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with no effect. To sum up the Italian achieve again to the Turks, and the great effort had ment: Italian territory had been protected failed. In the Sari Bair region, as in the Achi from invasion; a few Austrian border towns had Baba region, trench-battles continued throughbeen pulverized, and a few towns * of “Italia Ir- out the rest of the year without decisive result. redenta” had been “redeemed”-or laid in ruins; In the trenches on the tip of the peninsula, the but the main Austrian defensive positions in the Anglo-French troops were decimated by disease; Trentino and behind Gorizia repelled every as- before Sari Bair the British colonials were sault. Acco to an Italian estimate this maddened with thirst in consequence of unparachievement had cost Italy 45,000 men. Italy's donable inefficiency in the management of the service to her Allies, it may be remarked, was water supply. More than one of Sir Ian Hamgreater than her progress towards the realiza- ilton's lieutenants were accused of incompetence. tion of her own national interests: Italy's in- Sir Ian himself was recalled in October, and tervention had stopped one more channel through superseded by Gen. Sir Charles C. Monro. Earl which supplies could leak into Germany and Kitchener was sent to investigate the situation. Austria-Hungary; her fleet had been a welcome Withdrawal from the peninsula was openly adaddition to the Allies' naval superiority; and vised by General Monro, frankly discussed by her armies had occupied the attention of some- the press, and postponed, it seemed, only by the where between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Austro- unwillingness of the British ministry to admit Hungarian soldiers. Throughout the later a disheartening defeat just when a supreme efmonths of the year, rumors frequently asserted fort was being made to stir up popular enthuthat Italy had sent an expeditionary force to siasm for recruiting (see GREAT BRITAIN). ToGallipoli, or to the Dardanelles, or to the Bal- wards the end of December the long-expected kans. As far as could be ascertained at the step was taken, and the British troops were close of the year, however, Italy's only expedi- withdrawn from the Suvla Bay and Anzac retionary force, and that a small one, was sent to gions * on the western shore; shortly afterwards, occupy Avlona and other points along the coast carly in January, the trenches on the tip of the of Albania.
peninsula were abandoned, without loss, accord
ing to the British report-with heavy losses, (18) Failure on Gallipoli: June-December. according to the Turkish statement. The cam
paign thus brought to an inglorious close had One of the keenest disappointments suffered by cost the British, up to December 9th 114,555 the Allies in 1915 was the failure of the Dar- men, of whom 26,172 were dead. It is signifidanelles campaign. By the middle of June, as cant that the withdrawal was effected immean earlier paragraph has explained, the main diately after the conclusion of Lord Derby's reAnglo-French land attack on the tip of Gallipoli cruiting campaign in England (see Great BritPeninsula had apparently subsided into a dead- AIN). The most telling criticism of the manlock. On June 21st slight gains were made on agement of the Dardanelles operations, and at the right of this line, commanding Kereves the same time the most vigorous apology for the Dere; a week later the British lines were ad- higher strategy which had dictated the inauvanced on the left, in Saghir Dere, and terrific guration of the campaign, was given by Mr. Turkish counter-attacks were repulsed with Winston Spencer Churchill, in his remarkable heavy losses. Battles of this nature, in which speech before the House of Commons on Novema few hundred yards of trenches were gained or ber 15th: “It has been proved in this war," he lost, continued to be reported at intervals dur. said, “that good troops properly supported by ing the autumn and winter, but the main Turk: artillery can make a direct advance two or three ish position in the tip of the peninsula, Achi miles in the face of any defense. The advance, Baba Peak, was not even seriously menaced. for instance, which took Neuve Chapelle, or Despairing of success in this region, Gen. Sir Loos, or Souchez, if made on the Gallipoli PenIan Hamilton decided to exert a powerful effort insula, would have settled the fate of the Turkfrom the secondary British landing (Anzac ish army on the promontory, would probably Cove). If the hill (971 feet) called Sari Bair, have decided the whole operation, might have back of Anzac