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782 released since the work was commenced in partment of Agriculture to start control work 1906, or more than one-third of the original area. in Northern California in coöperation with the Cattle dipping vats to the number of 6678 were State authorities. in operation where cattle were dipped under TRICHINOSIS. Further investigations led to Federal or State supervision to rid them of ticks the discovery that refrigeration at a temperature and 11,268,668 inspections were made of cattle not higher than 5° F. for a period of 20 days is for ticks.

effective in destroying Trichinella spiralis in Hog CHOLERA. Field experiments, demonstra- pork. tions, and educational and preventive work were SCABIES. During the course of the work of carried on during the year under the appropria- eradicating parasites causing scabies 15,659,624 tion made by Congress. The use of properly pre- sheep were inspected, of which 3,790,967 were pared serum had a pronounced effect. Syste- dipped; 1,264,009 cattle were inspected, and 588,matic eradication work conducted in 16 counties 228 dipped; and 3105 horses were inspected, of in nearly as many States showed that whereas which 2682 were dipped. 178 hogs in 1000 died from cholera in 1912 and Ox WARBLES. Investigations reported by Car169 in 1913, only 49 in 1000 died in 1914. But penter and his assistants in Ireland and later 62,690 died in these counties in 1914, as como confirmed by Hadwen in Canada show that Hypopared with approximately 200,000 in each of the derma bovis may enter its host by penetrating two years preceding. The results of the work the skin. indicate that the eradication of hog cholera from Bibliography. Among the works published the United States, if it can ever be accomplished, were the following: P. Cagny and R. Gouin, must be a work of many years. During the Hygiène et maladies du bétail (2 ed., Paris, year 80 places were licensed to manufacture anti- 1915); R. A. Craig, Common Diseases of Farm hog-cholera serum and hog-cholera virus. Animals (Philadelphia and London, 1915); W.

DOURINE. Good progress was made in the Ellenberger and H. Baum, Lehrbuch der Topoeradication work with dourine carried on during graphischen Anatomie des Pferdes (Berlin, the year in Montana, Nebraska, North and South 1914); L. Franck, Handbuch der tierärztlichen Dakota, Wyoming, and on the Navajo Indian Geburtshilfe (5th rev, and enl. ed., Berlin, 1914); Reservation in Arizona and New Mexico. In C. Kunk, Die Vitamine (Wiesbaden, 1914); F. the course of this work 52,896 samples of blood B. Hadley, The Horse in Health and Disease were tested, of which 1515 or 2.7 per cent gave (Philadelphia and London, 1915); E. W. Hoare, positive reactions, most of the positives coming editor, A System of Veterinary Medicine (vol. from other sections than those covered during ii, Chicago, 1915); G. S. Hopkins, A Guide to the previous year.

the Dissection of the Blood Vessels and Nerves TUBERCULOSIS. Studies of tuberculosis in of the Pectoral and Pelvic Limbs of the Horse progress for a number of years led the Federal (Ithaca, N. Y., 1914); W. W. Keen, Animal Bureau of Animal Industry to the conclusions Experimentation and Medical Progress (Boston (1) that its propagation among cattle depends and New York, 1914); J. A. Kolmer, Infection, more largely on actual contact between tubercu- Immunity, and Specific Therapy (Philadelphia, lous and healthy cattle than on any other pos- 1915); R. Ostertag, trans. by E. V. Wilcox, sible cause of infection; (2) that no wide sepa- Guide for Meat Inspectors (New York, 1915); ration between stables and pens occupied by H. C. Reeks, The Common Colics of the Horse, tuberculous and healthy herds of cattle is neces- Their Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatsary to protect the latter against infectious ma- ment (3d ed., Chicago, 1914); C. G. Saunders, terial discharged by the former; (3) that a Canine Medicine and Surgery (Chicago, 1915); thorough cleaning of an infected stable in pre. R. Schmaltz, Atlas de Anatomie des Pferdes paring it for a healthy herd is a factor of pos- (part 3, Berlin, 1914); F. S. Schoenleber and sibly even greater importance than the use of R. R. Dykstra, Castration of Domesticated Anidisinfectants; and (4) that tuberculosis among mals (New York, 1915); S. Sisson, The Anatomy hogs depends almost exclusively on their direct of the Domestic Animals (2d ed, rev., Philadelexposure to tuberculous cattle and to material phia and London, 1914); E. J. Wortley, Poulderived from such cattle, and only very slightly try Diseases (New York, 1915); H. Zinson the exposure of healthy to tuberculous hogs. ser, Infection and Resistance (New York,

