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southeastern end of the Carpathian barrier. maining stores of ammunition, and surrendered The Russian force in Bukovina was only 15 or the city, March 22nd. By the capture of 20 thousand strong, but it succeeded on January Przemysl the Russians won 120,000 prisoners, 6th in capturing the town of Kimpolung, at about a thousand guns, and less important the southern extremity of the province; the stores of small arms and ammunition. More northern part of Bukovina had been held by the important still, the railway leading westward Russians since September, 1914; on January from Lemberg through Przemysl to Tarnow and 17th the Russians gained the pass of Kirlibaba, Cracow was at last cleared, and General Selileading from the southeastern part of Buko vanov's army of 100,000 men was released for vina westward into Hungary. With the Rus- aggression elsewhere. The Russians profited by sians successfully

occupying the very provinces their improved position to renew the offensive -Bukovina and Transylvania—which Rumania in the Carpathian passes, and by the end of coveted for herself, Rumania was likely to enter April they were in possession of the Carpathian the war and cooperate with the Russians, turn- crest for 75 miles, commanding Dukla, Lupkow, ing the eastern Alank of the Carpathian ridge, and Rostok passes, and were fiercely attacking while the Russians swarmed over the central Uzsok Pass. Carpathian passes. The situation called for strenuous and immediate action on the part of (4) The Dardanelles: February-June. Austria-Hungary. The supersession of Count Berchtold by Baron Stephan Burian, a friend THE NAVAL ATTACK (FEBRUARY-MARCH). Of and compatriot of the Hungarian premier the three great aggressive movements by which (Count Tisza), as foreign minister of the Dual the Triple Entente hoped, during the first three Monarchy, January 13th, was interpreted as a months of 1915, at the same time to weaken sign of the Emperor's determination to defend their enemies and to convert Italy, Rumania, Hungary at all costs. While von Hindenburg and Greece from hesitant friends into active prepared to distract the attention of the Rus- allies, two have already been described, viz., the sians by attacks in Poland (supra), Archduke Anglo-French offensive in the western theatre Eugene of Austria marshaled his forces in three of war, and the Russian advance in Galicia. great armies for a supreme effort to secure the The third, the attack on the Dardanelles, alCarpathian ridge, relieve the hard-pressed gar- though of secondary magnitude in respect of the rison of Przemysl, free Bukovina, and intimidate forces engaged, was of primary importance both Rumania. In the second half of January the as regarded its immediate strategic aims and campaign was launched. The first Austrian its indirect political consequences. Forcing the army, under General Boehm-Ermolli, moved up Dardanelles, the British Admiralty had every into the three central Carpathian passes reason to believe, would be a difficult and hazard(Dukla, Lupkow, and Uzsok) with the object of ous operation. To be sure, a British squadron advancing north to the relief of Przemysł. The under the command of the gallant Admiral second Austro-German army, under the com- Duckworth had accomplished the feat in 1807 ; mand of the German General von Linsingen, but since then ineffective, antiquated fortificaoperated from Munkacs northward in the tions in the straits had been replaced by the passes east of Uzsok. The third army, com- most modern and scientific defensive works; exprising both German and Austro-Hungarian pert German advisers had directed the emplacetroops, was led by General von Pflanzer against ment of formidable batteries to command the the Russians in Bukovina. General von Pflan- approach by land and sea ; and 14-inch Krupp zer made rapid progress. Kirlibaba Pass was guns would now be trained on an invading retaken; the weak Russian defense of Czerno- fleet. But if the hazard was great, the stakes witz succumbed on February 18th; and the to be won were still greater. Once through the Austro-Germans turned northeastward into Gal- Dardanelles straits, a victorious fleet would icia, passing Kolomea, and holding the impor- have Constantinople at its mercy, and Turkey, tant railway centre of Stanislau (70 miles if not totally eliminated from the war, would at southeast of Lemberg) for a brief space, until the very least be cut in two and gravely crippled. they were forced back on Kolomea, March 3rd. All serious danger of Turkish attacks on Egypt, General von Linsingen, however, failed dismally Persia, or India would have been obviated. The in his attempt to advance from Munkacs to- Russian armies in the Caucasus region could be ward Lemberg. Even more disappointing was partly withdrawn and sent to reënforce the line the result of General Boehm-Ermolli's cam- in Poland. Moreover, the straits being opened, paign against the central passes: after two Russia would at last find a free outlet for her months of bitter battles in the snow-bound stores of wheat. The guns and ammunition of mountain defiles, the Russians at the end of the which the Russian army was in sore need could third week of March still held the Dukla Pass now be freely and cheaply imported by way of and the northern entrance to Lupkow.

