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connections at Lens in Artois, and at Somme-Py Balkan countries in respect of Russia's ambition in Champagne. In Champagne, to be sure, the to take Constantinople for herself; Greek patri. French captured the village of Tahure, October ots had long cherished the hope that the historic 6th, and further slight gains were made in Ar- capital of the Byzantine Empire might ulti. tois, but the whole movement reached a stand- mately become a Greek city; and Balkan senti. still by the middle of October, without having ment generally was opposed to the establishaccomplished any important result, beyond ment of Russian power at Constantinople and straightening and slightly advancing the Allies' Russian hegemony in the Near East. The can. lines. Bitter criticism was heard in England. did avowal by Russian statesmen of this ambiDisappointment was expressed in France. In tion was, therefore, a serious obstacle to the Germany the Allied forward movement was re- Entente's diplomatic success in the Balkans. garded as a costly failure, and a clear proof (3) A third difficulty was discovered in the conof the ability of the Germans, with their_supe- flict between the territorial ambitions of Greece, rior technique, to hold the lines in France Serbia, and Italy. Because Italy aspired to against numerical odds. A Berlin report esti- dominate the Dalmatian coast of the Adriatic, mated the French casualties at 130,000; the Serbia was compelled to modify her ambitions British, 60,000; the German, less than 40,000. in that quarter. Between Greece and Italy the

conflict was more serious. The Athenæ, the (12) The Diplomatic Failure in the Balkans. chief organ of the Greek ministry, in discussing

Italy's intervention in the war, openly confessed The months of August, September, and October the fear that as the Entente Powers had been were discouraging for the Allies. In August willing to urge the sacrifice of Greek and Serand September Russia had been badly defeated; bian interests to Bulgaria, they had also probin September and October the great Anglo- ably promised Italy Albania, part of which French forward movement in the West had be- Greece desired, the Dodecanessus, which Italy gun brilliantly and ended disappointingly; in had occupied since the Turco-Italian war deOctober yet another misfortune befell the Allies spite Greek remonstrances, and parts of the -Bulgaria joined the Teutonic Powers and Ser- coast of Asia Minor, which Greece regarded bia was crushed by a combined Teutonic and as racially and historically Hellenic. (4) A Bulgarian invasion. In order that the reasons fourth obstacle

Bessarabia. While Rufor this disaster may appear more clearly, it is mania might be tempted to attack Austria-Hunnecessary to review the principal elements which gary by the hope of "emancipating" the 3,500,stultified the Entente's diplomacy in the Bal- 000 Rumanians in Transylvania and Bukovina, kans and prepared the way for Serbia's down- she might also be tempted by the Teutonic fall. (1) In the first place, the diplomats of Powers to attack Russia for the purpose of rethe Quadruple Entente, misled by a mistaken gaining the province of Bessarabia, more exclunotion that by tactful compromises the ambio sively Rumanian in language and far more fertions of all the Balkan states (and Russia) tile than Transylvania. (5) Finally, Germancould be satisfied, essayed to reconcile Bulgaria trained military authorities in the Balkan states with Serbia, Greece, and Rumania, and to bring were firmly convinced of the invincible superi. about the joint intervention of the three neu ority of the German army. Ferdinand of Bul. tral states—Bulgaria, Greece, and Rumania. To garia shared in this conviction. Constantine of this end, the Entente urged Serbia to cede Mace- Greece had expressed his glowing admiration for donia, and Greece to cede Kavala, Seres, and German military methods after the Balkan War. Drama to Bulgaria. Serbia, however, after Constantine's wife, Sophia, a sister of the Gerlong negotiations, was only willing to give par- man Emperor, was constantly the recipient, durtial satisfaction to Bulgaria's Macedonian as- ing 1915, of messages from Germany describing pirations; as for Greece, Premier Venizelos was great German victories. During the summer, willing (see GREECE), but King Constantine re- moreover, the Balkan nations were duly imfused. While the Entente Powers were still en- pressed by the contrast between the magnificent deavoring to obtain concessions for Bulgaria success of von Mackensen against the Russians from Serbia and Greece, the Bulgarian govern- (supra) and the feeble Anglo-French attack on ment was successfully negotiating with The Gallipoli. The manner in which the Greeks rePorte for the cession of the Dedeagatch Railway garded the futile Gallipoli campaign may be in(see BULGARIA), and with the Teutonic Powers ferred from the statement which the Greek prefor the partition of Serbia. In July, according mier and foreign minister made in December, to apparently authentic reports, a military con- that Greece had warned the Allies of the diffivention was signed between Bulgaria, Germany, culty of their plan of campaign, and that “the Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. In August the Greek General Staff long ago had worked out a cession of the Dedeagatch Railway was arranged. perfect scheme of operation to be utilized in the Still the Entente Powers persisted, after all event of war between ourselves (Greece) and hope had vanished, in their negotiations to Turkey.” “We still believe,” M. Skouloudis conpatch up the Balkan alliance. The other Bal- cluded, "you [the Allies] would have succeeded kan states were offended at the partiality shown if you had been wise enough to adopt it.” In to their bitter enemy and rival, Bulgaria. In the light of these five factors, the decision of both Greece and Rumania popular sentiment at Bulgaria to join the Turco-Teutonic coalition, the beginning of the year strongly favored the and the refusal of Greece and Rumania to asEntente, but both Greece and Rumania remained sist the Entente Allies, will perhaps appear less neutral throughout the year, while Bulgaria surprising. joined the Turco-Teutonic coalition. By attempting to win all the Balkan states to its side, (13) The Conquest of Serbia : October-November. the Entente lost all. (2) A second potent factor in defeating the Entente's Balkan diplomacy The decree mobilizing the Bulgarian army, was the apprehension frankly expressed in the September 23rd, and the publication of a gor.