Cove, could be carried by storm, determined the attitude of the Balkans, might an attack on the northern flank of the Kilid have cut off Germany from the East, and might Bahr position might be undertaken with a rea- have saved Serbia.” All through the year, he sonable probability of success. The great effort asserted, he had urged the government to conwas made early in August. While reënforce centrate its offensive efforts on Gallipoli; for ments were landed north of Sari Bair, at Suvla in France a costly gain meant only a "nibble,” Bay, the Australasian and Indian troops with whereas "on the Gallipoli Peninsula, our army reckless gallantry charged up the slopes of the has stood all the summer within a few miles of a hill. The Gurkhas actually succeeded in reach- decisive victory.” ing the heights on the neck between Chanuk Bahr and “Q" Hill, whence they could look down
(19) The Menace to Egypt. upon the Dardanelles, but they were compelled to fall back for lack of support. With valor One of the chief results of the failure of the quite equal to that shown by the British colo- Anglo-French campaign at the Dardanelles was nials, the Turks swept down the slopes, in the to release a Turkish army of at least 200,000 face of a murderous artillery and machine-gun men for active service elsewhere. Since an atfire, to dislodge the British from the footholds which had been gained. On August 10th, at the
* Immediately after the withdrawal of the British close of the battle, the British still held some of colonial troops from the Anzac region of the Galli
poli Peninsula had been accomplished, it was announced their gains, but two commanding positions which that Sir Charles Carmichael Monro had been transferred had been won by daring assaults, had been lost from the Dardanelles to command the First British Army
in France. Lieut.-Gen. Sir Archibald Murray suc* Grado, Porto Buso, Monfalcone, Gradisca, Cormon, ceeded General Monro in command on Gallipoli, and San Pietro, Plano, Caporetto, Monte Nero, and Plezzo. completed the withdrawal.
tack upon Egypt, menacing an important British upon the British fortress of Aden, at the possession and threatening England's cherished southern gateway to the Red Sea. Late in Deroute through the Suez Canal to India and Aus- cember the British India Office published the tralasia, would be one of the most advantageous following statement regarding this attack: "The campaigns in which Turkey's Gallipoli army statement that the Turks have had far-reaching could be employed, it was not surprising that military successes at Aden is a complete misapat the close of the year rumors became frequent prehension. In July last the Turks, having octhat a great Turkish invasion of Egypt was be cupied Lahej, advanced to Sheikh Othman, in ing prepared. In the light of this new situa- the neighborhood of Aden, and looted it. They tion, the earlier Turkish attack on the Suez were, however, driven out, and withdrew inland Canal assumed new significance and interest. and have not ventured to advance again on the The difficulties of military operations against the fortress of Aden. Such skirmishes as there have Suez Canal
The attacking been during the last three months resulted favor. forces must drag their artillery and carry their ably to us; but there has been no material pontoons more than a hundred miles through the change in the situation during that period. . . . desert of the Sinai Peninsula. At the end of So far as the security of the Suez Canal route their arduous journey, the Turks would find the to India is concerned, the present situation at canal watchfully guarded by warships and by a Aden may be left out of account.” Egypt, it considerable force of British colonial and Egyp- should be mentioned, was attacked from the west tian troops. It was therefore an unpromising in December by comparatively small bodies of and a hazardous mission which Djemal Pasha Senussi tribesmen from the Libyan frontier. undertook in the opening months of 1915. During January, 1915, the Turkish commander's