the Dardanelles, as fast as the factories of FALL OF PRZEMYSL. The culminating failure France, England, and America could turn them of the Austrian counter-offensive and the crown- out. The moral effect of the capture of Coning success of the Russian Galician campaign in stantinople would be tremendous. Not only the spring of 1915 was the surrender of the would it put new life into discouraged patriots Austrian fortress of Przemysl, March 22nd, in France, Russia, and Great Britain; not only which had been besieged by the Russians ever would it be an object lesson teaching awe-struck since Nov. 12, 1914. The situation of the be- respect to the Mohammedan millions in Egypt leaguered garrison had become alarming early and in India; it would also, by increasing the in March, 1915. After a breach had been ef- probability of the Entente's ultimate victory, fected by the Russians in the outer ring of de- hasten the decision of Italy to join the winning fenses, March 13th, General von Kusmanek had side. But most important of all, it would probordered a last desperate sortie, March 18th. ably bring the Balkan nations into the war on This failing disastrously, he destroyed the re- the side of the Entente; wavering Greece and

Y. B.-23

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Rumania needed only such a victory to convince wide, and was defended by forts at Cape Helles them that it would be safe to join the Entente; and Sedd-el-Bahr on the tip of the Gallipoli and Bulgaria, suspected of secret leanings to- Peninsula, on the northern side, and by forts ward the Central Powers, would not dare to Kum Kale and Orkanieh, on the southern or oppose the Entente Allies, for Greece, Serbia, Asiatic side. At Sedd-el-Bahr there were six Rumania, and the Allied forces at Constanti- 10.2-inch guns; at Cape Helles, two 9.2-inch nople would completely encircle and crush her. guns; at Kum Kale four 10.2- and two 5.9-inch

guns; and at Orkanieh two 26°10' EAST OF GREENWICH 26°20'

26°30' 9.2-inch guns. On February 140

Kaarhet 19th, the fleet began a heavy

bombardment of these outer GULF OF SAROS

forts. As the batteries on Cape Suvla

shore were enormously outnumSUYLA OR LIT. ANAFARTA) SALT

bered and outranged by the BAY

guns of the battleships, the

Turks made no effort to reply Nibrunesi Pt.

to the bombardment, until in BACHACHE KLOT

the afternoon, when the British Admiral Carden (who

was Sag baise

later superseded by De Ro Ari Burnu

beck), thinking he had put the forts out of action, ordered his

ships to steam in close to shore Gaba Tepe

in order to clinch the victory. KARAKOL

Twilight came before either MALDOS

the forts or the ships could

score any important success. Pasha Dagicham

The second attack on the four

outer forts was delivered on

KALEL-SULTANIE February 25th. This time the Roma

superiority of the Allies' guns was utilized with greater ef

fect. The Queen Elizabeth, Kephez Pt

safe out of range of the land guns, rained 15-inch shells on

the Turkish gunners at Cape y

Helles. The Agamemnon, the
Irresistible, and the Gaulois

shelled the forts with compara(RUINED)

KÚSUKEVI
Eski Hissarlik pt. fi

tive safety from a somewhat
shorter distance, the only cas-

ualty being the loss of three SEDD EL BAHRA

SCALE: STAT. MILES

men killed and five wounded on

board the Agamemnon, caused 160 by the bursting of one well

directed Turkish shell. About 26°10' 26°20'

26°30

noon the Vengeance, Cornwallis,

Suffren, Charlemagne, and a THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN, 1915

