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famous drive the Russian line was pressed back city on the morning of August 5th, with Prince to the Riga-Dvinsk-Pripet Marshes-Rovno posi- Leopold of Bavaria in command. tion.

THE SECOND PHASE. The fall of Warsaw THE FIRST PHASE. At the end of June, just marked the success of the first phase of the great after the fall of Lemberg (June 22nd), the Rus- Teutonic drive; within three weeks the Russians sian armies were still in complete possession of had been forced to abandon their strongly fortithe railway salient, their line stretching from fied position around Warsaw. An isolated army Windau on the Baltic Sea southward in front at Novo Georgievsk held out for a fortnight of Shavli, Kovno, and Grodno; bending west longer; but the main body of the Russian centre ward through Ossowietz, Lomza, Ostrolenka, and during the second week of August raced back Przasnysz; curving southward again in front of madly towards the secondary line of defense. Pultusk, Novo Georgievsk, and Warsaw; sweep. For a time it seemed as though a large part of ing southeast through Radom; and passing con- the Russian army would be entrapped. But the siderably south of Krasnik, Sokal, Brody, and stubborn defense of Ossowietz protected the Tarnopol. During the last week of June and northern flank of the retreating Russian centre, the first two weeks of July the extreme south- and the secondary line, from Kovno through ern tip of the Russian left wing in Galicia was Grodno, and Bialystok to Brest-Litovsk, was pushed back from Halicz to the northeastern safely reached. The second phase of von Hinbanks of the Zlota Lipa and Dniester rivers. denburg's campaign was directed against this During the same period, von Mackensen and line. The line was forced on August 17th at Archduke Joseph turned northward from Ga- both ends. In the north, the Russian fortress licia and captured Zamosc and Krasnik, respec- of Kovno, inadequately prepared for attack, was tively, where they were within striking distance surrendered by a Russian general who later was of Lublin and Cholm, on the southernmost of brought up on charges of criminal neglect of the sheaf of railways converging on Warsaw. duty. In the south, on the same day, the line At the same time preliminary actions were be- was turned by von Mackensen's advance east of gun at various points along the German front. Cholm towards Kovel. Ossowietz fell five days The great offensive opened, all along the line, later; Bialystok and Brest-Litovsk, on August on July 14th. On that day the main blow was 25th; and Olita on August 26th. By the end delivered by General von Gallwitz against the of August, Grodno alone remained of the RusWarsaw angle of forts; having captured the sian secondary line. The third phase of von town of Przasnysz, he assailed and partially Hindenburg's thrust had begun. pierced the line of the Narew River near Pul- THE THIRD PHASE. The third phase of von tusk. Simultaneously von Mackensen captured Hindenburg's drive lasted through the greater the town of Krasnostov, July 16-18, and ad- part of September. Its aim was to thrust the vanced to within 10 miles of the railway at battered Russian linesince May 2nd the RusCholm. Archduke Joseph, just west of von sians had lost 300,000 killed and wounded, and Mackensen, threatened Lublin, on the same rail 1,100,000 prisoners—back on the Riga-Dvinskway, from the direction of Krasnik. Still fur- Minsk-Pinsk-Rovno line and, if possible, to ther west, General von Woyrsch took Radom, envelop part of the right wing while the centre and drove the Russians back on their fortress floundered about in the Pripet Marshes. Durof Ivangorod. While these three armies were ing this phase of the battle, the Russians offered menacing the southern face of the Russian rail- more stubborn resistance, possibly because the way salient, Generals von Gallwitz, von Scholtz, cautious Russian generalissimo, Grand Duke and von Eichorn were pressing against the Nicholas, had been removed to the Caucasus, northern face, from Novo Georgievsk to Kovno. September 8th, and Czar Nicholas, with General In the extreme north, General von Buelow cap- Alexeiev as his chief of staff, was determined to tured Tukkum and Windau, July 20th, and ad- sacrifice no more Russian territory. On Sepvanced toward Riga. These simultaneous at tember 1st the Russian line was being pressed tacks on the northern and southern faces of the back on Riga in the extreme north; it was still railway salient rendered the position of the Rus- more than 20 miles west of Dvinsk and Vilna, sian centre at Warsaw extremely precarious. and shielded the transverse railway from Riga At any moment von Mackensen might cut the through Dvinsk and Vilna to Grodno; south of southern railway at Cholm and von Gallwitz or Grodno the line bent back east of Bialystok, von Scholtz might cut the northern railway be. Brest-Litovsk, Kovel, and Vladimir Volinski; tween Warsaw and Grodno; from the north and the right wing rested on the fortress triangle of from the south the Teutonic armies would bite Lutsk-Rovno-Dubno. During the month of Sepinto the salient behind Warsaw, and the Russian tember the Russian right wing was pushed back army of the centre would be caught between the from Lutsk, September 1st, and Dubno, Septemjaws of the great German offensive. Grand ber 10th, in spite of successful Russian counterDuke Nicholas, realizing this peril, chose to sac attacks further south near Tarnopol, in Garifice Warsaw rather than expose his central licia. The Russian centre lost the fortress of armies to almost certain disaster. The wisdom Grodno, September 2nd, and fell back east of of the decision was demonstrated when von Pinsk and Baranovitchi (the railway junction Woyrsch forced the passage of the Vistula be just east of Slonim). In the extreme north, tween Warsaw and İvangorod, July 28th, and Riga was gravely menaced by General von when on the next day von Mackensen cut the Beseler, whose troops had stormed the bridgeWarsaw-Kiev railway between Lublin and head at Friedrichstadt and were attempting to Cholm. With feverish haste the Russians trans- envelop Riga from the southeast. But the cenported their guns and stores from Warsaw east- tral feature of the September fighting was the ward to safety. During the night of August battle of Vilna. The important railway junc4th the Russian army evacuated Warsaw, blow. tion of Vilna was defended by the Russians with ing up the Vistula bridges to prevent pursuit. imprudent valor. For while the Russian army The German cavalry triumphantly entered the west of Vilna was holding in check the German