ANTHRAX. In an experimental preparation 1914). of an immune serum to be used in connection VICTORIA. A state of the Commonwealth with the spore vaccine for the immunization of of Australia, bounded by New South Wales on animals against anthrax the Federal Bureau of the north and South Australia on the west. The Animal Industry met with considerable success, area is 87,884 square miles. Population, achaving proved the effectiveness of the simul- cording to the 1911 census, 1,315,551, exclusive taneous method of vaccination beyond a doubt. of full-blooded aboriginals; 1914 estimate, 1,430,The serum was also found to have a consider. 667. able curative value.

The capital is Melbourne, which is also the BACILLARY WHITE DIARRHEA OF CHICKS. It temporary capital of the Commonwealth; its was found possible by means of the macroscopic population, including surburbs, was 588,971 in agglutination test of the blood for Bacterium 1971. The executive authority is vested in a pullorum to remove infected fowls from breeding Governor appointed by the crown and aided by flocks. Such testing was successfully carried on an executive council of 12 members. There is by the Connecticut Experiment Station and was a Parliament consisting of two Houses—the commenced by the Massachusetts Experiment Legislative Council of 34 members, elected for Station.

the 17 provinces for six years, and the LegislaRABIES. A serious wave of rabies infection tive Assembly of 65 members, elected for three of wild and domesticated animals, particularly years. There is universal adult suffrage. Govof coyotes, which threatened to become wide- ernor in 1915, Sir Arthur Lyulph Stanley; Lieuspread in the Northwest, led the Federal De- tenant-Governor, Sir J. Madden; premier, treas


urer, and minister of labor, Sir Alexander James and Jan. 1, 1915, horses numbered 361,000 and Peacock. See AUSTRALIA.

354,000, valued at $35,739,000 and $38,586,000; RAILWAYS. The government railways of Vic- mules numbered 64,000 and 62,000, valued at $7,toria during the year 1915 suffered from dimin- 680,000 and $7,936,000; milch cows numbered ished returns due to a lessened traffic and war 359,000 and 349,000, valued at $14,898,000 and conditions generally. The causes assigned were $15,182,000; other cattle numbered 472,000 and reduction in schedule rates for starving stock, 450,000, valued at $13,310,000 and $12,870,000; fodder, and seed-wheat, as well as for military sheep numbered 734,000 and 720,000, valued at men, animals, and equipment for the expedition- $3,597,000 and $3,240,000; swine numbered 1,ary forces carried at one-half full rates, for in- 023,000 and 956,000, valued at $7,161,000 and creased material for road making for which a $7,552,000. The production of wool in 1915 and low rate was made, and an unusually large and 1914 was 1,978,000 and 2,063,000 pounds, reunproductive train mileage due to drought, and spectively. the reduction in tonnage of freight. As the re- MINERAL PRODUCTION. The total production sult of the decreased revenue and the increase of iron ore in the State in 1914 was 346,382 long in working expenses due to the payment of higher tons, compared with 492,649 long tons in 1913. wages, passenger fares and freight rates were The marketed value of the product in 1914 was increased and these higher rates came into opera- $719,415, compared with a value of $983,279 in tion on October 1st, from which an increase of 1913. The production of coal in the State was £260,000 it was hoped would be secured. There 7,959,535 short tons, valued at $8,032,448. This were on June 30, 1915, 3875 miles of line open was 868,533 tons less than in 1913, with a defor traffic as compared with 3835 miles on June cline in value of $920,205. In spite of this the 30, 1914.

