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Photography by Paul Thompson

FORTIFICATIONS ON THE WEST BANK OF THE DVINA RIVER

THE WAR IN EUROPE

vanced north across the Dniester. Although against a Great Power which menaced its securvon Linsingen suffered severe punishment at the ity, the other members of the Triple Alliance hands of General Brussilov, the Austro-German would either join in the war, or "maintain advance continued to make progress. On June benevolent neutrality towards their Ally.” At 20th von Mackensen captured Rawa Russka, the outbreak of the War of the Nations, in Aunorth of Lemberg.

gust, 1914, Italy had remained neutral, anVon Mackensen's victory at Rawa Russka ren- nouncing that since Germany and Austria-Hundered Lemberg untenable and compelled the gary were engaged in an offensive war, the Russians to evacuate the strong line of lakes, casus foederis of clause III did not exist. Italy river, and marshes which constituted the “Gro. was therefore obliged simply to observe "benevodek position," just west of Lemberg. On June lent neutrality” (clause IV). As the war pro22nd the Austrian General Boehm-Ermolli tri. gressed, however, the spirit of Italy's neutrality umphantly reëntered the city which the Russians became less and less "benevolent," and the Ital. had captured nine months before. The fall of ian government accused Austria-Hungary of Lemberg may be taken as the crowning achieve violating clause VII, which stipulated that as ment of the first phase of von Mackensen's great far as the “territorial status quo in the East” drive. The Russians had been driven out of was concerned, the Allies "will give reciprocally the Carpathian passes in headlong rout, Tar- all information calculated to enlighten each now, Jaroslav, Przemysl, and Lemberg had been other concerning their own intentions and those reconquered, and the Russians all but expelled of other Powers." "Should, however, the case from Galicia—they still held a strip of Eastern arise that, in the course of events, the mainGalicia, including Sokal, Brody, and Tarnopol tenance of the status quo in the territory of the -within an incredibly brief space of time. At Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands the end of June and during the first part of in the Adriatic, or the Ægean Sea become imJuly, von Mackensen's battering ram was pointed possible, and that, either in consequence of the north, into Russian Poland, presaging an even action of a third Power, or for any other reason, more ambitious Teutonic offensive.

Austria-Hungary or Italy should be obliged to During June alone the Teutonic forces cap change the status quo for their part by a temtured 145,000 prisoners, 80 heavy guns, and 268 porary or a permanent occupation, such occupamachine guns. In recognition of his brilliant tion would take place only after previous agreesuccess, von Mackensen was appointed a field ment between the two Powers, which would have marshal. Archduke Frederick, commander-in to be based upon the principle of a reciprocal chief of the Austrian army, was similarly hon. compensation for all territorial or other advanored.

tages that either of them might acquire over

and above the existing status quo, and would (8) Italy's Intervention: May.

have to satisfy the interests and rightful claims

of both parties.” The clause had been invoked In May, while the Russians were in full re- by Austria-Hungary in the Turco-Italian War treat and while the British, slowly perceiving to restrict Italy's operations against Turkey. the gravity of the situation, were reconstructing It was now invoked by Italy, in December, 1914, their cabinet and establishing a ministry of to justify a demand for "compensation," since munitions to remedy the shortage of machine the Austro-Hungarian government had failed to guns and high explosive shells, a new factor inform Italy in advance of the intention to send became prominent, upon which the Allies had an ultimatum to Serbia, and had failed to arlong counted to redress the balance of power in range to compensate Italy for the new advantheir favor. Belligerent speeches by Italian tage which the attack on Serbia would give to patriots during the winter and spring, when the the Dual Monarchy. The Austro-Hungarian situation had seemed more favorable to the Al government could retort that Italy had been inlies, had stimulated popular enthusiasm for formed as early as the summer of 1913 of Auswar to such a degree that in May, in spite of tria-Hungary's intention of taking action the Russian retreat and the British crisis, the against the Serbian menace (this fact was remomentum of the anti-Austrian movement car- ferred to by Signor Giolitti in a speech before ried Italy into the war. From the Green Book the Italian Chamber of Deputies in December, published by the Italian government to justify 1914). Furthermore, no "temporary occupathe war, and from the information made public tion” of Serbian territory existed, and the Auson the other side by the Austro-Hungarian and tro-Hungarian government had declared its inGerman governments, it is now possible to re- tention of respecting Serbía's territorial integconstruct at least the main outlines of the dip- rity. The Italian government, however, perlomatic maneuvres which preceded the Austro sisted in its demands. The port of Avlona on Italian break. The secret Triple Alliance the Albanian coast, whither an Italian landing treaty, first negotiated in 1882, when Italy was party was dispatched late in December, 1914 full of resentment against France for seizing (see ALBANIA), would only partially compenTunis, and renewed in 1887, in 1891, in 1903, sate Italy. In addition, Austria-Hungary would and most recently in 1912, bound Italy to the have to cede to Italy the Italian speaking disCentral Powers in a defensive alliance. From tricts around Trent and a strip of land along clauses III and IV of the treaty (as pieced to the Isonzo River. This amazing interpretation gether by the Vossische Zeitung from the of the Triple Alliance treaty was accepted in phrases disclosed in course of the negotiations principle by the Austro-Hungarian government in 1914-15), it appears that if either or both on March 9th, but only after a new Austroof her Allies, "without direct provocation on Hungarian foreign minister had been appointed their part" should be attacked by another (see AUSTRIA-HUNGARY). The German governPower, Italy would be obliged to join in the war ment, which had consistently advised the conagainst the attacking Power (III). If either ciliation of Italy, and had sent Prince von Ally should be forced to declare offensive war Buelow to urge moderation in Rome, offered to