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advance from Kovno, other German armies were attack began on September 25th. While unimstriking at Vilna's communications. German portant assaults were delivered at Hooge (near troops from the direction of Grodno were at- Ypres), and at other points along the line, the tacking Lida. North of Vilna German troops main force of forward movement was concencut the railway at Svientsiany, September 13th, trated at two points, the first in Artois just and cavalry swept southeast to Smorgon and north of Arras, the second in Champagne mid

way between Reims and Verdun. În the Ar

tois region, the initial attack on September 25th WINDAU KHI RIGA ERMA Pocnica

and 26th met with brilliant success. The French Tenth Army, north of Arras, captured Souchez, September 26th, and reached Hill

140, and the ridge dominating the town of SALANT vietos h

Vimy. Sir John French, coöperating in the Ar





tois attack, reported that “Ön the morning of e o SVENTZIAN


the 25th inst., the First and Fourth (British) Corps attacked and carried the enemy's first and most powerful line of intrenchments, extending from our extreme right flank at Grenay (just west of Lens) to a point north of the Hohenzollern redoubt-a distance of 6500 yards. The position was exceptionally strong, consisting of à double line, which included some large redoubts, and a network of trenches and bombproof shelters. Dugouts were constructed at

short intervals all along the line, some of them VLADIMIRO LUTSK

being large caves 30 feet below the ground. The

Eleventh Corps, in general reserve, and the or XKREMENETZ BERDITCHEL


Cavalry person

Division were subsequently thrown into the fight, and finally the Twenty

eighth Division." British troops occupied the ch

village of Loos and the outskirts of Hulluck EPERES K OLOMER SCALE STAT. MILES

between Lens and La Bassée. “The enemy's second line posts were taken, the commanding position known as 'Hill 70'in advance (east)

of Loos was finally captured, and a strong line THE RUSSIAN BATTLE-LINE AFTER VON HINDEN- was established and consolidated in close proxBERG'S DRIVE

imity to the German third and last line."

Meanwhile, in Champagne, according to a French china behind Vilna The Russiang still report dated October 3rd, the French during delayed; but finally on September 18th, they

September 26th and 27th "succeeded north of

September 26th and. evacuated Vilna. A delay of one or two days Souain and Perthes in occupying a front facing more might have resulted in the capture of the

north, and in contact with the German second entire Vilna army. As it was, the Russians ex line along a stretch of seven and a half miles. tricated themselves with the greatest difficulty,

The ground thus conquered represented an area while fighting brilliant holding battles to safe

of some 1542 square miles, and was traversed guard their retreat against the German army

by lines of trenches graduated to a great depth. ing from Grodno, which had captured The borders of the woods were organized for deLida, September 19th, and against the northern flanking force which had struck towards Vileika,

CHAL RANGE Smorgon, and Molodetchna. By October 1st the German drive had come to a standstill, and the Russian armies rested from their retreat: the right wing strongly holding the Dvina River from Riga to Dvinsk, and the lake region from Dvinsk through Vidzy, and Postavy to Smor

Cover SCRATREUIL gon; the centre holding an almost straight north-and-south line from Smorgon to Lipsk, and a zig-zag line through the marshes east of Pinsk; the right fighting for possession of the Lustk-Dubno-Rovno fortress triangle, and annoying the Austrians near Tarnopol.


