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under heavy fire, ousted the Turkish riflemen while the fighting on the Krithia front had confrom their trenches, and then scrambled up the tinued without decisive results. An important cliffs which rose abruptly 40 feet from the advance was made on May 28th by the French water's edge. There the Australasians with troops (on the extreme right of the battle line), stood a fierce Turkish counter-attack, February who after many bootless attempts at last suc26th, made good their position, and feverishly ceeded in capturing “Le Haricot,” a redoubt proceeded with the work of constructing trenches. which the Turks had concealed on the western At Beach “Y,” which is due east of Krithia, the slope of the Kereves Dere Valley. A third genlanding was easily accomplished, but a Turkish eral attack on the Krithia line was ordered by counter-attack compelled the landing party to Gen. Sir Ian Hamilton for June 4th. On a front reëmbark, leaving the Turks in undisputed pos- of 3 miles the British line was moved forward session of the beach. At beach “X” the landing about 500 yards, but the French lost "Le Hariparty was strongly assailed, but held its ground. cot.” The battle of June 4th marked the failAt beach “W” the troops were caught in wire ure of the Allies' campaign on the tip of Galentanglements and mowed down by concealed lipoli: three bloody battles had been fought, ammachine guns, but the position won on the shore munition had been wasted in terrific bombardwas maintained against all attacks. The land- ments, and somewhere between 40,000 and 70,000 ing at beach "V," close to Sedd-el-Bahr, was per- men had been sacrificed; yet the principal Turk. haps the most difficult of all, and was accom- ish position at Achi Baba remained unconquered plished only with severe losses. At beach “S,” and unconquerable, blocking the path to Kilid near Eski Hissarlik Point, the landing was suc- Bahr. Furthermore, support for the land forces cessfully accomplished from trawlers. The was no longer to be had from the big guns of the French landing party at Kum Kale was bril- fleet; for after the loss of three battleships in liantly successful; after capturing 500 prisoners, May—the Goliath, torpedoed by a Turkish dethe French troops were able to come to the as- stroyer, May 12th; the Triumph, torpedoed by sistance of the British at beach "S" and take up a German submarine in full daylight, while a position on the extreme right of the line. The numerous destroyers were on the lookout, May landing parties from beaches “S," "V,” “W," 26th; and the Majestic, torpedoed, probably by and “X” advanced together, April 28th, in the the same submarine, May 27th—the Queen direction of Krithia, until the Anglo-French Elizabeth and the more powerful of the battleline ran from a point 3 miles north of Cape ships prudently withdrew from the Ægean, leav. Tekke, on the Ægean side, to a point 1 mile ing at the Dardanelles only a few battleships of north of Eski Hissarlik, on the Dardanelles antiquated type, with a number of French and side. By May 1st, practically the entire expe- British cruisers, a flotilla of destroyers, a moniditionary force had been landed; the Austral- tor, and some submarines. At the end of April, asian Corps had entrenched itself north of Gaba it should be remarked, two British submarines Tepe, its purpose being to hold the attention of had covered themselves with glory by raiding the as many Turkish troops as possible, while the Sea of Marmora. The E-14, commanded by Edmain Anglo-French force at the toe of the pen- ward C. Boyle, had penetrated the Narrows, eninsula, approximately two army corps, delivered tered the Sea of Marmora, sunk two Turkish the principal attack on the Turkish position at gunboats and a transport, and returned safely. Krithia. By moonlight, May 1st, the Turks The E-11, commanded by Eric Naismith, had made a determined effort to dislodge the invader done even better, sinking three Turkish transsouth of Krithia. Furious bayonet charges ports, three store ships, and a gunboat. pierced the line of British and French trenches, but at dawn of May 2nd the Allies rallied for a (5) The Second Battle of Ypres: April-May. counter-attack which forced the Turks to retire precipitately. In a three-day battle, May 6-8, The failure to force the Dardanelles was only the Anglo-French line made a supreme attempt one item in the long list of disappointments to expel the Turks from Krithia. By dint of which the Allies experienced in 1915. First the desperate infantry.charges, covered by field and long-expected “spring offensive” in France had naval artillery, the Allies were barely able to netted the British one little village, Neuve Chaadvance a thousand yards. To their intense pelle, March 10th. The French had not been disappointment and chagrin they realized that much more successful. Then the Dardanelles the terrain had been carefully prepared by ex, naval attack had proved futile, March 18th. pert engineers; wire entanglements, concealed The assistance so impatiently expected at the trenches, and hidden batteries were encountered beginning of the year from Rumania and Greece at every turn. The Turkish guns on the hill of was never proffered. Italy delayed entering the Achi Baba commanded the whole position, and war until the end of May. And meanwhile the were so well protected that even the heavy guns Russian campaign in Galicia, so promising in of the British dreadnoughts, which assisted in March, met with terrible disaster in May, as the attack, could not disable them. In the sec- will presently appear, and disheartening news ondary theatre of operations at Gaba Tepe, the came from the Western front. At the very time Australasian corps captured three lines of Turk- when military critics in England and France ish trenches on the slopes of Sari Bair, and im- were pointing out that General Joffre's “nibmediately lost them, May 9–10. Ten days later, bling" tactics were wearing down the strength May 19th, the Turks fiercely attacked the of the German line in the West, a new blow was trenches which the Australasian troops had delivered with tremendous force by the German hastily dug in the form of a great semi-circle army in Belgium. On April 17th the British about the landing beach. The Australasians sappers had blown up the German trenches on manfully stood their ground, and by night the Hill 60, a little more than 2 miles southeast Turks were forced to admit defeat, leaving over of Ypres, and the summit had been occupied by 7000 of their men (according to British reports) British infantry. Failing to retake Hill 60 killed or wounded on the field of battle. Mean- by reckless infantry assaults and by furious

