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tions, while others possess distinct value as con- but at present the most valuable French work venient works of ready reference. The follow is the admirable collection of communiqués, ing will be found very useful: New War En documents, and articles published serially uncyclopedia and Dictionary (London, Jarrold); der the general title, Pages d'histoire, 1914C. K. Sugden, War Facts and Figures (London, 1915 (Berger-Levrault, Paris); the same pubBritish Dominion General Insurance Co., Ltd., lisher, Berger-Levrault, has announced an His. 1915); War Book of Facts (London, Shaw); toire générale et anecdotique de la Guerre de Pocket War Dictionary: A Complete Who's 1914, to be edited by Jean Bernard. The Who and What's What (London, Delow, 1915); Chronik des deutschen Krieges, vol. i (Munich, Stanley S. Sheip (editor), Handbook of the C. H. Beck), and Hans F. Helmolt's compilaEuropean War (White Plains, N. Y., Wilson); tion, Der Weltkrieg in Bildern und Dokumenten J. W. White, Text-Book of the War for Amer. (Leipzig, J. M. Meulenhoff), are only two of icans. The World's Work War Manuals may the many excellent German works. also be mentioned. Most of the standard annu- PERIODICALS. To enumerate the periodicals als and almanacs, notably the World Almanac, in which important articles on the war regu. Whitaker's, Hazell's Annual, the Daily Mail larly appear would be quite impossible in this Year Book, and the Annual Register contain brief bibliography. The reader is referred to more or less reliable summaries of the war's the Readers' Guide and the Military Digest, principal events. For the German version, with the suggestion that Hilaire Belloc's weekly consult: Kürschners Jahrbuch and the articles in Land and Water, and Frank H. SiDeutscher Geschichtskalender (Leipzig, F. mondo's monthly contributions to the American Meiner).

Review of Reviews will be found particularly CONTINUED HISTORIES

COLLECTIONS. interesting and illuminating, even though the Pretentious continued histories of the war and writers' conclusions be not always accepted. monumental collections of war-material have al. Among British magazines, the Fortnightly and ready begun to make their appearance. Of the Contemporary, and among American magathose published in America, probably the best zines, the World's Work and the American Reknown are the New York Times; Current His- view of Reviews, give special prominence to war tory of the War, a heterogeneous collection, pub- articles. lished in monthly installments, containing many DIPLOMATIC HISTORY. A discussion of the vavaluable historical documents as well as a num- rious collections of diplomatic correspondence ber of unimportant articles; Frank H. Simonds, published by the belligerents will be found in The Great War (2 vols.), a keenly analytical the YEAR Book for 1914 under the article on interpretation, rather than a detailed narrative, the war, and in the present article, under Conof the war's most significant events; and The troversialists and the war. A handy volume Great War by George H. Allen and Henry C. published by Harrison and Sons, London, conWhitehead (Philadelphia, George Barrie’s Sons, tains the Collected Diplomatic Documents Re1915). In England, the leading newspapers lating to the Outbreak of the European War, are publishing weekly, and fortnightly “histo- including the British White Paper, the French ries” of the war; of these the Manchester Yellow Book, the Russian Orange Book, the BelGuardian History of the War (fortnightly) gian Grey Book, the Serbian Blue Book, the and the Times History of the War (weekly) German Denkschrift, the Austro-Hungarian Red are the best. The Daily Chronicle and the Book, and other material, carefully indexed. Daily Telegraph have published dozens of In addition to the earlier diplomatic documents, pocket-edition books on war-topics. The Great the New York Times and the American AssociaWorld War (London, Gresham), edited by F. A. tion for International Conciliation have made Mumby, gives a concise discussion of the prin- the Italian Green Book, the second Belgian cipal features of the war; Hilaire Belloc, Gen- Grey Book, the correspondence of the United eral Sketch of the European War, the First States government with the belligerents, and Phase (London, Nelson), is characterized by other recent material, available to the Amer. illuminating, but frequently too optimistic, ican public. For English readers, more or less analyses of geographical and numerical factors partisan, but fairly reliable accounts of the dipin favor of the Allies; one of the clearest and lomatic maneuvres preliminary to the war have most accurate narratives yet written is Nel- been written by J. W. Headlam, History of son's History of the War (London, Nelson), by Twelve Days (July 24-August 4, 1914), (LonJohn Buchan. Other continued histories of the don, Fisher Unwin, 1915); J. Holland Rose, war, of rather unequal merit, are: by W. S. Origins of the War (Cambridge University Macbean Knight, History of the Great European Press, 1914); Ellery C. Stowell, The Diplomacy War, part I (London, Caxton); Edgar Wallace, of the War of 1914' (Boston, Houghton Mifflin); Standard History of the War, vol. i (London, and M. P. Price (editor), The Diplomatic HisNewnes); Newman Flower (editor), The His- tory of the War (London, Allen and Untory of the Great War, quarterly (London, win). Waverly Book Company); Capt. A. H. At- CONTROVERSIAL DISCUSSIONS OF CAUSES AND teridge, The First Phase of the European War ISSUES. An immense amount of controversial (1914), and The Second Phase, etc. (London, literature has been produced by citizens of neuHodder and Stoughton, 1915); F. R. Cana, The tral as well as by subjects of belligerent counGreat War in Europe (London, Virtue); Wil. tries, in the endeavor to prove or to disprove, liam Le Queux (editor), The War of the Na