output was greater than in any year previous to Progress on the electrification of the Melbourne 1913. The number of men employed in the coal suburban railways was considerably retarded by mines in 1914 was 9183. The value of the total the abnormal conditions due to the war. Ac mineral production in 1914 was $16,400,347, cordingly it was not possible to give any indi. compared with $17,178,580 in 1913. cation of the probable date of the introduction TRANSPORTATION. The total railway mileage of electric traction.

of the State on June 30, 1914, amounted to 7401; HISTORY. In March the Victorian Rifle Asso- of this 3497 was main track. About 185 miles ciation raised a special corps of sharpshooters of new track was constructed during the year. for the front. Late in April the State of Vic- EDUCATION. The total school population in toria invited subscriptions in London to a loan the State in 1914 was 616,168. The enrollment of £2,250,000 to be used in the construction of in the public schools was 427,927. The average railways. The money raised was to be entirely daily attendance was 281,976. The teachers emexpended in Great Britain in the purchase of ployed numbered 11,336, of whom 9383 were fesupplies. London capitalists subscribed to the males, and 1953

males. The average full amount of the loan. Difficulties with Ger- monthly salary of male teachers was $60.59, and man mining interests in Victoria in August of females $40.66. caused the introduction of a bill providing for FINANCE. The report of the auditor of pubthe cancellation of all contracts with German lic accounts for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, capitalists and the reorganization of several of 1915, showed a balance on Oct. 1, 1913, of $482, the mining companies so as to exclude German 823. The receipts for the year amounted to $7,capital.

797,532; the disbursements to $7,645,357, leaving VILKITZKY'S EXPLORATIONS. See Ex- a balance on Oct. 1, 1914, of $635,417. PLORATION; and POLAR RESEARCH.

CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS. The charitable VILLA, FRANCISCO. See MEXICO, History. and correctional institutions under the control

VIRGINIA. POPULATION. The estimated of the State include the Penitentiary at Richpopulation of the State on July 31, 1915, was mond, State Farm at Lassister Post Office, the 2,171,014. The population in 1910 was 2,061,612. State Hospital at Petersburg, the Eastern State

AGRICULTURE. The acreage, production, and Hospital at Williamsburg, Southern Hospital at value of the principal crops, as estimated by the Marion, Western Hospital at Staunton, Virginia United States Department of Agriculture, in State Epileptic Colony and Virginia Colony for 1914–15, were as follows:

Feeble-minded at Madison Heights, the Catawba

Sanatorium at Catawba, the Virginia School for A creage Prod. Bu. Value the Deaf and Blind at Staunton, and the Vir2,125,000 60,562,000 $42,999,000 ginia School for the Colored Deaf and Blind at 1,921,000 39,380,000 31,898,000 Newport News. In addition there are several 1,230,000 16,974,000 18,332,000 institutions supported by the State, but owned 779,000 11,296,000 225,000 5,625,000 3,094,000 and controlled by independent boards. The State

191,000 2,960,000 1,717,000 Board of Charities and Corrections has control Rye

70,000 1,015,000 944,000
58,000 754,000 679,000

of the jails and alms houses.
12,000 348,000 261,000

STATE GOVERNMENT. Governor, Henry C. 11,000 286,000 229,000 Stuart; Lieutenant-Governor, J. T. Ellyson; 140,000 17,580,000 15,675,000 Secretary of Commonwealth, B. O. James; Audi

112,000 Hay

700,000 a 945,000 14,836,000 tor, C. Lee Moore; Treasurer, A. W. Harman,

1914 650,000 468,000 8,050,000 Jr.; Superintendent of Instruction, R. C. Tobacco ...1915

192,000 6 144 375 13,571,000 Stearnes; Attorney-General, J. Garland Pollard;

175,000 113,750 10,238,000 Cotton ....1915 36,000

870,000 Adjutant-General, W. W. Sale; Commissioner 1914 45,000 25,000 880,000 of Agriculture, George W. Koiner; Commisa Tons. b Pounds. c Bales.