little later Triumph and Al

bion, steamed in close to the For the sake of so momentous a victory, the forts; by evening the last Turkish gun had British Admiralty risked a powerful fleet in the been put out of action. The next day, landattack on the Dardanelles. During February ing parties were sent ashore to blow up the the warships which had been watching the Dar- remains of the Turkish forts which had been danelles since the beginning of the war were re- silenced the previous evening; at Kum Kale enforced by new arrivals, until, at the time the the landing party was surprised by Turkish principal attack was delivered, Vice Admiral troops and forced to beat a hasty retreat. John Michael De Robeck could command 13 Brit- Again on March 4th a landing party was reish battleships—including the newly-constructed pulsed at Kum Kale. However, the fleet had super-dreadnought Queen Elizabeth with her little more to fear from either shore of the eneight 15-inch guns, besides the Inflexible, Aga- trance to the straits, as the big guns of the four memnon, Cornwallis, Vengeance, Triumph, Irre- forts had been put out of action. Trawlers had sistible, Albion, Ocean, Lord Nelson, Prince swept the first few miles of the channel clear George, Majestic, and Swiftsure. In addition, of mines, northeast of Sedd-el-Bahr and Kum the French Rear Admiral Guépratte had the Kale, so that battleships could now venture into French battleships Bouvet, Suffren, Gaulois, and the lower end of the straits, in order to bombard Charlemagne. Altogether the Allied fleet the forts situated 14 or 15 miles from the en. mounted, besides the powerful 15-inch guns of trance. These forts, Kilid Bahr on the western the Queen Elizabeth, almost 70 12-inch guns and shore and Chanak on the eastern shore, located an even greater number of secondary guns. The at a point where the channel narrowed to about first task which the Anglo-French fleet set itself three-quarters of a mile in width, were the cento accomplish was the reduction of the outer tral defenses of the Dardanelles. Here the Gerforts of the Dardanelles. The entrance to the man advisers of the Turkish government had Dardanelles is about two and three-eights miles planted their 14-inch Krupp guns. The four

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ON

THE

forts at the entrance to the Dardanelles had been repairing the ruined forts at Kum Kale and mere outposts, designed to delay rather than to Sedd-el-Bahr. Smyrna was shelled by way of stop the invader. The decisive battle would be diversion. A British submarine, the E-15, was the battle for the Narrows. On March 6th, unluckily grounded and had to be blown up, lest while the Vengeance, Albion, Majestic, Prince it should fall into the possession of the Turks. George, and Suffren steamed up into the straits THE LAND ATTACK

DARDANELLES and engaged the subsidiary forts just below Cha- (APRIL-JUNE). The land attack on the Darnak and Kilid Bahr, the Queen Elizabeth, Aga- danelles was undertaken at the end of April by memnon, and Ocean, lying in the Gulf of Saros, an Anglo-French expeditionary force of 120,000 trained their powerful guns on the forts at Cha- men under the command of Gen. Sir Ian Hamnak. As the hills of the Gallipoli Peninsula ilton. The expeditionary force was a motley lay between the three last mentioned ships and affair, made up of an Australian division, a their target, the bombardment was directed en- New Zealand division, a detachment of Indian tirely by aëroplane observation. On March 7th, troops, a division of British Territorials, the the forts at the Narrows were again subjected British Naval Division (which had been sent to to bombardment. At the close of the day's ac- Antwerp at an earlier stage of the war), and tion, the British withdrew in elation, believing the 29th Division of the British army. As Genthat they had put the Chanak forts out of com- eral Joffre was unwilling to spare any regular mission without losing a single ship, and sus- troops from the battle line in France, the taining only