as the case may be, the culpability of the Gertions (London, Newnes). One of the leading man government in precipitating the war. French serial histories of the war is edited by Many eminent British scholars have contributed Gabriel Hanotaux: Histoire Illustrée de la monographs to the Oxford Pamphlets, criticisGuerre de 1914 (Bordeaux, La Petite Gironde); ing the policy and impugning the motives of another Histoire de la Guerre has been begun the German government. On the other hand, by Lucien Cornet (Paris, Charles Lavauzelle); the Deutsche Kriegschriften (German War



Pamphlets) and Politische Flugschriften (Po- mans, official publication of the Belgian govern. litical Pamphlets) lay the burden of guilt upon ment). The German contention that Belgian the Allies. Some of the best statements of the neutrality had been violated before the German case against Germany are: E. P. Barker and invasion is best presented by Alexander Fuehr, other members of the Oxford Faculty of Mod The Neutrality of Belgium (New York, Funk, ern History, Why We Are at War: Great Brit. 1915). ain's Case ; James M. Beck, The Evidence in the MILITARY OPERATIONS. The best military hisCase (New York, Putnam's, 1914); E. J. Dil- tories of the war have been noted in the section lon, A Scrap of Paper (London, Hodder and Continued Histories and Collections (supra). Stoughton, 1914); H. A. L. Fisher, The War, Among the Daily Telegraph War Books and in Its Causes and Its Issues (Longmans, 1914); the Oxford Pamphlets will be found fairly deRamsay Muir, Britain's Case Against Germany tailed narratives of campaigns and battles, such (Manchester University Press, 1914); J. Hol- as A. N. Hilditch, The Stand of Liége; H. W.C. land Rose, The Origins of the War (Cambridge Davis, The Battle of the Marne and the Aisne; University Press, 1914); and A. B. Hart, The Edmund Dane, The Battle of the Rivers; Percy War in Europe, Its Causes and Results (New Standing, The First Campaign in Russian PoYork, Appleton, 1914). The most striking in- land. G. H. Ferris has a volume describing dictment of the German government purports the Campaign of 1914 in France and Belgium to have been written by a German; the volume (London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1915). Gerwas originally published in Lausanne with the many in Defeat is a decidedly biased sketch of title, J'accuse : von einem Deutschen, and has the military operations through the battle of since been translated into French and into Eng. the Marne, by Count Charles de Souza and lish. Germany's War Mania: The Teutonic Major H. Macfall. Stanley Washburn's Field Point of View as Officially Stated by Her Lead- Notes from the Russian Front (London, Melers (Dodd, Mead and Company) is a valuable rose, 1915), supplemented by his more recent collection of significant utterances by German volume, The Russian Campaign (Scribner's, public