von

ernmental manifesto explaining why Bulgaria the plain of Kossovo, by the converging Austrian, should join the Teutonic Powers revealed Bul. German, and Bulgarian columns; thousands garia's decision to attack Serbia. When Bul- were captured, but a few escaped across the frongaria finally entered the war, October 14th, and tier into Montenegro and Albania. Novibazar began the invasion of Serbia from the east, the was occupied by the victors, November 20th; conquest of Serbia had already been begun by a Mitrovitza and Prishtina, November 23rd; Prizgroup of German and Austro-Hungarian armies ren, November 30th. By the end of November under the general direction of Field Marshal all of Serbia except a narrow strip in the south von Mackensen. The field marshal's strategy had been conquered. The German military headwas simple and effective. While the main Aus- quarters signalized the virtual completion of tro-German army under Generals von Keovess the conquest of Serbia by announcing, No. and von Gallwitz smashed its way through the vember 28th, that "with the flight of the scanty intrenched Serbian position on the southern remnants of the Serbian army into the Albanian banks of the Danube and Save rivers, another mountains our main operations are closed.” The Teutonic army would cross the Drina River and political significance of Field Marshal strike eastward in the direction of Ushitze, Mackensen's achievement was obvious: it still Kralievo, and Krushevats, and the Bulgarians further increased the respect of Greece and Ruwould advance from the east against Nish. Out- mania for German military prowess. The milinumbered and almost surrounded, the Serbian tary result of the campaign was the opening up army—then about 300,000 strong, reorganized, of the railway route "from Berlin to Constantiand equipped with French artillery-would be nople," through Nish and Sofia, enabling the easily crushed and probably annihilated. In Teutonic Powers to supply Turkey with munipursuance of this scheme, Austro-German troops tions to defeat the Anglo-French force on Galwere thrown across the Danube and Save rivers, lipoli and perhaps to undertake ambitious offenOctober 6th ; Belgrade fell on October 8th; Se- sive operations against Egypt. Nor must the mendria, October 11th; and Pozharevats, Octo economic aspect of the victory be ignored: not ber 14th. The main body of the Austro-German only were the copper mines of Serbia placed at army of invasion could then sweep irresistibly Germany's disposal, but the resources of the southward from the Danube up the Morava val. Balkan peninsula and of the Turkish Empire in ley. In the meantime, an Austrian army had Asia could now be freely drawn upon to repleninvaded Serbia from the direction of Sarajevo ish the supply of foodstuffs and of minerals in and Vishegrad, and was approaching Ushitze. the Central Empires, and, on the other hand, a Such was the situation when Bulgaria declared foreign market was at last procured, despite war. The centre of the Bulgarian attack was England's control of the seas, for overstocked directed against Nish, the Serbian war-capital. German manufacturers. The city was cut off from the south by a Bulgarian army at Vranja, October 17th. On No