slight injuries to the Gaulois, Aga- French contributed only a small detachment of memnon, and Lord Nelson. London was jubi- Fusiliers Marins, colonials, and the Foreign Lelant at the news. By March 18th all was ready gion. This heterogeneous aggregation, amountfor the supreme effort which would carry the ing in all to three army corps, was destined to Anglo-French fleet past the dangerous Narrows attack a much stronger Turkish army, comand on into the Sea of Marmora. With the ad- manded by a skillful German General, Liman vantages of a calm sea and a clear sky in their von Sanders, and ensconced in practically imfavor, the Queen Elizabeth, Inflexible, Agamem- pregnable positions. The Gallipoli Peninsula non, Triumph, Prince George, and Lord Nelson extends southwest from its neck at Bulair about entered the straits and took up a position 7 or 45 miles to its tip at Cape Helles (near Sedd-el8 miles distant from the Narrows. A little Bahr), broadening out from 3 miles in width over an hour later, a second squadron, composed (at a point just west of Bulair) to more than of the four French ships, steamed up in front of 10 miles (in the middle) and then narrowing the English ships and from a closer range con- down again towards the tip. The tip of the centrated their fire against the Turkish forts. peninsula strongly resembles a human foot, with As the forts ceased firing the fleet opened the its heel almost closing the straits at Kilid Bahr, third and culminating phase of the attack. Six and its toe at Sedd-el-Bahr. Just where the English battleships, the Albion, Vengeance, ankle bone ought to be, we find the hill called Swiftsure, Majestic, Ocean, and Irresistible, Pasha Dagh. Down nearer the toe is another were to close in on the Narrows forts. The hill, Achi Baba, dominating the town of Krithia. French squadron had to shift its position to Above the ankle is the hill of Sari Bair. The make way for this new attack. Then suddenly ultimate aim of the expeditionary force was to forts which were supposed to have been dis- capture the forts at the heel of the foot, at mantled blazed forth again. Floating mines Kilid Bahr, either by directly attacking, or by were sent down the channel (being carried by encircling and isolating them. Three plans of the current which runs toward the Ægean). campaign are suggested by a glance at the map. Three large shells and a mine simultaneously (1) An army might be landed near Bulair and struck the French ship Bouvet. Within three work back down into the peninsula cutting comminutes, almost before the echoes of the mighty munications with Constantinople and taking the explosion had died and the cloud of smoke forts in the rear. (2) Armies might be landed cleared away, the Bouvet sank, with her crew along the ankle and shin—to continue the meton board. Another mine hit the Irresistible; aphor of the foot—at Gaba Tepe, Ari Burnu, but the crew of the British ship was picked up and Suvla Bay, and fight their way across the by destroyers, under fire. The next victim was ankle, first capturing the hill of Sari Bair, over the Ocean, suddenly sunk by a mine. Mean- to Maidos and Kilid Bahr. (3) A frontal atwhile the Turkish guns had proved unable to sink tack might be made, beginning at the tip of the any of the attacking battleships, but they had toe, and encountering the strong Turkish posiset the Inflexible on fire, opened a great gap in tions at Achi Baba and, 5 miles further on, at the armor-plate of the Gaulois, and inflicted se- Pasha Dagh. Sir Ian Hamilton elected to comvere punishment on other ships. At twilight bine the second and third plans. On a beautiful the great fleet quietly steamed out of the straits, Sunday morning, at daybreak, April 25th, Britfollowed by a salvo of parting shots from the ish troops were landed at six different points forts which the fleet had striven to annihilate. on the Gallipoli Peninsula, while French troops More than two thousand men and three battle- were disembarked on the Asiatic coast at Kum ships had been sacrificed in vain.