• SCALE; STAT. MILE (11) The Anglo-French Forward Movement in France: September-October.

SUIPPES Just as von Hindenburg's drive against Russia was completed, the Allies began a general

THE FRENCH ADVANCE IN CHAMPAGNE forward movement in France. Throughout July and August they had been husbanding their re- fense, and innumerable subterranean passages, sources of men and munitions in preparation trenches, and parallels facilitated resistance foot for the great effort. In September the renewed by foot.” After the shock of the initial attack, activity of Allied aviators and the furious bom- however, the French and British in Champagne, bardment of the German lines in France indi- and in Artois failed to press on, as popular cated that the Allies were about to strike. The critics expected, to capture the German railway

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connections at Lens in Artois, and at Somme-Py Balkan countries in respect of Russia's ambition in Champagne. In Champagne, to be sure, the to take Constantinople for herself; Greek patri. French captured the village of Tahure, October ots had long cherished the hope that the historic 6th, and further slight gains were made in Ar- capital of the Byzantine Empire might ultitois, but the whole movement reached a stand- mately become a Greek city; and Balkan sentistill by the middle of October, without having ment generally was opposed to the establishaccomplished any important result, beyond ment of Russian power at Constantinople and straightening and slightly advancing the Allies' Russian hegemony in the Near East. The canlines. Bitter criticism was heard in England. did avowal by Russian statesmen of this ambiDisappointment was expressed in France. In tion was, therefore, a serious obstacle to the Germany the Allied forward movement was re- Entente's diplomatic success in the Balkans. garded as a costly failure, and a clear proof (3) A third difficulty was discovered in the conof the ability of the Germans, with their supe- flict between the territorial ambitions of Greece, rior technique, to hold the lines in France Serbia, and Italy. Because Italy aspired to against numerical odds. A Berlin report esti- dominate the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic, mated the French casualties at 130,000; the Serbia was compelled to modify her ambitions British, 60,000; the German, less than 40,000. in that quarter.' Between Greece and Italy the

conflict was more serious. The Athence, the (12) The Diplomatic Failure in the Balkans. chief organ of the Greek ministry, in discussing

Italy's intervention in the war, openly confessed The months of August, September, and October the fear that as the Entente Powers had been were discouraging for the Allies. In August willing to urge the sacrifice of Greek and Serand September Russia had been badly defeated; bian interests to Bulgaria, they had also probin September and October the great Anglo- ably promised Italy Albania, part of which French forward movement in the West had be- Greece desired, the Dodecanessus, which Italy gun brilliantly and ended disappointingly; in had occupied since the Turco-Italian war deOctober yet another misfortune befell the Allies spite Greek remonstrances, and parts of the