Germania contra Mundum, 1915), brings the story of the operations in the brochure by Earl Cromer, sets forth the views Eastern theatre of war down to the fall of Warof a noted British "empire-builder" as to what saw. For vivid and impressionistic accounts of Great Britain is fighting for—and against. military operations, one may read Richard The Spirit of the Allied Nations (Macmillan, Harding Davis, With the Allies (London, Duck1915), edited by Sidney Low, is a more com- worth, 1915); Dr. Sven A. Hedin, With the prehensive statement of the anti-German view German Armies in the West (London, Lane, point. For profound discussions of the perni. 1915); Stanley Washburn (supra); Frank cious influence which German philosophy is al. Fox, The Agony of Belgium (London, Hutchinleged to have exerted, consult Prof. J. Dewey, son, 1915); R. Dunn, Five Fronts: On the Fir. German Philosophy and Politics (New York, ing-Lines with English, French, Austrian, GerHolt, 1915), and J. H. Muirhead, German man, and Russian Troops (New York, Dodd, Philosophy in Relation to the War (L. Murray, Mead and Co.); or Frederick Palmer's realistic 1915). The German version of the diplomacy portrayal of life in the trenches, My Year of that led up to the war has been most ably pre- the Great War (Dodd, Mead and Co.). Gransented by Hans F. Helmolt, Die geheime Vor- ville Fortescue has written graphic stories of geschichte des Weltkrieges (Leipzig, K. F. his adventures in At the Front with Three Armies Koehler, 1914). Paul Rohrbach, Germany's (London, Melrose, 1915), and of the Dardanelles Isolation (Chicago, McClurg, 1915, translated operations. One of the most widely read jourfrom the German), and Col. H. Fobenius, Ger. nalistic descriptions of the war is Eye-Witness's many's Hour of Destiny (preface by Prof. W. R. Narrative of the War: From the Marne to Shepherd) argue that the Allies endangered the Neuve Chapelle, September, 1914, to March, peace of Europe by endeavoring to isolate Ger- 1915 (London, Arnold, 1915). For special topmany diplomatically and to impose restrictions ics, the following books are useful: J. K. O'Conupon her economic expansion. J. W. Burgess, nor, The Afrikander Rebellion (London, Allen The European War of 1914: Its Causes, Pur- and Unwin, 1915); Evans Lewin, The Germans poses, and Probable Results, is a vigorous jus- and Africa; F. S. Burnell, Australia versus tification of Germany, written by an eminent Germany (London, Allen and Unwin, 1915); American scholar. Gen. Friedrich von Bern R. Granville Baker, The Passing of the Turkish hardi, whose explanations of How Germany Empire in Europe (Philadelphia, Lippincott,

kes W and asts of Germany and the 1915); Marion I. Newbigin, Geographical AsNext War have operated so powerfully against pects of Balkan Problems (New York, Putthe German cause, has replied to his critics in nam); H. C. Woods, War and Diplomacy in the

new volume, Germany and England (New Balkans (London, The Field, 1915); Noel and York, Dillingham, 1915). C. L. Droste has com- C. R. Buxton, The War and the Balkans (Lonpiled a comprehensive indictment of the Allies, don, Allen and Unwin, 1915); Anon., The Dar consisting of Documents on the War of the Na- danelles: Their Story and Their Significance in tions from Neutral and Anti-German Sources the Great War (London, Melrose, 1915). The (Richmond, Dietz).