Kale. One of the British landing parties, made Instead of admitting defeat and abandoning up of Australian and New Zealand troops, the Dardanelles campaign entirely, however, the landed at Ari Burnu to fight their way across Allies, probably at the insistent demand of the the ankle. (The landing beach was called Anzac British government, decided to land troops on Cove, the name "anzac” being composed of the the Gallipoli Peninsula in the hope that a land initials of "Australian and New Zealand Army attack might succeed where the navy had failed. Corps.") The other five British landings, at From March 18th to April 25th, while it waited beaches "Y," "X,” “W,” “V,” and “S,” were all for troops to arrive on the scene, the Allied fleet directed against the toe of the foot. At Ari continued a desultory bombardment of the forts Burnu, north of Gaba Tepe, the Australasian inside the straits and prevented the Turks from landing party gallantly charged up the beach under heavy fire, ousted the Turkish riflemen while the fighting on the Krithia front had confrom their trenches, and then scrambled up the tinued without decisive results. An important cliffs which rose abruptly 40 feet from the advance was made on May 28th by the French water's edge. There the Australasians with- troops (on the extreme right of the battle line), stood a fierce Turkish counter-attack, February who after many bootless attempts at last suc26th, made good their position, and feverishly ceeded in capturing “Le Haricot,” a redoubt proceeded with the work of constructing trenches. which the Turks had concealed on the western At Beach “Y,” which is due east of Krithia, the slope of the Kereves Dere Valley. A third genlanding was easily accomplished, but a Turkish eral attack on the Krithia line was ordered by counter-attack compelled the landing party to Gen. Sir Ian Hamilton for June 4th. On a front reëmbark, leaving the Turks in undisputed pos- of 3 miles the British line was moved forward session of the beach. At beach “X” the landing about 500 yards, but the French lost “Le Hariparty was strongly assailed, but held its ground. cot.” The battle of June 4th marked the failAt beach “W” the troops were caught in wire ure of the Allies' campaign on the tip of Galentanglements and mowed down by concealed lipoli: three bloody battles had been fought, ammachine guns, but the position won on the shore munition had been wasted in terrific bombardwas maintained against all attacks. The land- ments, and somewhere between 40,000 and 70,000 ing at beach “V,” close to Sedd-el-Bahr, was per- men had been sacrificed; yet the principal Turkhaps the most difficult of all, and was accom- ish position at Achi Baba remained unconquered plished only with severe losses. At beach “S," and unconquerable, blocking the path to Kilid near Eski Hissarlik Point, the landing was suc- Bahr. Furthermore, support for the land forces cessfully accomplished from trawlers. The was no longer to be had from the big guns of the French landing party at Kum Kale was bril- fleet; for after the loss of three battleships in liantly successful; after capturing 500 prisoners, May—the Goliath, torpedoed by a Turkish dethe French troops were able to come to the as- stroyer, May 12th; the Triumph, torpedoed by sistance of the British at beach “S” and take up a German submarine in full daylight, while a position on the extreme right of the line. The numerous destroyers were on the lookout, May landing parties from beaches “S,” “V,” “W” 26th; and the Majestic, torpedoed, probably by and “X” advanced together, April 28th, in the the same submarine, May 27th—the Queen direction of Krithia, until the Anglo-French Elizabeth and the more powerful of the battleline ran from a point 3 miles north of Cape ships prudently withdrew from the Ægean, leavTekke, on the Ægean side, to a point 1 mile ing at the Dardanelles only a few battleships of north of Eski Hissarlik, on the Dardanelles antiquated type, with a number of French and side. By May 1st, practically the entire expe- British cruisers, a flotilla of destroyers, a moniditionary force had been landed; the Austral- tor, and some submarines. At the end of April, asian Corps had entrenched itself north of Gaba it should be remarked, two British submarines Tepe, its purpose being to hold the attention of had covered themselves with glory by raiding the as many Turkish troops as possible, while the Sea of Marmora. The E-14, commanded by Edmain Anglo-French force at the toe of the pen- ward C. Boyle, had penetrated the Narrows, eninsula, approximately two army corps, delivered tered the Sea of Marmora, sunk two Turkish the principal attack on the Turkish position at gunboats and a transport, and returned safely. Krithia. By moonlight, May 1st, the Turks The E-11, commanded by Eric Naismith, had made a determined effort to dislodge the invader done even better, sinking three Turkish transsouth of Krithia. Furious bayonet charges ports, three store ships, and a gunboat. pierced the line of British and French trenches, but at dawn of May 2nd the Allies rallied for a (5) The Second Battle of Ypres : April-May. counter-attack which forced the Turks to retire precipitately. In a three-day battle, May 6-8, The failure to force the Dardanelles was only the Anglo-French line made a supreme attempt one item in the long list of disappointments to expel the Turks from Krithia. By dint of which the Allies experienced in 1915. First the desperate infantry.charges, covered by field and long-expected "spring offensive” in France had naval artillery, the Allies were barely able to netted the British one little village, Neuve Chaadvance a thousand yards. To their intense pelle, March 10th. The French had not been disappointment and chagrin they realized that much more successful. Then the Dardanelles the terrain had been carefully prepared by ex- naval attack had proved futile, March 18th. pert engineers; wire entanglements, concealed The assistance so impatiently expected at the trenches, and hidden batteries were encountered beginning of the year from Rumania and Greece at every turn. The Turkish guns on the hill of was never proffered. Italy delayed entering the Achi Baba commanded the whole position, and war until the end of May. And meanwhile the were so well protected that even the heavy guns Russian campaign in Galicia, so promising in of the British dreadnoughts, which assisted in March, met with terrible disaster in May, as the attack, could not disable them. In the sec- will presently appear, and disheartening news ondary theatre of operations at Gaba Tepe, the came from the Western front. At the very time Australasian corps captured three lines of Turk- when military critics in England and France ish trenches on the slopes of Sari Bair, and im- were pointing out that General Joffre's "nibmediately lost them, May 9–10. Ten days later, bling" tactics were wearing down the strength May 19th, the Turks fiercely attacked the of the German line in the West, a new blow was trenches which the Australasian troops had delivered with tremendous force by the German hastily dug in the form of a great semi-circle army in Belgium. On April 17th the British about the landing beach. The Australasians sappers had blown up the German trenches on manfully stood their ground, and by night the Bill 60, a little more than 2 miles southeast Turks were forced to admit defeat, leaving over of Ypres, and the summit had been occupied by 7000 of their men (according to British reports) British infantry. Failing to retake Hill 60 killed or wounded on the field of battle. Mean- by reckless infantry assaults and by furious

