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announced that a force of 25,000 men had been only naval operations of any importance, inraised by the Union of South Africa, thanks to volving capital ships, were (1) in the Adriatic, the untiring energy of the Union minister of where the Austro-Hungarian navy was held in defence, Gen. Jan Christian Smuts, and Gen. check by the French, with the assistance of the Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien had been brought from Italian fleet, after May 24th; (2) in the Baltic, France to conduct a formidable attack on Ger- where a German squadron, according to Russian man East Africa.

reports, forced its way into the Gulf of Riga and

was expelled with the loss of three small cruisVI. NAVAL OPERATIONS

ers, seven torpedo boats, and the powerful bat

tle cruiser Moltke; and (3) in the Black Sea, The supremacy of the British fleet remained where, after the Turkish battle cruiser Sultan throughout the year 1915 a silent but a potent Selim had been injured by a mine, the Russian factor, ensuring the transport of troops to and fleet asserted its superiority, but was held off from the Dardanelles, across the British Chan- from Constantinople by submarines and by the nel, and from the colonies; it enabled the Al- fortifications of the Bosphorus. In the absence lied Powers not only to continue their commerce of any really decisive naval operations, naval with neutral nations, but also to make war on critics in Germany and in Great Britain comGerman trade; it constituted, in fact, the chief mented much on the cumulative effect of Lsses bulwark of British confidence. No serious at- and of new construction in increasing or detempt to question British naval supremacy was creasing the disparity between the rival fleets. made by the German battle fleet. The most im- The Germans tabulated the losses of the British portant naval engagement fought during the and Allied navies, including the losses at the year was the battle of Dogger Bank, Jan. 24, Dardanelles, as well as the British predread1915, in which a German battle-cruiser squadron nought Formidable (sunk by torpedo, January raiding the coast of England was severely pun- 1st), the Italian battleship Benedetto Brin ished for its temerity. The German squadron (sunk by explosion, September 28th), the Italian was sighted by Admiral Beatty off Dogger Bank cruiser Amalfi (sunk by torpedo, July 7th),

the early in the morning of January 24th. Imme- Garibaldi (sunk by torpedo, July 17th), the diately the German battle cruisers turned back British cruiser Natal (sunk by explosion, Detowards Heligoland with Admiral Beatty's ships cember 30th), and other warships destroyed by in full pursuit. The three more powerful Ger- mine, torpedo, or accident. The British, on the man battle cruisers (Moltke, Seydlitz, and Derf- other hand, maintained that not only were comflinger), screened by the dense smoke of de- parable losses being inflicted upon the German stroyer flotilla, and assisted by the timely ap- fleet, but furthermore the British Admiralty was pearance of German submarines, made their es- rushing the construction of new ships, with the cape, although with serious injuries. The anti- result that British naval superiority had been quated Blücher, however, with only 8.2-inch guns increased since the war began. (For precise into oppose to the British 13.5-inch guns, and con- formation regarding the navies of the belligersiderably slower than the three German dread- ent Powers, consult articles on GERMANY, GREAT nought cruisers, fell an easy victim and was BRITAIN, etc.) first crippled by gunfire, then torpedoed and By all means the most significant aspect of gunk. The battle was a conclusive demonstra- the war on the water was the attempt of Great tion of the value of big guns and high speed in Britain to realize to the full, and the efforts of modern naval warfare. The British battle Germany to minimize, the economic advantages cruisers engaged, including the Indomitable, the accruing from British naval superiority. A few New Zealand, the Princess Royal, the Lion, and German commerce destroyers still remained at the Tiger, mounted 16 12-inch guns and 24 13.5. large, in January, 1915, preying upon the merinch guns against the 8 12-inch guns, 20 ll-inch chant marine of the Allies. One of the German guns, and 12 8.2-inch guns of the Germans. To commerce destroyers, the auxiliary cruiser Prinz their superiority in big guns the British owed Eitel Friedrich, slipped into Newport News, Va., their success in sinking the Blücher and in dam- March 10th, after a destructive cruise of more aging the other German cruisers, a success which than 30,000 miles. The German light cruiser might have been pressed to a more decisive con- Dresden was sunk by British ships on March clusion, had not German submarines made their 14th. The German converted cruiser Kronprinz appearance and menaced the British pursuers. Wilhelm, after sinking nine British, four French, The battle of Dogger Bank so strongly confirmed and one Norwegian merchantmen, entered Newthe confidence of the British Admiralty that in port News, April 11th, and was interned. The February a powerful British and French fleet cruiser Königsberg, which had been driven to was sent to bombard the Dardanelles forts seek refuge in the Rufiji River on the coast of (supra, under Military Operations, The Dar- German East Africa, was attacked by two Britdanelles). At the Dardanelles, however, the ish river monitors, the Mersey and the Severn, Allied battleships were pitted, not against and was destroyed, in July. The danger from German cruisers of inferior gun-power, but German cruisers and auxiliary cruisers had against land forts, submarines, and floating meanwhile been overshadowed by a new menace mines. In the great effort to force the Narrows, to the commerce of the Allies—the submarine. March 18th, the British battleships Irresistible On February 4th the inauguration of a novel and Ocean, and the French battleship Bouvet form of submarine warfare was announced. The were sunk; the British Inflexible and the French German government declared that it would conGaulois were disabled; and several other ships sider “the waters surrounding Great Britain and were badly battered. Subsequently the British Ireland, including the whole English Channel, to Goliath was torpedoed at the Dardanelles on be comprised within the seat of war, and will May 12th; the Triumph on May 25th; and the prevent by all the military means at its disposal Majestio on May 27th. Besides the battle of all navigation by the enemy in those waters. To Dogger Bank and the Dardanelles action, the this end it will endeavor to destroy, after February 18th next, any merchant vessels of the may be noted, laid the responsibility for the enemy which present themselves at the seat of Lusitania tragedy upon the British government; war above indicated, although it may not al- in a note to the United States, Herr von Jagow ways be possible to avert the dangers which stated: “The case of the Lusitania shows with may menace persons and merchandise. Neutral horrible clearness to what jeopardizing of human Powers are accordingly forewarned not to con- lives the manner of conducting war employed by tinue to entrust their crews, passengers, or mer