atrocities committed by the troops of the belBELGIAN NEUTRALITY. The subject of Bel- ligerent nations have been made the subject of gian neutrality is touched upon by many of investigations, pamphlets, official reports, and the

above mentioned controversialists. For official denials, too numerous to be included in more thorough expositions, the reader is re- this list. ferred to The Case of Belgium, by the Belgian OFFICIAL DISPATCHES. For the operations of delegates to the United States (Macmillan, the British troops in France the collected De1914); Emile Waxweiler, La Belgique neutre spatches of Field Marshal Sir John French, et loyale (Lausanne, Payot, 1915); and La which have been published in several different neutralité de la Belgique (preface by Paul Ay. editions, furnish an authoritative source. Sim


ilar compilations of official dispatches and bul- 1915); Alfred Loisy, The War and Religion, letins have been published in German-Kriegs- translated from the French by Arthur Galton kalender und Kriegsdepeschen nach den amt- (Oxford, Blackwell, 1915); F. W. Hirst, The lichen Berichten (Berlin, Bong, 1915); and in Political Economy of War (Dent, 1915), a very French-Grande Guerre: Recueil des communi- remarkable discussion of the war's economic asqués officiels des gouvernements et états-majors pects; C. E. Musgrave (editor), Trade and the de tous les belligérants (Payot, Paris). A War, trade maps, charts, and statistics (LonFrench Official Review of the First Six Months don Chamber of Commerce, 1915); Norman Anof the War has, been issued by Reuter's Agency gell, The Problems of the War and the Peace and published by Constable (London).

(London, Heinemann, 1915); Gilbert Slater, NAVAL WARFARE. An admirable brief de Peace and the War in Europe (London, Conscription of The Fleets at War is given by stable, 1915); J. A. Hobson, Towards InternaArchibald Hurd in one of the Daily Telegraph tional Government (London, Allen and Unwin, War Books. The same author has described 1915); Murray H. Robertson, Krupp's and the The German Fleet (Hodder and Stoughton, International Armaments Ring (London, Holden 1915). For reference purposes, the following and H., 1915); Coleman Phillipson, Internamay be consulted to advantage: Fred. T. Jane, tional Law and the Great War (London, Fisher Fighting Ships for 1914; Brassey's Naval An- Unwin, 1915); Norman Angell, The World's nual War Edition (London, Clowes, 1915); The Highway (George H. Doran Co., 1915); G. Fleet Annual and Naval Year Book, War Edi- D. H. Cole, Labour in War Time (Macmillan, tion (Fleet, Limited, 1915); The Royal Navy 1915). Of the books more especially concerned List (Witherby, 1915); Fleets of the World with the effect of the war upon the United (Nash, 1915); and L. G. C. Laughton, The Brit- States, Roland G. Usher, Pan-Americanism ish Navy in the War (London, Methuen, 1915). (

(Century Co.), Hugo Muensterberg, The War For naval battles of the war, consult the Brit- and America (Appleton), and Theodore Rooseish Official Navy Despatches (Graphic, London, velt, America and the World War (Scribner's), 1914); Rear Admiral S. E. Wilmot, The Battle have been sufficiently read to warrant their inof the North Sea in 1914 (London, Rees, 1914); sertion, but not necessarily their recommendaL. C. Jane, The Action Off Heligoland (Oxford tion, in this list. Pamphlets); and Battles of the South Seas WARREN, SAMUEL PROWSE. American com(Yachting Monthly, 1915). In regard to the poser and organist, died Oct. 7, 1915. He was effect of the war upon neutral commerce, con- born in Montreal, Canada, in 1841. From 1861sult E. J. Clapp: Economic Aspects of the War 64 he studied music in lin, and in 1865 be(Yale University Press, 1915); and W. R. Shep- came organist in New York City. After two herd (editor), The Protection of Neutral Rights years at all Souls Church, he was appointed at Sea (New York, Sturgis and Walton Co., in 1868 organist of Grace Church, New York. 1915).

He held this position until 1874, when he beAËRIAL WARFARE. C. Grahame-White and came organist at Holy Trinity. After two Harry Harper, Aircraft in the Great War: A years he returned to Grace Church, where he Record and Study (London, Fisher Unwin, remained until 1894. From 1891 until his 1915).