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artillery bombardment, the Germans on the even- line from Hooge to Verlorenhoek, were badly ing of April 22nd suddenly attacked the op- battered. On May 24th the gas attack was vig. posite side of the “Ypres salient," and crum- orously renewed. But early in June the battle pled up the northern arc of the roughly semi- may be said to have died away, leaving the

Ypres salient very much reduced, but still intact, with Bixschoote and Lizerne once more in the Allies' hands, Pilkem, St. Julien, Zonnebeke,

Veldhoek, and Hill 60 in German possession. Porucapelle STAY

The significance of the battle of Ypres, however, PvPTAAT

lay not so much in the loss of ground to the O POELCAPPELLE

Germans, as in the convincing demonstration of Zuvрсноото

the ability of the German army to assume the

offensive against superior numbers, relying on {BOESINGHE

its own superior mechanical equipment. Hence

forth the Allies, and above all the British, laPELVERDINGHE

bored with feverish anxiety to supply the equip

ment of hand-grenades, bombs, high explosive BRIELEN

WIELTS

IZONTEBERE
ST. JEAN

shells, machine guns, and respirators (for proOPOTEZE

tection against chlorine attacks), without which

attacks against the German lines were foreFYRRES

doomed to costly failure.
ZILLEDEREN

GHELUVELT
HII N9603

(6) The Battle of Artois: May-June. DICKERBUSCH

If any further demonstration were needed of VOORMEZEELE

the advantage which the Germans derived from their superior technique in the art of trench

warfare, the results of the Allied offensive in WYTSCHAETE

May and June supplied it. In May, after the KEMMELSE

first fury of the German attack on Ypres had spent itself, General Foch, commanding the

"northern sector," ordered the resumption of THE SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES, APRIL-MAY, 1915 the Allied offensive. On May 9 the French just

north of Arras and the British further north circular line in front of Ypres. This time the way for the infantry attack had been prepared, not by artillery, but by a cloud of greenish va

OEES TUBERT

VIOLAINES por, which a gentle breeze wafted towards the

GIVEACHY Allies' trenches. The vapor, as the Allied troops

(-1BAISEE Ser soon learned to their amazement and consterna

O PROVIN

CALIPHIN tion, was chlorine gas, which chokes and asphyxiates with horrible effect. The French troops More