our adversaries leads. In the most direct conchandise to such vessels. T'heir attention is tradiction of international law all distinctions furthermore called to the fact that it is of ur- between merchantmen and war vessels have been gency to recommend to their own vessels to steer obliterated by the order to British merchantmen clear of these waters. It is true that the Ger- to arm themselves and to ram submarines, and man navy has received instructions to abstain the promise of rewards therefor, and neutrals from all violence against neutral vessels recog- who use merchantmen as travelers thereby have nizable as such; but in view of the hazards of been exposed in an increasing degree to all the war, and of the misuse of the neutral flag ordered dangers of war. If the commander of the Gerby the British government, it will not always man submarine which destroyed the Lusitania be possible to prevent a neutral vessel from be- had caused the crew and passengers to take to coming the victim of an attack intended to be the boats before firing a torpedo this would have directed against a vessel of the enemy." The meant the certain destruction of his own vessel." cause assigned for this extraordinary innova- Notwithstanding this attempted justification, it tion in the practice of naval warfare was the may safely be asserted that the sinking of the disrespect of neutral rights and disregard of Lusitania' furnished the Allies with a most international law, particularly of the Declara- powerful recruiting argument and stimulated tion of London, evinced by the British govern- pro-Ally sentiment in neutral countries. (2) ment in capturing non-contraband German prop- What the German government hoped to gain by erty on board neutral ships, in apprehending its submarine warfare was obvious: the flow of German subjects on neutral ships, in altering ammunition to Great Britain from neutral counthe contraband rules, and in declaring the whole tries would be seriously interrupted, British North Sea between Scotland and Norway to be shipping would suffer, and possibly the British a seat of war. The Germans alleged that Great government could be compelled to relax its Britain had adopted a ruthless policy of starv- measures against German imports. The subing the civilian population. The British, on the marine campaign was at once a defensive operaother hand, declared that since the German gov. tion to prevent Great Britain from "starving ernment had commandeered foodstuffs (Jan. 25, Germany out,” and an offensive operation to in1915, see GERMANY), the British navy was quite terfere with Great Britain's munitions supply justified in intercepting food supplies which and commerce. (3) The results of the submight be confiscated by the German government marine campaign had not yet been definitely esfor the use of the German army. The United tablished by the close of the year, but it ap States government endeavored to obtain mutual peared reasonably certain that in its major obconcessions from the belligerents in the interest jects the campaign had failed, inasmuch as the of neutral rights, but its proposals were re- British government, instead of relaxing, had jected by the British government, and a new drawn more tightly the restrictions on German British Order in Council, March 15th, having imports through neutral countries; and although declared a virtual blockade of Germany, the very considerable injuries had been inflicted upon issue was squarely joined between the British the Allied and neutral merchant marines, the blockade and the German submarine. Neutral flow of munitions to Great Britain and the Powers were adversely affected by the contest, course of British sea-borne trade had not been because (1) numerous neutral merchantmen seriously disturbed. In the last quarter of the were torpedoed; (2) because several belligerent year the statement was quite generally credited liners were sunk by German submarines either that a large proportion of the German submarine without warning or without opportunity for flotilla had been destroyed by British trawlers, safeguarding the lives of the passengers, some of motor-boats, and aviators, or entrapped in great whom were citizens of neutral Powers; (3) be submarine nets. cause neutral trade with Scandinavian ports and with Holland was interfered with by the