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artillery bombardment, the Germans on the even- line from Hooge to Verlorenhoek, were badly ing of April 22nd suddenly attacked the op- battered. On May 24th the gas attack was vigposite side of the “Ypres salient,” and crum- orously renewed. But early in June the battle pled up the northern arc of the roughly semi. may be said to have died away, leaving the

Ypres salient very much reduced, but still intact, with Bixschoote and Lizerne once more in the Allies' hands, Pilkem, St. Julien, Zonnebeke,

Veldhoek, and Hill 60 in German possession. Buta

The significance of the battle of Ypres, however, PYPLAALLE

lay not so much in the loss of ground to the

O POELCAPPELLE. Germans, as in the convincing demonstration of ZuvgochOOTHIES

the ability of the German army to assume the

offensive against superior numbers, relying on {BOESINGHE

its own superior mechanical equipment. Hence

forth the Allies, and above all the British, laELVERDINGHE

bored with feverish anxiety to supply the equipBRIELEN

ment of hand-grenades, bombs, high explosive ZONNEBERE ST. JEAN

shells, machine guns, and respirators (for proOPOTuzy

tection against chlorine attacks), without which

attacks against the German lines were foreAPRES

doomed to costly failure.
ZILLEDERE

GHELUVELT
Hill N9603

(6) The Battle of Artois : May-June. DICKERBUSCH

If any further demonstration were needed of YOORMEZEELE

the advantage which the Germans derived from HOLLEBEKE

their superior technique in the art of trenchSCALE: STAT. MILES

warfare, the results of the Allied offensive in WYTSCHAETE!

May and June supplied it. In May, after the KEMMELSE

first fury of the German attack on Ypres had spent itself, General Foch, commanding the

"northern sector," ordered the resumption of THE SECOND BATTLE OF YÖRES, APRIL-May, 1915 the Allied offensive. On May 9 the French just

north of Arras and the British further north
circular line in front of Ypres. This time the
way for the infantry attack had been prepared,
not by artillery, but by a cloud of greenish va-

HAMAYA
por, which a gentle breeze wafted towards the
Allies' trenches. The vapor, as the Allied troops

|

GUINCHY soon learned to their amazement and consterna

La Bagsete Billy

RNLEY

CRAPHIN tion, was chlorine gas, which chokes and asphyx

MUCHIN
iates with horrible effect. The French troops
holding the line from Steenstraate to Lange-
marck, north of Ypres, broke and fled before
this novel and peculiarly cruel form of attack. MAZINGARBE
The Canadian troops holding the line southeast
of the French were less seriously affected by the
gas-attack, but the precipitate retreat of the

Dources
French had uncovered the left wing of the Ca-
nadian division. For a time the situation of

ELEU

NOTRE DAME
the Allied line east of Ypres was most perilous.
To the north of the city, the Germans had ABLAIN

MERJEQUET ROUVROV
crossed the Yser Canal and obtained a foothold

ACRIL (Bois BERNARD
at Lizerne. If the Germans could advance but
a few miles further into the breach made by the

VZEL
chlorine fumes, the Canadians would be encir-

NEUVIREUIL
cled and the other Allied forces on the Ypres The Labyrinth

BAILLEUL
salient, from Broodseinde to Hill 60, would be
able to extricate themselves only with extreme
difficulty. The situation was saved by the gal-
lant resistance of the Canadians, and by the

Ortofur

HAMBLAIN timely arrival of five British battalions under ARRAS O

PELVES ) SAILLY
Colonel Geddes to fill in the gap between the
Canadians and the Yser Canal. But, on April
24th, the Allies were again driven back, choking

BEAURAINS

ACNY and gasping, by another cloud of chlorine gas. St. Julien was abandoned to the Germans, February 24th. By May 3rd Grafenstafel, Zonne- THE SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF ARTOIS, MAYbeke, Westhoek, and Veldhoek had been relin

JUNE, 1915 quished. Hill 60 was captured by the Germans May 5th. New German assaults on May 8th in the vicinity of Neuve Chapelle, simultaneand 9th forced the British back from Frezen- ously assailed the German lines. The immediberg to Verlorenhoek. On May 13th British ate object of the French attack was the imporcavalry brigades (dismounted), holding the tant railway centre of Lens; that of the Brit

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