sioner of Insurance, Joseph Button--all Demo

crats. LIVE STOCK. The United States Department JUDICIARY. Supreme Court of Appeals: Chief of Agriculture estimated that on Jan. 1, 1916, Justice, James Keith; Justices, s. G. Whittle,


1915 1914




1914 1915 1914 1915 1914 .1915





c 16,000




Joseph L. Kelly, George M. Harrison, and Rich- rate has sensibly diminished. The year 1914 ard H. Cardwell; Clerk, H. Stewart Jones. closed in Berlin with a birth record which was STATE LEGISLATURE:

3500 less than in 1913. The excess of births

over deaths was 5100 less. Parkes of Great BritSenate

ain estimates the total destruction of life in

House Joint Ballot


Europe in the two years of war as nearly 20,000,Republicans


16 000 persons. The factors causing unfavorable

conditions for the birth rate after the war are Democratic majority.. 32 76 108

an increase in the excess of females, and the gur

vival of the weaker men, physically and menVIRGINIA, UNIVERSITY OF. A State institu- tally. History shows that after war the birth tion for higher education, founded in 1818 at rate declines, but rises again in the following Charlottesville, Va. The total enrollment in all years, above the position it occupied before. A departments in the autumn of 1915 was 1014. victorious war is followed by an economic adThere were 100 members in the faculty, including vance, during which also fertility is increased. professors, instructors, and assistants. There

In New York State the infant mortality has were no notable changes in the faculty during dropped from 137 to 112 births per thousand, the year. Bequests and donations amounting to which denotes an actual saving of over 1400 $286,790 were received. The endowment funds lives annually, and which followed an educaat the end of the fiscal year amounted to $2,211, tional campaign of a year, costing $14,500. 472, and the total income to $344,315. The New York City's death rate was 14 per 1000. library contained about 100,000 volumes. The The mortality of children of alien parents is president was E. A. Alderman, D.C.L., L.L.D. VIRGIN ISLANDS. A presidency of the is explained by the statement that foreign moth

lower than that of the native population. This Leeward Islands colony. Tortola is the largest ers stay at home more, and are more with their island (there are about 32); Road Town (in children, and that health authorities come into Tortola), the chief town, had in 1911, 410 inhabitants. Cotton, sugar-cane, and limes are foreign mothers. According to a recent bulletin

more frequent and personal contact with the grown.

issued by the Census Bureau, the total number

of deaths in the 25 States comprised within the

1913-14 registration area, for 1914, was 898,059, corImports .. 7,009 £ 7,579 £ 8,717 & 8,397 responding to a death rate of 13.6 per thousand, Exports

5,951 7,519 6,684 Revenue 2,335 2,371 6,091 7,335

which is 16 per cent less than the average for Expenditure 2,050 2,334 5,964 6,036 the decade between 1901 and 1905. Rhode IsShipping * 13,796 12,853 12,770 13,195 land, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, * Tonnage entered and cleared.