VII. AËRIAL OPERATIONS British policy of intercepting all goods of German origin or ultimately destined for Germany, The importance of airmen in directing the fire even when the goods were carried by neutral of artillery and in detecting unexpected moveships between neutral ports; (4) because Brit- ments of enemy troops had already been well esish operations in the North Sea and German tablished by the first few months of the war. submarines in the Channel made navigation During the year 1915 the services of air-scouts hazardous for neutral merchantmen. The in- to the belligerent armies and navies remained tricacies of the controversies which ensued with invaluable. The most interesting phase of the regard to the rights of neutrals may not be dis- aërial operations in 1915, however, was the use cussed in this article; it is important, however, of airships and aëroplanes for independent opto indicate at least a few of the salient features erations. Intense excitement, and a certain of the submarine-blockade contest, in relation amount of genuine concern, were manifested with to the general issues of the war. (1) The sink- regard to the possibility of German Zeppelins ing of the Cunard liner Lusitania (q.v.), May inflicting serious damage upon London or Paris. 7th, without warning, with the loss of 1396 lives, Most elaborate precautions were taken to darken undoubtedly embittered the anti-German senti- the city of London at night; gigantic searchments of British and Allied nations, and did lights and anti-aircraft guns were pointed tomuch to promote an anti-German agitation in wards the murky London skies. But after the neutral countries. The German government, it repetition of comparatively harmless German

air-raids on England—including the Zeppelin that the “just cause” and preponderant reraid on London on May 31st, in which six per- sources of the Entente Allies must ultimately sons were killed, the Zeppelin raid on London of triumph. The war, insisted the Allies, would August 17th, in which ten or more persons were be decided not by campaigns or by battles, but killed, and a third Zeppelin attack on London, by men, munitions, and trade. Thus Mr. WinsSeptember 7-8, in which 37 persons were killed — ton Spencer Churchill, one of England's most the fear of serious German air raids became less prominent statesmen, with a sublime contempt acute. The most serious German raid on Lon- for ephemeral German victories, might proclaim don occurred on October 13th and resulted in his belief that: “It is not necessary for us to 169 casualties, of which 55 were fatal. “In re- win the war to push the German line back over prisal” for the German air raids, the Allies or- all the territory they have absorbed, nor to ganized frequent counter-raids. On February pierce it. While the German lines extend far 16th a fleet of 40 British and French aëroplanes beyond their frontiers, while their flag flies over and seaplanes bombarded the German lines in conquered capitals and subjected provinces, while Belgium; in August a powerful flock of 32 “bat all the appearances of military success greet tle 'planes," larger and stronger than ordinary their arms, Germany may be defeated more aëroplanes, dropped bombs on German munitions fatally in the second or third year of the war factories at Saarbücken; on August 25th a still than if the Allied armies had entered Berlin in more ambitious raid was made on Dellingen by the first year.” The factors upon which Mr. 62 Allied 'planes. Less important aërial opera- Churchill, in common with other Allied and protions were conducted on other fronts. One of Ally observers, counted to ensure the Entente's the most interesting single events in the year's final victory, may be briefly summarized under war in the air was the duel between a British five heads. (1) Military manhood. The Turcomonoplane and a huge German Zeppelin, on Teutonic coalition, if we may place confidence June 7th, which ended in the destruction of the in the calculations of Mr. Hilaire Belloc, one of Zeppelin and won the Victoria Cross for the the most sanguine English historians of the gallant aviator, Lieut. Reginald A. J. Warne- war, was vainly striving by spectacular strategy ford, who was killed 10 days later.