(20) The British in Mesopotamia. army, variously estimated at from 25,000 to 65,000 men, accomplished the difficult feat of Before Enver Pasha, the ambitious Turkish crossing the Sinai Peninsula. Advanced guards minister of war, undertook a new offensive camof the Turkish army were encountered and paign against Egypt, it seemed probable that he driven back by the British defenders of the canal would send reënforcements to the Turkish troops as early as January 25th. The main Turkish resisting British and Russian aggression in Mecolumns, however, did not come up until a week sopotamia, Armenia, and Persia. Up to the end later. While feint attacks were delivered, Feb- of 1915 the campaigns in these regions were of ruary 2nd, against El Kantara and Ismailia, the distinctly secondary importance. The force orstrongest column of Djemal Pasha's army was iginally sent by the British from India to Shatdirected against the section of the canal be- el-Arab (at the head of the Persian Gulf) in: tween Tussum and Serapeum, south of Ismailia. cluded only three Indian regiments and had, as During the night of February 2-3, the Turks far as could be discerned at the time, no other dragged their pontoons and rafts to the water's important object than the protection of the Anedge and began to construct a pontoon bridge glo-Persian Oil Company's pipe-line, near Basra. across the canal. They were discovered by the The Turkish garrison of Basra, advancing to British troops on the western embankment, and repel the British, was crushingly defeated, Nov. about 3 A. M. the battle began in earnest. Under 17, 1914, and Basra was occupied by the British. the murderous fire of the British Maxims, the The British then advanced to Kurna, at the conTurks attempted to cross the canal in boats or fluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. rafts. One boatload actually succeeded in reach- The Turkish forces in Mesopotamia, however, ing the western bank, and attacked the British would not permit the British to remain at rest from the rear. Six batteries of field artillery in the entrenched camp at Kurna. In April, were brought up by the Turks during the course 1915, the British were compelled to meet the of the morning of February 3rd. The British Turks in a pitched battle at Shaiba; according defenders, however, with the aid of torpedo- to British reports the Turks left 6000 of their boats and gunboats, frustrated the attempt to men on the field, besides valuable supplies, mabridge the canal and in the middle of the after- chine-guns, automobiles, and ammunition. At noon the Turks turned and fled, leaving 500 the end of May the British, again assailed, purmen killed and 600 prisoners. The main Turk- sued a Turkish force up the Tigris to Amara ish force, however, made good its retreat. A (73 miles north of Kurna). Flushed with sucmonth and a half later, a body of Turkish troops, cess, the British were drawn further and further about 1000 strong, was encountered near Suez and northward, until on September 28th Maj. Gen. driven back towards Nakhl. With this skirmish, C. V. F. Townshend defeated the Turks before the first Turkish attack on Egypt may be said Kut-el-Amara and occupied the city the folto have ended. Djemal Pasha's force had been lowing day. With insignificant forces the Brittoo small, and the expedition had been too ish had penetrated more than 200 miles into feebly equipped, to constitute a serious menace Mesopotamia (346 miles by water). Bagdad, to the canal; at the close of the year 1915, how- only 100 miles further up the Tigris (227 folever, the Turks had available a larger army than lowing the course of the river), lured the inDjemal Pasha's; they were receiving munitions vaders on. Gen. Sir John Nixon, the commander from Germany by way of conquered Serbia; and in charge of the expedition, sent Major-General German engineers might expedite the crossing Townshend on to Bagdad. On November 22nd of the Sinai Peninsula by constructing military Major-General Townshend attacked and carried railways through the desert. Whether under the Turkish defensive positions at Ctesiphon, these more favorable circumstances Enver Pasha only 18 miles from Bagdad. Then the tide would again send a Turkish army to invade turned. Townshend, overwhelmed by superior Egypt remained one of the most interesting ques. numbers, was defeated with a loss of 4500 out of tions for the year 1916 to answer.
20,000 men and driven back to Kut-el-Amara, The Suez Canal route to India was menaced which was promptly surrounded and invested. from yet another direction by Arab assaults A relief expedition, led by General Aylmer, failed to reach Kut-el-Amara. With Townshend's tion, cost the Turks not less than 50,000 men. army menaced at Kut-el-Amara with a fate like Pursuing their advantage, the Russians pressed that which befell Gordon at Khartum, the Meso- on Khorasan, on the way from Kars to Erzerum, potamian expedition, at the close of the year, and occupied Van, about 150 miles southeast of promised to furnish the critics of the Brit- Erzerum, May 23rd; but the Turks remained in ish government with a new ground for com- possession of Erzerum throughout the remainder plaint.
of the year.