guarantee the execution of whatever terms ing its abhorrence of Italy's “treachery," the should be agreed upon. The Italian demands, German government remained at peace with as formulated finally in April, embraced (1) Italy; a possible explanation of this anomaly the cession of the Trentino including the towns might be the belief in Germany that after breakof Rovereto, Trent, and Bozen; (2) an exten- ing her strength against impregnable Austrian sion of the eastern Italian frontier along the fortifications, Italy could be induced to make Isonzo River to include the strong positions of peace separately, deserting the Entente Powers. Tolmino, Gorizia, Gradisca, Plezzo, Monfalcone, THE ITALIAN PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. Italy's enand Malborghetto; (3) the erection of Trieste try into the war added to the Allied forces a into an autonomous state; (4) the cession of field army of 1,000,000 with 2,000,000 reserves several Dalmatian Islands; (5) the recognition (territorial militia), under the nominal comof Italian sovereignty over Avlona, and the dec- mand of King Victor Emmanuel, and the actual laration of Austria-Hungary's disinterestedness command of Count Luigi Cadorna, and a navy in Albania. At first Austria-Hungary abso- comprising 4 dreadnoughts, 10 older battleships, lutely refused the second, third, and fourth de- 20 submarines, 40 destroyers, and other craft, mands, and modified the first by reserving under the command of the Duke of the Abruzzi. Bozen. On May 4th Italy denounced her treaty Austria-Hungary at the outset was too much of alliance with Austria-Hungary. Unmistak- occupied in the Galician campaign (supra) to able preparations for war were pushed forward. take the offensive against Italy, and contented Before the final rupture, Austria-Hungary made herself with a naval and aërial raid on the a last attempt to purchase Italy's neutrality, Italian coast, from Venice to Brindisi, early in according to a statement made by von Beth- the morning of May 24th. Against Austriamann-Hollweg, May 18th, by offering (1) the Hungary's weakened resistance, it was predicted Italian part of the Tyrol; (2) the western bank that Count Cadorna's army would make bril. of the Isonzo, “in so far as the population is liant progress. His plan of campaign was purely Italian,” and the town of Gradisca; (3) largely determined by geographic factors. The sovereignty over Avlona and a free hand in Al- main strength of the Italian army was concenbania; (4) special privileges for Italian na- trated at the railheads along the southeastern tionals in the Dual Monarchy, and amnesty for portion of the Austro-Italian frontier, for an political prisoners who were natives of the ceded attack in force against the Isonzo River, just provinces; (5) "Trieste to be made an impe- east of the border line. Within a week the Italrial free city, receiving an administration giv. ian armies had penetrated Austrian territory as ing an Italian character to the city, and to far as the Isonzo and were ready to assail the have an Italian university.” Moreover, the main Austrian defenses, the fortified heights Austro-Hungarian government accepted the east of the Isonzo, from Monte Nero in the Italian demand that the concessions should be north to Monfalcone and the Carso plateau on made as soon as the new boundaries could be the coast: if this line could be carried, the way delimited, instead of awaiting the conclusion of would be opened for the capture of Trieste and the war. Signor Salandra, however, having the invasion of Carniola. Against the middle tested the strength of the war-spirit by tenta- sector of the Austro-Italian frontier, which is tively resigning (see ITALY), was so confident simply a northward-bulging mountain ridge, of popular support that he refused to bargain General Cadorna sent only a comparatively thin longer, and on the evening of May 23rd the Ital. line of troops, with the commission of guarding ian government announced that the war against the passes and preventing an Austrian counterAustria-Hungary would begin the following day. invasion. In the first week of the war the ItalItalian intervention in the war must not be re. ians possessed themselves of the mountain pass garded simply as the culmination of unsuccess- called Val d'Inferno in the centre of the middle ful haggling over a few paltry patches of ter- sector, and captured Cortina, in the Val d'Amritory. Italy went to war first of all because pezzo, at the southern entrance to the Strada the people had been aroused to wild enthusiasm d'Allemagna, an important pass at the western for a war of emancipation to "redeem” the Ital- end of the sector. The third or western sector ian populations of Trent and Trieste from the of the Austro-Italian frontier was formed by hereditary enemy of Italian national unifica- the irregular triangle of the Trentino, jutting tion. At the same time chauvinistic journals scuthward into Italy. The strong popular senhad already begun to preach the doctrine that timent demanding the “liberation" of the ItalItaly as a great and growing Power must con- ian inhabitants of the Trentino, taken in comtest the possession of the Adriatic Sea with her bination with the military necessity of forerival Austria-Hungary, and must secure new stalling an Austrian invasion from commanding territories outside of the Italian peninsula. heights of Trentino, furnished ample justificaWhile chauvinists were frankly urging an ag- tion for an Italian offensive in this region. gressive war for imperial expansion, humani. With Trent as its ultimate objective, one Italtarian radicals were exhorting the Italian nation ian army penetrated the blunt apex of the trito join in the defense of civilization, democracy, angle, following up the valley of the river Adige and liberty against Austro-German militaristic and the basin of Lake Garda towards Rovereto imperialism. These three powerful sentiments and Riva. Simultaneously small parties of -anti-Austrian nationalism, aggressive imperi. Italian mountaineers attacked the mountain alism, and anti-German liberalism-enabled at passes along both sides of the triangle, threatleast a majority of the Italian nation to accept ening Trent from the east and from the west. with approval, if not with actual jubilation, the result of the diplomatic contest. The Italian (9) Lull in the Serbian Operations : Januarydeclaration of war, as might have been expected,