Les

CARVIN holding the line from Steenstraate to Lange

lo BOKFONTAINE marck, north of Ypres, broke and fled before this novel and peculiarly cruel form of attack. The Canadian troops holding the line southeast of the French were less seriously affected by the

MO UICNY gas-attack, but the precipitate retreat of the

NOVELLES Fouguigkeer French had uncovered the left wing of the Canadian division. For a time the situation of

ELEU

MACHINE the Allied line east of Ypres was most perilous. DELORETTE

AVION

ABLAIN To the north of the city, the Germans had

MERI QURT ROUVRON crossed the Yser Canal and obtained a foothold

BEAUMONT

ACAMILLE BOIS BERNARD at Lizerne. If the Germans could advance but a few miles further into the breach made by the

(QUIERY chlorine fumes, the Canadians would be encir

WILLERVAL cled and the other Allied forces on the Ypres The Labyrinth salient, from Broodseinde to Hill 60, would be able to extricate themselves only with extreme

VITRI difficulty. The situation was saved by the gal

ATHIES FALAPOUR lant resistance of the Canadians, and by the timely arrival of five British battalions under ARRAS

Opozor

Citadelle
Colonel Geddes to fill in the gap between the
Canadians and the Yser Canal. But, on April

TILLON 24th, the Allies were again driven back, choking

BEAURAINS and gasping, by another cloud of chlorine gas. St. Julien was abandoned to the Germans, Feb

By May 3rd Grafenstafel, Zonne- THE SCENE OF THE BATTLE OF ARTOIS, MAYbeke, Westhoek, and Veldhoek had been relin

JUNE, 1915 quished. Hill 60 was captured by the Germans May 5th. New German assaults on May 8th in the vicinity of Neuve Chapelle, simultaneand 9th forced the British back from Frezen- ously assailed the German lines. The immediberg to Verlorenhoek. On May 13th British ate object of the French attack was the imporcavalry brigades (dismounted), holding the tant railway centre of Lens; that of the Brit

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ruary 24th.

ish was the Aubers ridge east of Neuve Chapelle. tro-German armies—including von Woyrsch's If successful, from Lens and Aubers the Allies army operating north of the Galician frontier, could press on towards Lille. By the evening Archduke Joseph Fredinand's, and von Mackof May 12th, Carency, the fortified chapel of ensen's own armies-concentrated east of CraNotre-Dame de Lorette, and the cemetery of cow between the Vistula and the Carpathians, Neuville_St. Vaast had fallen into French Boehm-Ermolli attacking northward in the hands. From May 13 to the third week in June central Carpathians, von Linsingen further east the French were engaged in capturing the iso- menacing Stryj from Munkacs, and von Bothlated fortins or redoubts which the German en- mer and von Pflanzer in the extreme east. By gineers had constructed with astounding inge- feints in the direction of Stryj the Russians nuity, blocking the way to Lens. By the mid- were kept in uncertainty as to the direction dle of June the most formidable of these defen- from which the attack was to be delivered, if, sive works, the so-called “Labyrinth" (between indeed, the Russians realized at all the danger Arras and Neuville St. Vaast)—an intricate in which they stood. After a preliminary admaze of trenches and subterranean tunnels- vance east of Neu Sandec towards Gorlice, the was mastered by the French. But Lens re- main attack began on May 1st with an artillery mained uncaptured. The British in the mean- bombardment of unprecedented magnitude. The time had failed in their first assault on the Russian trenches along the eastern bank of the Aubers ridge, May 9th, because of insufficient Biala River, between Tarnow and Gorlice, were artillery preparation. A second assault on the blasted out of existence. In order to visualize German lines was delivered by the British at a the operation, the north-and-south line of the point a little further south, May 16th. This Biala River between Tarnow and Grybow may second assault, “the battle of Festubert," con- be conceived as the cross-bar of a huge letter tinuing for 10 days, placed the British in pos- H lying on its side. The northern leg of the H session of “the entire first-line system of was the east-and-west railway running through trenches” on a front of 3200 yards, according Tarnow; the southern leg was the parallel railto Sir John French's report, and of the first way running through Novo Sandec, Grybow, and and second lines of German trenches on a front Gorlice. The brunt of the German attack was of two miles more. It was a distinct victory, on the cross-bar of the H, south of Tarnow. In but the objective of the attack had not been the middle of the cross-bar, the Biala River gained, and the British had once more been was crossed at Ciezkowice, May 2nd. Other forced to admit the superiority of the German Teutonic armies were thrown across the Donatechnique in trench warfare. The only other jetz River, north of Tarnow. Simultaneously important fighting on the Western front dur- an advance was made eastward along the southing the summer was the German offensive con- ern leg of the H, where Gorlice was captured, ducted by the Crown Prince in the Argonne May 2nd. If the legs of the H are continued from June 20th to the middle of July. The eastward, a second cross-bar will be discovered German front in the Argonne, as the result of in the Wisloka River, about 20 miles east of the midsummer battle, was advanced about 400 Tarnow and Gorlice. To this position the Rusyards; the forces engaged, however, were rela- sians fell back after the defeat of May 2nd, and tively small, and the strategic idea obscure. A in new trenches along the eastern bank of the British historian derisively describes the Ar. Wisloka they waited with grim determination gonne battle as “an attempt to retrieve a some- for von Mackensen's attack. It will be noted what damaged reputation on the part of a gen