The Russo-Turkish operations in Northwest(21) The Russians in Armenia and Persia.
ern Persia were closely connected with the cam
paign in Turkish Armenia. The repulse of the In November, 1914, the Turks undertook an Turkish armies east of Erzerum in January was ambitious campaign in the Caucasus region. followed by the failure of a parallel Turkish Enver Pasha was present in person, with a staff campaign against Tabriz, the most important of German advisers, to superintend the opera- town of Northwestern Persia. Early in January tions. While the Eleventh Turkish army corps the Turks had occupied Urza and Kotur, and in front of Erzerum occupied the attention of after defeating a Russian army at Mjandoab the Russian forces, the Ninth and Tenth Turk- had advanced east of Lake Urumiah and had ish corps aimed to encircle the right flank of the captured Tabriz. The Russians, however, were
Russians and cut them off from Kars. The able at the end of January to bring troops from First Turkish army corps was simultaneously to Kars and to recapture Tabriz. During, the advance from Trebizond against Ardahan (north- spring the Russians gradually reconquered the west of Kars). The Turkish armies, however, province of Azerbaijan (a province in Northwere so exhausted by their forced marches over western Persia, practically under Russian consnow-bound mountain roads, that the Russians trol). By the end of May the Russians anwere able to defeat them in detail. On Jan. 1, nounced that Urumiah, west of the lake of that 1915, the Tenth was driven back. The retreat name, had been retaken. In November a Rus. of the Tenth exposed the left flank of the Ninth sian army was sent against Teheran, the capital Turkish corps at Sarikamish, and enabled the of Persia ; and the Persian government, under Russians to surround and capture the entire new "pro-Ally” premier (see PERSIA), fell corps. On January 3rd the First Turkish corps, under the complete domination of the Allied which had successfully reached Ardahan, was Powers. Hamadan (165 miles south west of attacked in turn and driven back in headlong Teheran) and Kum (80 miles south of Teheran), rout. The Eleventh, endeavoring to hold the at- where the mutinous gendarmerie and pro-Gertention of the Russians, fought stubbornly, but man rebels had established themselves, were ocwas forced finally to retreat to Erzerum, Jan- cupied by the Russians in December. From uary 17th. The series of operations, so bril- Hamadan the Russians were expected—accordliant in conception and so disastrous in execu- ing to the British press—to march southwest
ward into Mesopotamia, to relieve General gained some of the ground lost in September and Townshend's beleaguered force at Kut-el-Amara. October, notably the position on the Hill (Butte)
of Tahure, in Champagne. In Alsace, however, (22) The Russian Army at Bay: October-De- on the slopes of the Vosges Mountains, the cember.
methods of siege warfare were not always ap
plicable, and picturesquely garbed mountaineers, The close of the year 1915 found the main gliding swiftly on skees, engaged in less laborRussian army at bay, along a front 700 miles ious combats. The summit of Hartmannsweilerlong, from Riga to Bukovina, stubbornly resist- kopf, in Alsace, was captured by the French in ing any further encroachments upon the terri- October, according to French reports, recaptory of “Holy Russia.” Since the cessation of tured by the Germans, and again won by the the great Austro-German offensive in September, French, December 21st. Two other features of little of importance had occurred on the Rus- the campaign in the West deserve mention. sian front. The Teutonic armies, weakened in The promotion of General Joffre to the supreme order to reënforce the Austro-Hungarian of- command of all the French armies (i.e., includfensive against Serbia (supra), were content to ing those in the Near East as well as those in rest on the defensive, although von Buelow, the West, but not the troops in the colonies), on the Teutonic left wing, continued to threaten and the appointment of General de Castelnau as Riga, and intermittent attacks were delivered French chief of staff, were shortly followed (Deagainst the Russian line west of Dvinsk and at cember 15th) by the removal of the British comthe point where the Kovel-Kiev railway crosses mander in chief, Sir John French, and the apthe Styr River. The Russian army-under the pointment of Sir Douglas Haig to command the command of Czar Nicholas since September 8th British armies in France and Belgium (see —not only held its own in the marshy region HAIG, SIR DOUGLAS; FRENCH, SIR JOHN). On before Riga and in the lake-country around December 27th the British government anDvinsk, but assumed the offensive in the extreme nounced that the Indian Army Corps, which south. In Galicia General Ivanov's army west had hitherto served in France, had left for "anof Tarnopol reported a series of successes against other field of action.” the Austro-Hungarians. Further south, in Bukovina, the Russians were striving to re- (24) Conquest of the German Colonies. capture Czernowitz. The purpose of the vigorous Russian offensive in Galicia and Bukovina While General Joffre's armies in the West, was obvious: it might force the Austro-Hun- and Czar Nicholas's armies in the East, were garians to fall back from Volhynia, and it might unsuccessfully striving to expel the German inbring Rumania into the war.