September was received with delight in France and Eng. land, with deep resentment in the “Teutonic" After the exhausting campaign of December, countries. It is significant that notwithstand. 1914 (described in the YEAR BOOK for 1914), when the retreating Serbian armies had sud- Hindenburg's drive," as the movement was popdenly rallied, surprised the too confident invader ularly called, was the mightiest effort yet put by the vigor of their attack, and swiftly expelled forth in any theatre of war. Its aim was obvi. him from Serbian territory, a period of inaction ously (1) to push the Russians back to a safe ensued in the Serbian theatre of war. Serbs distance from Galicia and East Prussia, (2) and Austrians alike had suffered heavily and to conquer Russian Poland, which the Teutonic needed time to repair their losses. Inclement coalition desired for military, economic, and poweather and impassable roads added to the dig- litical reasons, and (3) either to shatter the inclination of either party to renew active op- Russian field army completely, or to drive it erations. About the end of January consterna- back in a badly battered condition to a disadtion was caused in Serbia and in the other Bal vantageous strategic position, where it would kan countries by the report that an immense be forced to remain inactive throughout the Austro-German army was being massed for a coming winter. A much clearer conception of new invasion of Serbia. The story may have the whole situation in the East will be gained been a canard, fabricated for the simple purpose if the reader will examine the Russian railway of intimidating Rumania and Greece-for Ru- system, as shown on the map on page 715. mania and Greece then appeared to be on the Warsaw, the capital of Russian Poland, forms point of joining the Triple Entente-or Pog- the western apex of a westward-pointing wedge sibly the movement of German troops prepara- of railways. The northern face of the wedge is tory to the great offensive movement against the all-important line running southwest from Russia was honestly misinterpreted by the press. Petrograd through Dvinsk, Vilna, Grodno, and At any rate, rumor of an impending Austro- Bialystok to Warsaw. The southern face is the German invasion of Serbia in the spring of 1915 main line running southeast from Warsaw was not borne out by the facts. The diplomatic through Lublin, Cholm, Kovel, and Kiev to Roscorrespondence published in the Italian Green tov. Branches of this southern line link up Book throws some light on the situation. Ac- Warsaw with the Black Sea port of Odessa. cording to the Green Book, the Italian govern Between the northern and southern faces of the ment on February 17th warned Austria-Hungary wedge were two important lines connecting Mogthat any military action undertaken by that cow directly with Brest-Litovsk and indirectly Power in the Balkans without previous agree with Warsaw: the more northerly route from ment regarding the compensation to be allowed Brest-Litovsk to Moscow passed through BaranItaly, would lead to grave consequences. In ovitchi, Minsk, and Smolensk; the other route other words, Italy warned Austria-Hungary that reached Moscow by way of Pinsk, Gomel, and the inauguration of a new campaign against Kaluga. Warsaw and the railway junctions imSerbia would precipitate a crisis between Aus- mediately east of Warsaw thus formed the tria-Hungary and Italy; and