-Bulgaria joined the Teutonic Powers and Ser coast of Asia Minor, which Greece regarded bia was crushed by a combined Teutonic and as racially and historically Hellenic. (4) A Bulgarian invasion. In order that the reasons fourth obstacle was Bessarabia. While Rufor this disaster may appear more clearly, it is mania might be tempted to attack Austria-Hunnecessary to review the principal elements which gary by the hope of "emancipating" the 3,500,stultified the Entente's diplomacy in the Bal- 000 Rumanians in Transylvania and Bukovina, kans and prepared the way for Serbia's down- she might also be tempted by the Teutonic fall. (1) In the first place, the diplomats of Powers to attack Russia for the purpose of rethe Quadruple Entente, misled by a mistaken gaining the province of Bessarabia, more exclunotion that by tactful compromises the ambi. sively Rumanian in language and far more fertions of all the Balkan states (and Russia) tile than Transylvania. (5) Finally, Germancould be satisfied, essayed to reconcile Bulgaria trained military authorities in the Balkan states with Serbia, Greece, and Rumania, and to bring were firmly convinced of the invincible superiabout the joint intervention of the three neu- ority of the German army. Ferdinand of Bultral states—Bulgaria, Greece, and Rumania. To garia shared in this conviction. Constantine of this end, the Entente urged Serbia to cede Mace. Greece had expressed his glowing admiration for donia, and Greece to cede Kavala, Seres, and German military methods after the Balkan War. Drama to Bulgaria. Serbia, however, after Constantine's wife, Sophia, a sister of the Gerlong negotiations, was only willing to give par- man Emperor, was constantly the recipient, durtial satisfaction to Bulgaria's Macedonian as- ing 1915, of messages from Germany describing pirations; as for Greece, Premier Venizelos was great German victories. During the summer, willing (see GREECE), but King Constantine re- moreover, the Balkan nations were duly imfused. While the Entente Powers were still en- pressed by the contrast between the magnificent deavoring to obtain concessions for Bulgaria success of von Mackensen against the Russians from Serbia and Greece, the Bulgarian govern- (supra) and the feeble Anglo-French attack on ment was successfully negotiating with The Gallipoli. The manner in which the Greeks rePorte for the cession of the Dedeagatch Railway garded the futile Gallipoli campaign may be in(see BULGARIA), and with the Teutonic Powers ferred from the statement which the Greek prefor the partition of Serbia. In July, according mier and foreign minister made in December, to apparently authentic reports, a military con- that Greece had warned the Allies of the diffivention was signed between Bulgaria, Germany, culty of their plan of campaign, and that "the Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. In August the Greek General Staff long ago had worked out a cession of the Dedeagatch Railway was arranged. perfect scheme of operation to be utilized in the Still the Entente Powers persisted, after all event of war between ourselves (Greece) and hope had vanished, in their negotiations to Turkey.” “We still believe,” M. Skouloudis conpatch up the Balkan alliance. The other Bal- cluded, "you [the Allies] would have succeeded kan states were offended at the partiality shown if you had been wise enough to adopt it." In to their bitter enemy and rival, Bulgaria. In the light of these five factors, the decision of both Greece and Rumania popular sentiment at Bulgaria to join the Turco-Teutonic coalition, the beginning of the year strongly favored the and the refusal of Greece and Rumania to asEntente, but both Greece and Rumania remained sist the Entente Allies, will perhaps appear less neutral throughout the year, while Bulgaria surprising. joined the Turco-Teutonic coalition. By attempting to win all the Balkan states to its side, (13) The Conquest of Serbia: October-November. the Entente lost all. (2) A second potent factor in defeating the Entente's Balkan diplomacy The decree mobilizing the Bulgarian army, was the apprehension frankly expressed in the September 23rd, and the publication of a gor. ernmental manifesto explaining why Bulgaria the plain of Kossovo, by the converging Austrian, should join the Teutonic Powers revealed Bul- German, and Bulgarian columns; thousands garia's decision to attack Serbia. When Bul. were captured, but a few escaped across the frongaria finally entered the war, October 14th, and tier into Montenegro and Albania. Novibazar began the invasion of Serbia from the east, the was occupied by the victors, November 20th; conquest of Serbia had already been begun by a Mitrovitza and Prishtina, November 23rd; Prizgroup of German and Austro-Hungarian armies ren, November 30th. By the end of November under the general direction of Field Marshal all of Serbia except a narrow strip in the south von Mackensen. The field marshal's strategy had been conquered. The German military headwas simple and effective. While the main Aus- quarters signalized the virtual completion of tro-German army under Generals von Keovess the conquest of Serbia by announcing, Noand von Gallwitz smashed its way through the vember 28th, that "with the flight of the scanty intrenched Serbian position on the southern remnants of the Serbian army into the Albanian banks of the Danube and Save rivers, another mountains our main operations are closed.” The Teutonic army would cross the Drina River and political significance of Field Marshal von strike eastward in the direction of Ushitze, Mackensen's achievement was obvious: it still Kralievo, and Krushevats, and the Bulgarians further increased the respect of Greece and Ruwould advance from the east against Nish. Out- mania for German military prowess. The milinumbered and almost surrounded, the Serbian tary result of the campaign was the opening up army—then about 300,000 strong, reorganized, of the railway route "from Berlin to Constantiand equipped with French artillery-would be nople," through Nish and Sofia, enabling the easily crushed and probably annihilated. In Teutonic Powers to supply Turkey with munipursuance of this scheme, Austro-German troops tions to defeat the Anglo-French force on Galwere thrown across the Danube and Save rivers, lipoli and perhaps to undertake ambitious offenOctober 6th; Belgrade fell on October 8th; Se- sive operations against Egypt. Nor must the mendria, October 11th; and Pozharevats, Octo- economic aspect of the victory be ignored: not ber 14th. The main body of the Austro-German only were the copper mines of Serbia placed at army of invasion could then sweep irresistibly Germany's disposal, but the resources of the southward from the Danube up the Morava val. Balkan peninsula and of the Turkish Empire in ley. In the meantime, an Austrian army had Asia could now be freely drawn upon to repleninvaded Serbia from the direction of Sarajevo ish the supply of foodstuffs and of minerals in and Vishegrad, and was approaching Ushitze. the Central Empires, and, on the other hand, a Such was the situation when Bulgaria declared foreign market was at last procured, despite war. The centre of the Bulgarian attack was England's control of the seas, for overstocked directed against Nish, the Serbian war-capital. German manufacturers. The city was cut off from the south by a Bulgarian army at Vranja, October 17th. On No