vader from Belgium, from Northern France, and
from Poland, the colonial forces of Great Britain (23) The Deadlock in France: October-De- and her Allies were completing the conquest of cember.
the German colonies. A considerable part of
the German colonial empire had been approThe Anglo-French forward movement of Sep- priated by the Allies in 1914: the leased-terri. tember-October failed to break the deadlock in tory of Kiaochow had been conquered by Japan, the West. From October to the end of the year, Nov. 6, 1914; in the southern Pacific German the contending armies along the great battle” line New Guinea (Kaiser-Wilhelmsland), the Bisfrom Belgium to Alsace devoted themselves more marck Archipelago, the German islands in the assiduously than ever to the perfection of their Samoan group, the Marshall and Solomon Isintrenchments and fortifications. Trench war. lands, and the Caroline Islands were all occufare had become a new science. First, second, pied by British and British Australasian forces and third lines of trenches, connected by zigzag before the end of the year (see YEAR BOOK, communication trenches or by tunnels, gave 1914). In Africa, Togoland had been captured, shelter to the infantry. Covered shelters, cages, August, 1914, by Anglo-French forces; the inand dugouts, constructed with amazing ingenu: vasion of German Southwest Africa had been beity, afforded protection both from shrapnel and gun in September, 1914; Kamerun had been atfrom the elements. Attacks on the enemy's tacked from the coast, from Nigeria, and from trenches must be preceded by a furious bom- French Congo; and unsuccessful expeditions had bardment with high-explosive shells, which been sent against German East Africa. During would blast out of existence the enemy's barbed the year 1915, the conquest of German Southwire entanglements and first-line trenches. The west Africa was carried to completion by Genattacking troops, often wearing gas-proof hoods, eral Botha (see GERMAN SOUTHWEST AFRICA; and carrying bombs and bayonets, were mowed SOUTH AFRICA) in July, 1915; Kamerun, on the down by machine-guns and by the fire of field western coast of Africa, was almost conquered; guns such as the French "soixante quinze" (75 and preparations for a serious invasion of Germm.). The way for infantry charges, of a small man East Africa were made. By the close nature, was most frequently prepared by the of the year, the unexpectedly stubborn deexplosion of a mine underneath the enemy's fense of Kamerun had been virtually crushed, trenches. Meanwhile the mightier howitzers, and most of the colony was in Anglo-French concealed several miles behind the first-line possession (see KAMEBUN); German East Aftrenches, intermittently hurled their tremen- rica, however, had suffered little from Aldously destructive shells against the enemy's lied incursions. Attempted_invasions by Britposition. (Consult article on MILITARY PROG- ish troops from British East Africa, along RESS.) In this new art of trench warfare, equip- the shores of Victoria Nyanza, had been checked. ment and ingenuity appeared to be more im- Mafia Island, however, was in British possession, portant than mere numbers. The Germans, who the coast was under blockade, and the German were generally admitted to be outnumbered, were cruiser Königsberg had been destroyed near the not only able to hold their own, but actually re- mouth of the Rufiji River. In December it was