Austria-Hungary, western point of convergence of the Russian still hoping that Italy could be kept out of the railway salient. The importance of defending war, consented to postpone the invasion of Ser- Warsaw was fully realized by the Russian Genbia. Meanwhile, profiting by the inactivity of eral Staff. Not only was the city itself forAustria-Hungary, Serbia not only repaired the midably fortified, but on the north a line of forravages which the typhus, in combination with tresses-Novo Georgievsk, Pultusk, Ostrolenka, the past year's campaigns, had wrought in her Lomza and Ossowietz—made the natural line of army, but also invaded Albania, with the co- the Narew River a still stronger protection operation of Montenegrin forces (see ALBANIA, against a flank attack; while to the southeast History). Serbian patriots began to discuss the the broad line of the Vistula with its fortificaextent of the territories that Serbia should an- tions at Warsaw and at Ivangorod was deemed nex at the termination of the war, and a debate sufficiently strong to repel a flanking attack was carried on between Italian and Serbian jour- from the southwest. If the Warsaw angle of nals respecting the relative merits of the Ital- forts were lost, the Russian armies could still fall ian and the Serbian claims to Dalmatia. The back to the line Kovno-Grodno-Bialystok-Brestconsensus of opinion seemed to sanction Italy's Litovsk-Cholm-Sokal, with the Niemen River to claim to a predominant position on the east- strengthen their right wing and the upper Bug ern coast of the Adriatic, providing that Serbia to support their left. Once that secondary line should be given access to a port. In April an of defenses gave way, the Russian right would Austrian aëroplane raid on Podgoritza, Monte- be thrust back to Riga and Dvinsk on the Dvina negro, resulted in 137 casualties, of which 28 River; the centre would flounder about in the were fatal. In August, after a lapse of many vast marshes of the Pripet around Pinsk; the months, the Austrians resumed the bombard- left wing would rest on the fortress-triangle of ment of Belgrade with heavy howitzers. The Lutsk-Rovno-Dubno, but would be virtually bombardment was presently discontinued, howseparated from the northern armies by the Priever, and the Serbian front remained compara- pet swamps. There would be no convenient tively quiet until October.

north-and-south railways to facilitate the shift

ing of troops from point to point along the line (10) Von Hindenburg's Drive: August-Sep to meet unexpected attacks. In a word, the tember.

loss of the apex of the railway salient would

put the Russian armies at a serious disadvanGeneral Strategy. In July and August, tage. This was precisely von Hindenburg's obwhile the Italians were pushing their campaign ject. The "drive" may well be divided into for Trent and Trieste, and while the Franco- three phases. During the first phase, the RusBritish line in the West was enjoying a period sians were forced to abandon the Warsaw angle of comparative repose before undertaking an of forts at the tip of the salient; during the autumnal general forward movement, Field Mar- second phase the secondary line from Kovno shal von Hindenburg launched a tremendous of- through Grodno-Bialystok and Brest-Litovsk fensive against the Russians in Poland. “Von was lost; during the third and final phase of this

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