Vermont, Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, and New

Hampshire showed decreases, while · Michigan VITAL STATISTICS. The decrease in the showed a slight increase in the death rate. In birth rate throughout the Western world has cities of 100,000 or over the tendency is still to been noticeable for years. In Great Britain it show a decrease, notably Jersey City, New York, was 22.9 per thousand during the last year, a San Francisco, Denver, Newark, N. J., Los decrease of 3.3 below the mean rate for 10 pre- Angeles, Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Ga., Lowell, Mass., ceding years. At the same time the death rate and Paterson, N. J. But from these figures the shows an increase, being 14.9 per thousand, 1.2 relative health advantages of different States above the mean for the last decade. A compila- cannot be inferred without further investigation. tion of the birth and death rates in several Nearly 18 per cent of all deaths were of infants foreign countries yields the following statistics. under 1 year, and more than 25 per cent were In 1913 the birth rate per thousand population among children under 5 years. After 5 years the was as follows: Russia, 43.9; Bulgaria, 42.0; highest rates obtained between the ages of 70 and Rumania, 39.2; Serbia, 38.5; Austria, 32.6; Hun- 74 for both sexes, a little higher for women alone. gary, 35.7; Italy, 33.3; Spain, 33.1; Portugal, The death rate for tuberculosis declined from 32.3; Germany, 29.8; Holland, 28.6; Denmark, 149.5 per thousand in 1912 to 147.6 in 1913. 27.5; Norway, 26.1; Sweden, 24.7; Great Brit. The rates for typhoid fever, scarlet fever, diphain,' 25.0; Switzerland, 25.0; Belgium, 23.6; theria, croup, pneumonia (all forms), diarrhea, France, 19.6. Hand in hand with the decrease and enteritis have shown a general decline since in birth rate, however, the death rate similarly 1900; while there has been an almost continuous decreased from East to West. The death rate increase from year to year since 1900 in the per thousand population in 1913 was: Italy, death rates from cancer, organic heart dis28.9; Rumania, 24.8; Bulgaria, 23.5; Serbia, eases, endocarditis, and nephritis. The rate for 22.1; Hungary, 23.1; Spain, 23.3; Austria, 23.0; cancer rose from 63 per hundred thousand in Portugal, 19.8; France, 17.8; Germany, 16.2; 1900 to 78.9 in 1913. Similar alarming increase Belgium, 15.2; Switzerland, 15.1; Great Brit of the death rate from cancer is noted in Great ain, 14.0; Sweden, 14.0; Holland, 13.6; Denmark, Britain. See also STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION, 12.9. From the comparison of these two series AMERICAN. of numbers, the following conclusion can be The following statistics as to contagious disdrawn. The increase of population in 1913 per eases throughout the world are compiled from thousand population has been: Bulgaria, 18.5; the United States Public Health Reports. While Serbia, 16.4; Holland, 15.0; Russia, 15.0; Den- in many instances incomplete and misleading, mark, 14.6; Rumania, 14.4; Germany, 15.6; they are the best obtainable. Italy, 13.4; Portugal, 12.7; Norway, 12.6; Hun- SMALLPOX. Arabia, 57 cases, 53 deaths; Argary, 12.1; Austria, 11.3; Great Britain, 11.0; gentina, 1 death; Australia, 470 cases, 3 deaths; Sweden, 10.7; Switzerland, 7.9; Spain, 9.8; Bel- Austria-Hungary, 1436 cases, 250 deaths; Belgium, 8.6; France, 1.8.

gium, 8039 cases, 14 deaths; Brazil, 1114 cases, During the war period, of course, the birth 414 deaths; British South Africa, 3 cases, i



death; British Honduras, 1 case; Bulgaria, 121 the benefits of animal experimentation appeared cases; Canada, 199 cases, 7 deaths; Canary Is- in an address by Landis, health officer of Cinlands, 3 deaths; Ceylon, 459 cases, 125 deaths; cinnati. He showed that the objects sought are China, 112 cases, 164 deaths; Cuba, 8 cases, 2 simply the prevention of suffering, disease, and deaths; Dutch East Indies, 3205 cases, 825 death, and the prolongation of life of man and deaths; Egypt, 243 cases, 70 deaths; France, of animals. The lower animals have been so "present”; Germany, 93 cases, 2 deaths; Great far benefited that many diseases which formerly Britain, 72 cases, 10 deaths; Greece, 98 cases, 83 levied a tremendous toll of animal lives, are deaths; Guadalupe, "present”; India, 1346 cases, now under control or stamped out in large 1164 deaths; Indo-China, 163 cases, 33 deaths;