(14) The Battle of the Vardar: December. vember 5th Nish surrendered. The right wing of the Bulgarian army crossed the Timok River, It remained for the Bulgarians to complete captured Prahovo and Negotin, and effected a the conquest of Serbia by expelling the Serbians junction with the Teutonic left wing at Liu- from Monastir and by defeating the Anglobichevatz, in the extreme northeastern corner French troops on the Vardar. The former obof Serbia, October 26th. The left wing of the ject was easily accomplished and the Serbians Bulgarian army was thrown into Southern Ser- were driven in defeat from Monastir across the bia by way of Egri Palanka, October 17th, Ku- frontier into Albania. The presence of 97,000 manova, October 21st, and Uskub, October 22nd. French and 75,000 British troops in the Vardar The knowledge that an Anglo-French expendi- valley was a more serious matter. The Allied tionary force, which had been landed at Salon- force, it will be recalled, had been landed at iki on October 5th, was advancing up the Var. Saloniki in October and had advanced up the dar River with the object of flanking the Bul- Vardar River towards Veles (Koprili) to turn garian right, gave the Serbian armies in the the Bulgarian right wing. The force was too south renewed courage to contest fiercely for weak, however, to do much more than to hold the possession of Veles * (situated on the rail. its own on a triangle of Serbian territory, the way southeast of Usküb) and to make a des- base of the triangle being the Serbo-Greek perate stand at Babuna Pass, between Veles and frontier; the western leg was the line of the Prilip. The Anglo-French force was held in Tcherna River, held by the French troops under check (infra), however; Veles was captured; General Sarrail; the apex of the triangle was Babuna Pass was abandoned; and Prilip and at the confluence of the Tcherna and the Vardar; Krushevo were occupied by Bulgarian troops. the eastern leg was a line from Gradsko and Meanwhile the Austro-German armies of inva- Krivolak on the Vardar to Lake Doiran, near sion had driven the shattered Serbian armies of the angle of the Greek, Serbian, and Bulgarian the Danube and Save back up the Morava val- frontiers. The battle of the Vardar, from Deley in a retreat which might well have been cember 3rd to December 12th, was simply a called a rout. Kragujevats, the principal Ser- series of sledge-hammer blows delivered against bian arsenal, was captured on November 1st. the sides of the Anglo-French triangle. During Parachin, southeast of Kragujevats and more the course of the battle the French line was withthan half way from Belgrade to Nish, was drawn from the Tcherna to the eastern bank of reached by the Teutonic invaders on November the Vardar, the apex was drawn back from Kri4th. Krushevats fell three days later. During volak to Demir-Kapu, the British line was batthe second half of November the remnants of tered in, and the whole Anglo-French force fithe Serbian army (exclusive of the small forces nally pushed back into Greek territory. The atin the extreme south) were swept together in tempt of the Allies to relieve Serbia had ended

in ignominious failure. No other result could * Another name for Koprili.

have been expected from the dispatch of so small

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a force. Yet the importance of preventing the (17) Italy's Achievement: June-December. Germans from conquering the road through Serbia to Constantinople surely would have war- The plan of Italy's campaign against Austriaranted a more vigorous effort. No feature of Hungary has already been indicated in a prethe Allies' conduct of the war was so bitterly vious paragraph; the achievement of the Italian criticised as this miserable compromise between army, in the seven months from May 24th to really relieving and heartlessly abandoning Ser. December 31st, remains to be stated. Against bia. In this connection it should be noted that the mountainous eastern and central sectors of Sir Edward Carson and Mr. Winston Churchill the Austrian frontier, almost no progress was in Great Britain (see GREAT BRITAIN) and M. made. The Italian operations in these regions, Delcassé in France (see FRANCE) resigned their conducted under the greatest topographical difministerial posts rather than share in the re- ficulties, were calculated simply to protect Lomsponsibility of sending a pitifully weak expedi- bardy from a possible Austrian counter-invationary force to certain failure in Serbia.

sion. Against the Isonzo line the main efforts of the Italian general staff were directed. The

northern end of the line was forced early in the (15) The Allies in Saloniki: December. That the battle of the Vardar ended in defeat and not disaster was due to the willingness of

