowman, extensive studies in hand: First, the study of formerly president of University of Iowa, was legal education, undertaken at the request of a elected director of the American College of committee of the American Bar Association. Surgeons; Dr. Rufus Von Kleiss Smid was made The requirements and examinations for admis- president of University of Arizona; Dr. Charles sion to the bar in each of our States were Wesley Flint was elected president of Cornell studied at first hand and each of the separate College, Iowa; Dr. Charles A. Prosser was made institutions that are teaching law throughout director of the William Hood Dunwoody Instithe country has been or will be visited. Second, tute of Minneapolis; Dr. John Balcom Shaw was a comprehensive study of engineering educa- elected president of Elmira College; Rev. Joseph tion, undertaken at the request of a joint com- A. Mulry was made president of Fordham Unimittee representing the six national engineering versity; Dr. Ray Lyman Wilbur was elected societies. Special studies were made of the president of Leland Stanford Jr. University; situation of the student upon entering and upon Dr. Edward C. Elliott, director of the School of leaving his engineering studies. Several thou Education, University of Wisconsin, was made sand engineers are coöperating in formulating chancellor of University of Montana. This is a the views of the profession concerning the pres. new position created by the last Legislature. ent methods and results of the engineering The chancellor is head of all State educational schools. Third, a study of the training of teach- institutions, including the State University, ers in the State of Missouri, undertaken at the Agricultural College, School of Mines, and State request of the Governor, the State Superintend- Normal School; Dr. A. Monroe Stowe was made ent, and representative educators of the State. president of Toledo University; Dr. Henry SuzAll of the institutions providing such training zallo, professor of sociology, Teachers College, are being studied in the light of reports upon Columbia University, was elected president of the training and status of each of 18,000 teach- University of Washington; Dr. Ernest 0. Holers of the State.

land, Superintendent of Schools, Louisville, Ky., DEGREES, The 567 institutions reporting to was made president of Washington State Col.

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