Anthrax, which killed millions of stock Italy, 9 cases; Japan, 147 cases, 45 deaths; Mar- a few years ago; pleuropneumonia (entirely tinique, 5 cases; Mexico, 978 cases, 477 deaths; eliminated in this country at a cost of $1,500,Netherlands, 5 cases, 1 death; Newfoundland, 1 000), which caused in England alone a loss of case; Norway, 8 cases, 2 deaths; Persia, "pres- $450,000,000 during the first quarter of the nineent”; Peru, "epidemic”; Philippine Islands, 2 teenth century, and threatened to ruin the catcases; Porto Rico, 3 cases, 1 death; Portugal, tle industry in the United States; glanders for83 cases; Russia, 2220 cases, 583 deaths; Serbia, merly causing thousands of deaths; Texas fever 356 cases; Santo Domingo, 2 deaths; Siam, 1 which destroyed thousands of cattle; hog choldeath; Spain, 1446 cases, 253 deaths; Straits era and bovine tuberculosis—all these diseases Settlements, 29 cases, 11 deaths; Sweden, 1 case, now understood and their prevention is 1 death; Switzerland, 162 cases; Turkey in Asia, being increasingly brought about, and largely 423 cases, 127 deaths; Union of South Africa, through animal experimentation. Turning to 4 cases; Venezuela, "present”; Zanzibar, 7 the consideration of human beings, diphtheria deaths; at sea, 1 case, 1 death.

in Cincinnati, for example, was so controlled by PLAGUE. Argentina, 1 case; Azores, "pres- the use of antitoxin, that the mortality fell ent"; Bahrein, 20 cases, 9 deaths; Brazil, 46 from 71 to 12 per cent. Had the deaths from deaths; Ceylon, 139 cases, 122 deaths; China, this disease kept pace with the population as 99 cases, 85 deaths (increasing 40 deaths daily in the days before Behring's discovery was utilestimated); Cuba, 21 cases, 9 deaths; Dutch ized, 56,345 children would have died in that East Indies, 7917 cases, 6260 deaths; Ecuador, city alone from diphtheria, who were saved 382 cases, 157 deaths; Egypt, 170 cases, 62 through the knowledge gained by animal experideaths; Greece, 20 cases, 20 deaths; Hawaii, 4 mentation. The prevention of lockjaw and of cases, 3 deaths; India, 427,381 cases, 347,821 hydrophobia is due to results obtained from deaths (Jan. 1 to Oct. 30, 1915); Indo-China, similar experiments, and likewise the control of 501 cases, 385 deaths; Japan, 473 cases, 399 cholera, the plague, smallpox, malaria, yellow deaths; Mauritius, 90 cases; Persia, 86 cases, fever, and epidemic cerebro-spinal meningitis. 82 deaths; Peru, 557 cases, 190 deaths; Russia, Many rats were sacrificed to learn how to con9 cases, 2 deaths; Senegal, “present”; Siam, 22 trol the plague, as well as a vast number of deaths; Straits Settlements, 34 cases, 24 deaths; perfectly innocent mosquitoes in the investiga: Turkey in Asia, 1456 cases, 1064 deaths; Union tion of malaria. In his brilliant and successful of South Africa, 39 cases, 22 deaths; Zanzibar, work which terminated in the devising of the 4 deaths.

successful serum for meningitis, Flexner used CHOLERA. Austria-Hungary, 2325 cases, 640 25 monkeys and 100 guinea pigs. Childbed deaths; Borneo, 71 deaths; Ceylon, 9 cases, 2 fever, in the olden time, claimed as many as 75 deaths; China, “present," 10 cases, 9 deaths; per cent of the inmates of maternity hospitals. Dutch East Indies, 1639 cases, 1395 deaths; Ger. Through the results of the animal experimentamany, 1293 cases, 231 deaths; India, 1642 tion of Lister and Pasteur, the mortality now deaths; Indo-China, 3461 cases, 1869 deaths; is 1 per cent. Landis sums up thus: “All adItaly, 4 cases; Japan, 11 cases, 1 death; Philip- vances in therapy, whether due to specific sepine Islands, 104 cases, 60 deaths; Persia, 175 rums, vaccines, antitoxins, or drugs, are the cases, 10 deaths; Russia, 317 cases, 114 deaths; direct results of experiment on man or animals.” Serbia, 2 cases; Siam, 24 deaths; Straits Settle- VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. See EDUCAments, 169 cases, 118 deaths.