PONTAFEL the Franco-British forces, and the inability of

788/ M1.Gleres

MANGARTI KRONAU the Bulgarians, to cross the Serbo-Greek frontier,

878 Moistroka
DOGNA
MATASIO

Predil Pass Pass

8751 violating Greek neutrality. While the Bulgar

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902
MITTELBRITN

Luknia ians stopped short at the frontier, the Allies re

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ass

GRINTOVEC treated through Greek territory to the Greek

RESIULLA

RESIA M1 Canin city of Saloniki, which they proceeded forthwith

PLEZZO Sozza

TRICORNO Mt. Plauris

6623 to fortify, in expectation of a Teutonic-Bulgarian

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Mt.
attack. The Greek government, as might have S609 Maggiore SERPENIZZA Mt.Nero

VABATIN
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OŠS been expected, protested against this abuse of

LUSEVERA

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CAPORETTO

VON her "benevolent neutrality” by the Allies. The

MAGKANO
Entente Powers, however, replied that their TARCENTO 1.5

STUPIZZO Mt. Cucco TOLMINO troops had been sent to Saloniki in the first

OVOLZANO place at the invitation of M. Venizelos to assist TRICESIMO

SAVOGNA
FAEDIS

S.LUCIA
TORREANO GRIMACCO PRONZINA

JORIA
Greece in fulfilling the terms of the secret Serbo-

PovoltTTO S. PIETROO Greek defensive alliance against Bulgaria. This FELETTO

REMANZACCO CIVIDALEO CANALE SEBRELE interpretation of the Serbo-Greek alliance was

OUDINE

PREVARIAE CON confirmed by M. Venizelos, who exhorted his

PRADAMENOS
MERNICO

KOLENEC

SLORENZO countrymen not to be false to their ally. King

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Mt. Santo

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Constantine, on the other hand, held that the

MANZANO 6 MEDANA

Golias Pozzuone

7385 treaty contemplated only a local Balkan con

CORMONSTA

GORITZ
TRIVIGNANT

SAN BASSO flict, and did not bind Greece to sacrifice herself

S. LORENZO

AIDUSSINA in a general European war. While Hellenic

BAGNARIA
ROMANS

RANZIANO treaty obligations remained in dispute, and neu

SAGRADO

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DOBERDOO,
PORDETTO

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RONCHA CASTAGNAVIZZA neutrality” of Greece was being stretched or vio

FCERVIGNANO lated, the Allies continued their work of making

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DoTTOGLIANO Saloniki impregnable.

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BELVEDERE

MIRAMARE (16) Montenegro and Albania: December.

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BARCOLA
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SC
GULF TRIESTE
SCALE: STAT, MILLS

BORST After Serbia, it was the turn of Montenegro

OF

SERVALAIS

monas MANROADS and Albania to suffer invasion. Reënforced by

TRIESTE Serbian refugees, the small but resolute Montenegrin army valiantly opposed the Teutonic invasion, but in vain. During December Teutonic ITALIAN CAMPAIGN AGAINST GORITZ (GORIZIA) columns penetrated Montenegro from the north, from the east, and from the southeast, capturing summer, when the peak of Monte Nero was sucPlevlie, Ipek, and Djakowa, and threatening to cessfully stormed by Italian infantry. Between make short work of the little mountain king. Monte Nero and Gorizia, the Isonzo line was dom. The Albanian tribesmen, lacking organi- pierced near Plava and at Tolmino. South of zation and equipment, offered little resistance, Gorizia the Isonzo line was likewise crossed in either to the Serbian troops which had been the early summer, and the towns of Monfalcone driven across the Albanian frontier, or to the and Gradisca captured, June 9-10. The AusAustro-Germans and Bulgarians who followed. trian positions around Gorizia, however, defied The numbers of the Serbians in Albania were capture. The frontal attack on Gorizia was variously estimated from 50,000 to 220,000. halted at the bridgeheads on the Isonzo by the Whatever the strength of the Serbian force in withering fire of advantageously placed Austrian Albania may have been, at any rate the Bul- batteries. Enveloping movements from Plava, garians experienced little difficulty in penetrat- on the north, and from Gradisca against the ing into the heart of the principality from the Carso Plateau on the south, encountered fierce direction of Ochrida, Struga, and Dibra. (For resistance and were checked with severe losses. details regarding the political status and pre- Heavy Italian guns rained high-explosive shells vious condition of Albania, see ALBANIA, His on the town of Gorizia and on the Austrian tory.)

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