to conceal the alarming wastage of its military

manhood, while the Entente Powers were just VIII. THE SITUATION AT THE CLOSE OF THE beginning to draw upon their human resources. YEAR

Similarly Mr. Churchill affirmed: “At the out

set of the war the number of males capable of To the close of the year 1915, the most im- bearing arms in Germany compared with the pressive events of the War of the Nations were number in this country [Great Britain) was spectacular but incomplete demonstrations of three to two. To-day our (the Allies'] numbers German military supremacy. In 1914 Belgium are greatly superior if we use them, and at and a considerable sector of Northern France the end of the second year the original prohad been overrun by German armies, but the portion will probably be reversed. We are French army, prudently commanded by General becoming, therefore, continually stronger Joffre, had remained unshattered, and Čalais had power actually and relatively so far as military not been reached; in the summer of 1915 the manhood is concerned.” It was upon the Allies’ Russian "steam-roller" had been trundled back resources in men that the French military critics from Galicia and from Russian Poland to the counted when they praised General Joffre's perRiga-Dvinsk-Pripet Marshes line in a badly bat- sistent war of attrition, which by pin-pricks tered condition, but von Hindenburg had failed would bleed the German army to death. Lord to win Dvinsk or Riga, and the Russian army, Derby's recruiting campaign, backed up by a though defeated, was not annihilated; in the compulsory military service bill, promised at closing months of 1915 Bulgaria was won to the last to place the full military strength of the Turco-Teutonic coalition, Serbia was conquered, British nation in the field. The Russian and the route opened up from Antwerp through "hordes” would still probably suffice to recruit Berlin, Vienna, Nish, and Sofia to Constanti. new Russian armies in replacement of those nople and even to Bagdad; but an Anglo-French Grand Duke Nicholas had lost. The French army was left to entrench itself at Saloniki. with grim courage were sending mere striplings Three gigantic offensives had won new laurels to the front. (2) Economic resources. Even for the German generals and new territories for should the Allies fail to overwhelm the Central the Central Powers, but the Russian army was Empires by sheer weight of numbers, it was bestill able to stand at bay, the "contemptible” lieved that the failure of Germany's economic little British expeditionary force had been resources would bestow the final victory upon swelled by repeated reënforcements until it was the financially invincible coalition of London and a million strong, and General Joffre was plan- Paris. To the student of finance elaborate staning a new Anglo-French forward movement for tistical reviews professed to prove the inevitable the spring of 1916. The German military ma- bankruptcy of Germany and the financial solidchine had brilliantly proved its ability to carry ity of France and England. German economists, out smashing, irresistible offensives; it had dem- it is only fair to remark, published similar aronstrated its amazing mastery of the new science rays of figures just as conclusively demonstratof trench warfare, which enabled numerically ing the ability of Germany to endure to the end, inferior German forces to hold General Joffre's thanks to the willingness of her patriotic citi“forward movements” in check; but it had not zens to invest in the government's war loans, won the war. Hence it was not surprising that and thanks to more efficient management of rewhereas statesmen and journalists in Germany sources. Furthermore, the partisans of the Gerexpressed a puzzled inability to understand the manic Powers pointed out that the military sucstubborn refusal of the defeated Allies to gue for cesses of the Turco-Teutonic armies had impeace, orators and publicists in France and in mensely improved the economic situation of the England gave voice to the immutable conviction Central Powers: the rich coal and iron regions

а

of Belgium and Northern France had been virtu- the Central Powers and Turkey. If, on the ally annexed to Germany; the agricultural ex- whole, the year had disappointed the Allies' panses and the industrial resources of Poland hopes of serious popular insubordination in the and other Russian provinces had been conquered ; Central Powers, it had likewise disappointed the herds and the copper mines of Serbia and the Germans' expectation of Moslem revolutions the food-products of the Balkan countries had in India and in Egypt. Summing up the situabeen made available by the conquest of Serbia; tion at the end of the year, then, the hackneyed and the failure of the Anglo-French Dardanelles statement may be once more reaffirmed that the campaign had ensured the safety of German war had become a war of resources, but with communications with the vast empire of Turkey this modification, that the relative resources of in Asia, which if properly developed might sup- the contending coalitions of the Powers might be ply Germany with much-needed stores of meat, considerably and even decisively altered by great oils, cotton, petroleum, and copper. (3) Naval German victories or defeats, and by "imponsupremacy. With increasing frequency as the derable” political factors. war dragged on, allusion was made to the historic parallel of the present war, the contest be