TION IN THE UNITED STATES. YELLOW FEVER. Brazil, 6 cases, 3 deaths; VOCATIONAL TRAINING, FEDERAL AID Canal Zone, 4 cases; Ecuador, 6 cases, 4 deaths; See EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, French Guiana, 15 cases, 8 deaths; Mexico, 4 section so entitled. cases, 2 deaths; Venezuela, 1 case.

VODKA. See RUSSIA. TYPHUS FEVER. Austria-Hungary, 11,594 VOISINS-SEGALEN-LARTIGUE EXPEcages, 12 deaths; Azores, "present," I case; Ber- DITION. See EXPLORATION, Asia. muda, 1 case; Canada, 1 case, 1 death; Canary VOLCANISM. See GEOLOGY. Islands, 4 deaths; China, 15 cases, 3 deaths; VOLCANOES. The continued manifestations Cuba, 2 cases, 2 deaths; Curacao, 4 cases, 1 of activity by Lassen Peak, which suddenly death; Dominican Republic, 2 deaths; Dutch broke out in eruption on May 30, 1914, attracted East Indies, 423 cases, 64 deaths; Eovpt, 741 much attention during the early part of the cases, 586 deaths; France, 1 case, 1 death; Ger- year 1915, when they assumed a rather violent many, 564 cases, 11 deaths; Great Britain, 41 phase. No lava was ejected, but large amounts cases, 4 deaths; Greece, 283 deaths; Guatemala, of ash and clouds of vapor gave a formidable "present”; Italy, 68 cases, 20 deaths; Jamaica, aspect to the rejuvenated volcano which long 1 case; Japan, 62 cases, 3 deaths; Mexico, 16 had been thought to be extinct. On May 19, deaths; Netherlands, 1 case; Russia, 2307 cases, 1915, a river of mud poured from the north 201 deaths; Serbia, "epidemic” (500 daily); side of the crater down the mountain and into Spain, 13 deaths; Sweden, 5 cases; Switzerland, Hat Creek; it inflicted much damage to the 8 cases; Turkey in Asia, 72 cases, 30 deaths. ranches in the vicinity and to the government

VIVÍSECTION. A partial enumeration of forests. After this the conditions became more


tranquil, and it appeared that the volcano had WALES. See GREAT BRITAIN. spent its force. An eruption in the volcanic WALSH, BLANCHE (Mrs. W. M. Travers). belt of the Alaskan Peninsula was brought to American actress, died Oct. 31, 1915. She was light by reports from the ship Patterson of the born in New York City in 1873, and was eduUnited States Coast and Geodetic Survey; loud cated in the public schools and in the New York detonations and the fall of ash were observed Normal College. She made her first appearance on July 6, 1914, while the ship was in the vi- on the stage in Chicago in September, 1889, as cinity of Korovin Island. The_source of the “Queen Elizabeth” in Amy Robsart. In the same disturbance was thought to be Pavlof volcano, year she appeared in the Fifth Avenue Theatre about 50 miles away, which later was proved as “Olivia" in Twelfth Night. Her success was to be the case. Spasmodic activity has been pronounced from the beginning of her career, manifest in this section for some time. See and she appeared in many plays, among them GEOLOGY.