(14) The Battle of the Vardar: December. vember 5th Nish surrendered. The right wing of the Bulgarian army crossed the Timok River, It remained for the Bulgarians to complete captured Prahovo and Negotin, and effected a the conquest of Serbia by expelling the Serbians junction with the Teutonic left wing at Liu- from Monastir and by defeating the Anglobichevatz, in the extreme northeastern corner French troops on the Vardar. The former obof Serbia, October 26th. The left wing of the ject was easily accomplished and the Serbians Bulgarian army was thrown into Southern Ser. were driven in defeat from Monastir across the bia by way of Egri Palanka, October 17th, Ku- frontier into Albania. The presence of 97,000 manova, October 21st, and Uskub, October 22nd. French and 75,000 British troops in the Vardar The knowledge that an Anglo-French expendi- valley was a more serious matter. The Allied tionary force, which had been landed at Salon- force, it will be recalled, had been landed at iki on October 5th, was advancing up the Var Saloniki in October and had advanced up the dar River with the object of flanking the Bul- Vardar River towards Veles (Koprili) to turn garian right, gave the Serbian armies in the the Bulgarian right wing. The force was too south renewed courage to contest fiercely for weak, however, to do much more than to hold the possession of Veles * (situated on the rail. its own on a triangle of Serbian territory, the way southeast of Usküb) and to make a deg- base of the triangle being the Serbo-Greek perate stand at Babuna Pass, between Veles and frontier; the western leg was the line of the Prilip. The Anglo-French force was held in Tcherna River, held by the French troops under check (infra), however; Veles was captured; General Sarrail; the apex of the triangle was Babuna Pass was abandoned; and Prilip and at the confluence of the Tcherna and the Vardar; Krushevo were occupied by Bulgarian troops. the eastern leg was a line from Gradsko and Meanwhile the Austro-German armies of inva- Krivolak on the Vardar to Lake Doiran, near sion had driven the shattered Serbian armies of the angle of the Greek, Serbian, and Bulgarian the Danube and Save back up the Morava val. frontiers. The battle of the Vardar, from Deley in a retreat which might well have been cember 3rd to December 12th, was simply a called a rout. Kragujevats, the principal Ser- series of sledge-hammer blows delivered against bian arsenal, was captured on November 1st. the sides of the Anglo-French triangle. During Parachin, southeast of Kragujevats and more the course of the battle the French line was withthan half way from Belgrade to Nish, was drawn from the Tcherna to the eastern bank of reached by the Teutonic invaders on November the Vardar, the apex was drawn back from Kri4th. Krushevats fell three days later. During volak to Demir-Kapu, the British line was batthe second half of November the remnants of tered in, and the whole Anglo-French force fithe Serbian army (exclusive of the small forces nally pushed back into Greek territory. The atin the extreme south) were swept together in tempt of the Allies to relieve Serbia had ended

in ignominious failure. No other result could * Another name for Koprili.