IX. PEACE NEGOTIATIONS tween Napoleon's military might and Britain's naval supremacy. As sea-power at the begin- In the light of the foregoing discussion, the ning of the nineteenth century had overcome in futility of negotiations for peace during the vincible armies then, so it was assumed that year 1915 should be patent. Recurrent rumors England's super-dreadnoughts would overcome from Rome throughout the year affirmed that Germany's armies in the twentieth century. the Pope, through the instrumentality of TeuCommand of the seas enabled the Allies to tonic, French, and Belgian cardinals, was indeutilize their own resources to the full, to pre. fatigably laboring to bring the lamentable Euroserve their own trade, to "capture” German pean conflict to a speedy and happy terminatrade, and to institute a virtual blockade of tion; but no authoritative statement of His Germany. Germany's attempt to break the Holiness' activities in this field has yet been blockade by means of submarines had failed. It vouch safed to the public, and the arrangement remained to be seen whether German efficiency, for the mutual exchange of hopelessly crippled which had already staved off a food crisis, could soldiers between the belligerents remained the so wisely regulate the economic life of the na- only well-verified achievement of papal diplotion, and so advantageously exploit the resources macy. Moreover, not to mention the Socialists' of Belgium, Poland, the Balkans, and Asiatic pacific propaganda (see SOCIALISM), the chival. Turkey, that the British navy would be unable ric voyage of Mr. Henry Ford, with a band of to reverse the victories of German armies. (4) adventurous pacificists, from America, with the Diplomacy. At the close of the year public altruistic object of persuading the unhappy naopinion in Allied countries definitely counted tions of Europe to desist from their insensate upon and expectantly awaited the intervention conflict, must at least be mentioned in this conof new

Allies against the Central Powers. nection, although it failed to achieve its aim. Above all, Rumania was momentarily expected The Teutonic Powers appeared to be ready for to enter the war, to conquer from Austria-Hun- peace on their own terms; and Italy seemed gary at least part of the coveted provinces of to lack determination in the war; but, before Bukovina, Transylvania, and the Banat. The peace_could be made in Europe, either France Germans, on the other hand, seemed to be con- and England must undo the Teutonic victories fident that Rumania's neutrality, if not her sym- of 1914–15, or Germany must, by new and more pathy, had been secured by Teutonic diplomacy. ambitious campaigns, bring Great Britain to deFurthermore, Sweden showed some signs of irri- feat or compromise. tation against British contraband rules, and journalists speculated on the possibility of Swe

X. BIBLIOGRAPHY den's intervention on the German side. (5) Finally, the spokesmen of the Allied Powers NOTE. The following bibliography is offered, continued to voice the hope that the military not as an exhaustive catalogue of war literaand governmental authorities of the Central ture, but simply as a guide to assist the casual Powers would be handicapped by a revulsion of reader in selecting a few of the most useful and popular sentiment against the war and against most valuable of the countless books, pam. “Prussian militarism"; that the Slavic nation- phlets, and articles which have been written alities in Austria-Hungary would refuse to fight about the war. For more extensive bibliografor a distasteful government; and that the phies, and for notices of new publications, the Arabs would rebel against the Turks, and the reader is referred to F. W. T. Lange and W. T.

conservative and reasonable elements Berry: Books on the Great War (London, Grafin Turkey would become disgusted with Enver ton and Co., 1915–), an annotated bibliography Pasha’s "Young Turk” clique. To be sure, the appearing serially; Library of Congress: List of enthusiastic valor of the Teutonic and Turkish References on Europe. (Washington, Gov. armies proved that the popular discontent with ernment Printing Office, 15 cents); G. W. Pro“German militarism” was less universal than thero: List of Publications Bearing on the War had been supposed; but reports of Socialist (London, Central Committee, Patriotic Organdemonstrations in Germany, of popular insur- izations, 1915); the Book Review Digest, a currections in Austria-Hungary (see AUSTRIA-HUN- rent guide to new books; the Reader's Guide to GARY), and of unrest in Turkey, bolstered up Periodical Literature (monthly); the Library the conviction of the Allies that in defending World; and the New York Times Book Review the cause of “liberty, democracy, and human- (weekly). ity,” against Prussian “militarism” and Turk- HANDBOOKS OF THE WAR. Of the many handish “barbarism,” they might to some extent en- books containing general information about the list the sympathy of the "oppressed masses” in war, some are hasty and inaccurate compila

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