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of cadets at West Point, where it is hung in ginning of Russian mobilization, and the refusal the Headquarters building,

of Russia to countermand the mobilization orWAR OF THE NATIONS, THE. The hig- der, were considered by the German government tory of the war during the year 1915 is treated sufficient cause for declaring war on Russia, below under the following captions:

Aug. 1, 1914. Two days later, Germany declared I. THE WAR IN BRIEF.

war on Russia's ally, France. Preparatory to II. CONTROVERSIALISTS ON THE WAR.

the invasion of France, German troops had alIII. DIPLOMACY OF THE WAR.

ready occupied the neutral Duchy of Luxemburg, IV. THE SITUATION ON JAN. 1, 1915.

August 2nd, and begun to invade Belgium, AuV. MILITARY OPERATIONS.

gust 4th, notwithstanding Belgian opposition. (1) The Allied Offensive in France: The British government regarded the German January-April.

violation of Belgian neutrality as a casus belli, (2) Winter Campaigns in Poland and and declared war against Germany, August 4th. East Prussia: January-Febru

Serbia and the “Allies,” or Entente Powers

Russia, France, and Great Britain-were subseary. (3) The Russians in Galicia and quently joined by Montenegro (Aug. 8, 1914), Bukovina: January-April.

Japan (Aug. 23, 1914), and Italy (May 23, (4) The Dardanelles: February-June. 1915): The “Teutonic," or Central Powers (5) The Second Battle of Ypres : hand, while they failed to receive the support

Austria-Hungary and Germany-on the other April-May. (6) The Battle of Artois: May-June. of their former confederate, Italy, succeeded in (7) Von Mackensen's Drive in Gali: enlisting the aid of Turkey ("state of war” with cia: May-June.

Russia, Oct. 30, 1914; attacked by Great Brit(8) Italy's Intervention : May.

ain and France, Nov. 5, 1914) and Bulgaria (9) Lull in the Serbian Operations: (Oct. 14, 1915). From the outset the British January-September.

and Allied navies commanded the seas, putting (10) Von Hindenburg's Drive: August

an end to German overseas traffic and compellSeptember.

ing the German battle fleet to remain in home (11) The Anglo-French Forward Move. waters under the protection of mines and for

ment in France: September-Oc- tresses. A few daring German commerce raidtober.

ers and the surprisingly effective German sub(12) The Diplomatic Failure in the marines were able to inflict considerable damBalkans.

age upon the Allied and neutral merchant ma(13) The Conquest of Serbia : October- rines, but not to break the virtual blockade by November

means of which Great Britain hoped to starve (14) The Battle of the Vardar: De- out her enemy. The naval engagements in the cember.

Bight of Heligoland (Aug. 24, 1914), off Coro(15) The Allies at Saloniki: Decem- nel (Nov. 1, 1914), off the Falkland Islands ber.

(Dec. 8, 1914), and near Dogger Bank (Jan. (16) Montenegro and Albania: Decem- 24,. 1915) were of secondary importance. The ber.

military operations may be briefly summarized

as follows: (17) Italy's Achievement: June-De

(1) In the Franco-Belgian theatre, cember.

the gallant Belgian defense of Liége (Aug. 4-15,

at Mons-Namur-Charleroi (18) Failure on Gallipoli: June-De- 1914), the stand cember.

(Aug. 21-24, 1914), and a French counter-in(19) The Menace to Egypt.

vasion of Alsace failed to stop the onward (20) The British in Mesopotamia.

sweep of the German armies through Belgium, (21) The Russians in Armenia and in Luxemburg, and Lorraine toward Paris. The Persia.

high tide of the German invasion was reached (22) The Russian Army at Bay: Octo- in the battle of the Marne (Sept. 6-10, 1914), ber-December.

after which the German right wing fell back (23) The Deadlock in France: Octo- upon the Aisne River and extended itself northber-December.

ward through Artois and Flanders to the Bel(24) Conquest of the German Colonies. gian coast. From October, 1914, to December, VI. NAVAL OPERATIONS.

1915, the long intrenched battle line from Flan. VII. AËRIAL OPERATIONS.

ders to Alsace has remained almost stationary, VIII. THE SITUATION AT THE CLOSE OF THE

although terrific attempts to break through YEAR.

have been made by the Germans at Ypres (OcIX. PEACE NEGOTIATIONS.

tober-November, 1914), again at Ypres (AprilX. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

May, 1915), and in the Argonne (July, 1915);

and by the Allies at Neuve Chapelle (March 10, I. THE WAR IN BRIEF

1915), at the Labyrinth (June, 1915), in Cham

pagne (September-October, 1915), and in ArOn June 28, 1914, the Austrian heir-apparent, tois near_Lens (September-October, 1915). (2) Archduke Francis Ferdinand, was assassinated In the East, the initial Russian offensive in with his wife at Sarajevo. Accusing Serbia of East Prussia was shattered at Tannenberg (Aug. complicity in the crime, and alleging that the 26-31, 1914); an Austro-German counter-invaanti-Austrian machinations of Serbian patriots sion of Russian Poland was checked before Warmenaced the Hapsburg empire, Austria-Hungary saw (February, 1915); Russian armies invading on July 23, 1914, delivered an ultimatum con- Austrian Galicia reached the passes of the Car. taining demands with which Serbia would only pathians early in 1915, but were almost compartially comply. Despite the diplomatic re. pletely expelled from Austrian territory by monstrances of other powers, Austria-Hungary •von Mackensen's Drive” (May-June, 1915); declared war on Serbia, July 28, 1914. The be- and an Austro-German invasion of Russia, un

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