that Dukla Pass lies almost due south of the eral (the Crown Prince), whom birth had cast Wisloka cross-bar, and that if the Germans for a part he could not fill."

could cross the Wisloka, the Russian troops

which had penetrated into Dukla Pass would be (7) Von Mackensen's Drive in Galicia: May- virtually cut off. Realizing this danger, the June.

Russian defenders of the Wisloka fought desperately. But irresistibly

Mackensen While in the West and on Gallipoli, the Brit. pressed on until he had crossed the Wisloka at ish and French armies were meeting with dig. Jaslo, May 7th. The Russians from Dukla Pass couraging results, in Galicia the Russian ar- fled towards the Wystok River, east of the Wismies of General Ivanov were sustaining a dis- loka. Here again they were hotly pursued by astrous defeat. Up to the end of April, the a German force, which crossed the Wystok. May Russian offensive, in spite of the inadequate 8th. Large bodies of fugitive Russian troops supply of munition which hampered General were made captive. A considerable part, how. Ivanov's campaign in Galicia, seemed to offer the ever, of the Russian Army of the Passes extribrightest prospects of success to which the Al- cated itself in time to join the more northerly lies could look. The "military experts” of Eng- portions of Ivanov's armies in a stand on the lish and French journals optimistically debated line of the San. The centre of the Russian line, the question whether Cracow or Hungary would on May 12th, before the battle of the San, rested be General Ivanov's next objective. Then sud- on the San River, from the fortress of Przemysl denly the amazing news was received that the to a point well north of Jaroslav; the right was Russian armies in Galicia were in full retreat, in front of the San; the left wing was bent back pursued relentlessly by General von Mackensen. behind the San. The battle of the San, one of The reason for the surprise was simple. With the most momentous engagements of the war, marvelous secrecy and speed Austrian and Ger- began on May 15th with a Russian counter-atman armies, aggregating about 2,000,000 men, tack, and ended on May 17th with the Austrians had been concentrated for a prodigious blow in crossing the river at Jaroslav, under the personal Galicia. Probably as many 1500 heavy observation of the German Emperor. Przemysl

, guns, and thousands of lighter field pieces, with further south, held out until June 2. Meanunlimited supplies of ammunition, had been while von Linsingen, striking north through the placed in position. The whole group of Aus- Carpathians, captured Stryj, June 1st, and ad

von

as

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Photographs by Paul Thompson

FORTIFICATIONS ON THE WEST BANK OF THE DVINA RIVER

THE WAR IN EUROPE

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