Aristocracy, Trilby, Secret Service, The Great VOLUNTEERS OF AMERICA, THE. A Diamond Robbery, and The Conquerors. She Christian and social organization modeled on was seen first in London in 1897, in Secret Servthe United States army, and incorporated in ice. In 1900 she married William M. Travers. 1896 under the laws of the State of New York. WALTON, WILLIAM. American artist, died Although ruled by military discipline and meth- Nov. 23, 1915. He was born in Philadelphia in ods, it is democratic in its constitution, which 1843, and was educated in the public schools. was framed by a Grand Field Council which He studied painting at the Pennsylvania Acadconsists of representatives of minor and local emy of the Fine Arts, at the National Academy councils of officers elected annually. The Vol- of Design, New York, and under Carolus Duran unteers in 1915 had 48 homes and charitable at Paris. His reputation was gained chiefly as institutions in the leading cities and towns of a painter of figures and landscapes. He wrote the United States. During 1915 the Volunteer much on subjects connected with art. workers visited and aided 28,362 families, and WAR BOOKS. See LITERATURE; PHILOSOin their charitable institutions 241,297 free PHY; and works noted in WAR OF THE NATIONS. lodgings were given. Lodgings were paid for WAR BREAD. See FOOD AND NUTRITION. by work found for 247,855 persons; free meals WARD, EDGAR MELVILLE. American artist, were given to 875,000 persons, and 303,200 meals died May 15, 1915. He was born in 1838 at were given to persons who paid for them either Urbana, Ohio, and graduated from Miami Uniby money or work. The Volunteer Prisoners' versity in 1858. He spent the next eight years League had enrolled in 1915 upwards of 81,000 in Paris in th study of art, receiving there a members, had organized leagues in 28 State pri- medal for the "Sabot Maker," which was exsons, and by means of its Hope Halls had en- hibited at the Paris Salon, and was later acabled more than 70 per cent of the discharged quired by the French government. Among the prisoners to lead better lives. During 1915, works which gained him fame before he returned 783,279 persons attended indoor meetings, and to the United States were “Paternal Pride," 1,895,686 persons attended open-air meetings. “Blessing,” and “Brittany Washer-women.” În Nearly 5500 persons were converted at the serv. 1887 he was elected a member of the National ices. At the Volunteer Hospital in New York Academy of Design, and professor of drawing City there have been 2212 ambulance calls, 11, and painting in the academy school. Some of 713 days' treatment of patients in the surgical his best known works are “The Coppersmith,” and medical wards, 9435 new cases treated, and "The Block Maker," "The Last Sheaf,” and the 14,298 old cases treated. Large quantities of "Quilting Party." Christian literature have been sent to the State WARE, WILLIAM ROBERT. American archiprisons, jails, hospitals, soldiers' homes, and tect and educator, died June 9, 1915. He was children's homes. The Volunteers have also or- born in Cambridge, Mass., in 1832, and graduganized different departments for sewing classes, ated from Harvard in 1852. From 1860–81 he financial relief, fresh air resorts, hospital nurs: practiced architecture in Boston, and from ing, etc. The headquarters are at 34 West 1865–81 was professor of architecture at the Twenty-eighth Street, New York City. The of- Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the ficers are: Gen. and Mrs. Ballington Booth, latter year he was appointed to the same chair presidents; Gen. Edward Fielding, vice-presi- in Columbia University, and held this position dent; Col. Walter J. Crafts, treasurer; and Col. until 1903, when he became professor emeritus. James W. Merrill, national secretary:

He was a Fellow of the American Academy of VON PAPEN, CAPTAIN FRANZ. See UNITED Arts and Sciences, and an honorary correspondSTATES AND THE WAR.

ing member of the Royal Institute of British VORARLBERG. See AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. Architects. He was the author of, notably, two

VOTING, PREFERENTIAL. See MUNICIPAL books—Modern Perspective (1882) and the GOVERNMENT, Proportional Voting.


eign Credits. WALDTEUFEL, EMILE CHARLES. A French WARNER, ANNA BARTLETT. An American composer, died Feb. 17, 1915. He was born in writer, died Jan. 22, 1915. She was born in Alsace in 1837, and at the Conservatory in New York City in 1828, and at an early age Paris he studied composition and the piano. Al began writing under the pen name of “Amy though successful as a pianist and appointed Lothrop.” She was a sister of the late Susan pianist to the Empress Eugénie, he was chiefly Warner, who was also well known under the known as a composer of dance music. His nu- pen name of "Elizabeth Wetherell.” She wrote merous compositions for a time rivaled the pop- many novels and stories for children, and a bi. ularity of those of Johann Strauss. His ography of her sister. Miss Warner was the waltzes were played by orchestras throughout owner of the Gilbert Stuart painting of Washthe world.

ington, and bequeathed the portrait to the corps

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