have been expected from the dispatch of so small

a force. Yet the importance of preventing the (17) Italy's Achievement: June-December. Germans from conquering the road through Serbia to Constantinople surely would have war- The plan of Italy's campaign against Austriaranted a more vigorous effort. No feature of Hungary has already been indicated in a prethe Allies' conduct of the war was so bitterly vious paragraph; the achievement of the Italian criticised as this miserable compromise between army, in the seven months from May 24th to really relieving and heartlessly abandoning Ser- December 31st, remains to be stated. Against bia. In this connection it should be noted that the mountainous eastern and central sectors of Sir Edward Carson and Mr. Winston Churchill the Austrian frontier, almost no progress was in Great Britain (see GREAT BRITAIN) and M. made. The Italian operations in these regions, Delcassé in France (see FRANCE) resigned their conducted under the greatest topographical difministerial posts rather than share in the re- ficulties, were calculated simply to protect Lomsponsibility of sending a pitifully weak expedi- bardy from a possible Austrian counter-invationary force to certain failure in Serbia. sion. Against the Isonzo line the main efforts

of the Italian general staff were directed. The (15) The Allies in Saloniki: December.

northern end of the line was forced early in the

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That the battle of the Vardar ended in defeat

MALBORGHETTO and not disaster was due to the willingness of



PONTAFEL SO the Franco-British forces, and the inability of


MANGARTIRE KRONAU the Bulgarians, to cross the Serbo-Greek frontier,

Mt.Gleres free

878 Moistroka

Dona violating Greek neutrality. While the Bulgar

Matasie 151 Predil Pass


? MITTELBRETH ians stopped short at the frontier, the Allies re

O RACCOLANAT GRINTOVEC S treated through Greek territory to the Greek

RESIA Mi Canin

SO city of Saloniki, which they proceeded forthwith

PLEZZO S234 somos


Mt. Plauris to fortify, in expectation of a Teutonic-Bulgarian

TTERDORF attack. The Greek government, as might have been expected, protested against this abuse of her "benevolent neutrality" by the Allies. The Entente Powers, however, replied that their

TARCENTO SE M f Cucco TOLMINOR troops had been sent to Saloniki in the first place at the invitation of M. Venizelos to assist Tricesimo Faces S Savoename volana Greece in fulfilling the terms of the secret Serbo ild TORREANO Grimacco geSLUSHAJDRIA Greek defensive alliance against Bulgaria. This

che Remanzacco CividaLEO CANALE S SREwe interpretation of the Serbo-Greek alliance was confirmed by M. Venizelos, who exhorted his countrymen not to be false to their ally. King Constantine, on the other hand, held that the treaty contemplated only a local Balkan conflict, and did not bind Greece to sacrifice herself

AIDUSSINA in a general European war. While Hellenic treaty obligations remained in dispute, and neutral observers wondered whether the “benevolent neutrality” of Greece was being stretched or violated, the Allies continued their work of making Saloniki impregnable.

Prosecco (16) Montenegro and Albania: December.


BARCOLA After Serbia, it was the turn of Montenegro

SCALE: STAT. Miles and Albania to suffer invasion. Reën forced by Serbian refugees, the small but resolute Montenegrin army valiantly opposed the Teutonic invasion, but in vain. During December Teutonic ITALIAN CAMPAIGN AGAINST GORITZ (GORIZIA) columns penetrated Montenegro from the north, from the east, and from the southeast, capturing summer, when the peak of Monte Nero was sucPlevlie, Ipek, and Djakowa, and threatening to cessfully stormed by Italian infantry. Between make short work of the little mountain king. Monte Nero and Gorizia, the Isonzo line was dom. The Albanian tribesmen, lacking organi- pierced near Plava and at Tolmino. South of zation and equipment, offered little resistance, Gorizia the Isonzo line was likewise crossed in either to the Serbian troops which had been the early summer, and the towns of Monfalcone driven across the Albanian frontier, or to the and Gradisca captured, June 9-10. The AusAustro-Germans and Bulgarians who followed. trian positions around Gorizia, however, defied The numbers of the Serbians in Albania were capture. The frontal attack on Gorizia was variously estimated from 50,000 to 220,000. halted at the bridgeheads on the Isonzo by the Whatever the strength of the Serbian force in withering fire of advantageously placed Austrian Albania may have been, at any rate the Bul- batteries. Enveloping movements from Plava, garians experienced little difficulty in penetrat- . on the north, and from Gradisca against the ing into the heart of the principality from the Carso Plateau on the south, encountered fierce direction of Ochrida, Struga, and Dibra. (For resistance and were checked with severe losses. details regarding the political status and pre- Heavy Italian guns rained high-explosive shells vious condition of Albania, see ALBANIA, His on the town of Gorizia and on the Austrian tory.)

positions on the heights beyond; but apparently

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