death, he was organist at the First Presbyterian BIOGRAPHICAL. For concise information one Church in East Orange, N. J. He was conmay consult Lloyd's Who's Who of the Great ductor of the New York Vocal Union, from 1880 War (Hodder and Stoughton, 1914); the Brit- to 1888. He composed many anthems, partish Who's Who; the German Wer Ist's; and songs, songs, organ and piano solos, and tranthe French Qui êtes-vous, in addition to en- scriptions. cyclopædias and year books of recent date. WASHBURN, GEORGE. American clergymen Kurt Mühsam, Deutsche Heerführer (Berlin, and educator, died Feb. 15, 1915. Born in MidHaber, 1914, 2 vols), gives biographies of lead- dleboro, Mass., in 1833, and graduated from ing German generals. F. W. Wile, Men Around Amherst College in 1853, he spent one year at the Kaiser (Heinemann, 1914), and A. G. Gar- Andover Theological Seminary, and diner, The War Lords (London, Dent, 1915), dained to the Congregational ministry in 1863. are interesting studies. Only a few of the Prior to that time he had served as missionary many individual biographies may be mentioned: under the American Board at Constantinople. F. W. Hackwood, Life of Lord Kitchener (Lip- After continued service in this capacity until pincott); Harold Begbie, Kitchener (Boston, 1868, he was appointed professor of philosophy Houghton, 1915); H. G. Groser, Lord Roberts at Robert College, Constantinople. He was act(Pilgrim Press, 1914); Christian Gauss, The ing president of that institution from 1870 to German Emperor as shown in His Public Ut- 1878, and president from the latter year until terances (New York, Scribner's, 1915); R. P. 1903, when he resigned. He was a recognized Mahaffy, Francis Joseph 1, His Life and Times authority upon questions of politics in south(2nd edition, London, Duckworth, 1915); Alex- eastern Europe. In 1909 he was lecturer at the ander Kahn, Life of General Joffre (Heinemann, Lowell Institute in Boston. He was the author 1915). A most significant collection of David of Fifty Years in Constantinople, and was for Lloyd George's speeches has been published un- many years a regular contributor to important der the suggestive title, Through Terror to Tri. American and English periodicals. umph (G. H. Doran Co.).

WASHINGTON. POPULATION. The estiOTHER Books. Among the other books bear- mated population of the State on July 31, 1915, ing upon the war, the following are of special was 1,471,043. The population in 1910 interest and importance: W. E. Walling, The 1,141,990. Socialists and the War (New York, Holt, 1915); AGRICULTURE. The acreage, production, and H. G. Wells, The War and Socialism (London, value of the principal crops, as estimated by Clarion Press, 1914); Gabriel Langlois, Le the United States Department of Agriculture in clergé, les catholiques, et la guerre (Paris, 1914–15, were as follows:






1914 ....1915

1914 ..1915

1914 ..1915



the Insane, Northern Hospital for the Insane, Acreage Prod. Bu. Value

Institution for the Feeble-minded, State Soldiers' Corn

39,000 1,053,000 $811,000
36,000 972,000 710,000

Home, Washington Veterans' Home, School for Wheat

2,000,000 50,394,000 41,324,000 the Deaf, School for the Blind, State Peniten

1,780,000 1,840,00. 41,840,000 tiary, State Training School, State School for Oats

275,000 13,750,000
297,000 18,959,000 5,863,000

Girls, and the State Reformatory.
1915 8,000 146,000 110,000 POLITICS

GOVERNMENT. A minimum 8,000 158,000 134,000 wage law applying to women, boys, and girls Barley

175,000 7,263,000 4,067,000
182,000 7,098,000 3,691,000

went into effect on February 20th. The schedPotatoes

61,000 8,235,000 4,365,000 ule is $10 a week for women and girls employed

59,000 7,552,000 4154,000 in offices at any kind of clerical work, $8 per Hay

812,000 a 1,868,000 20,174,000 week for office boys and girls more than 16

796,000 1,751,000 19,261,000 a Tons.

years of age, but under 18, and $6 for both

sexes under 16. LIVE STOCK. The United States Department

STATE GOVERNMENT. Governor, Ernest Lisof Agriculture estimated that on Jan. 1, 1916, ter; Lieutenant-Governor, Louis F. Hart; Seeand Jan. 1, 1915, horses numbered 308,000 and retary of State, I. M. Howell; Treasurer, Ed311,000 valued at $28,952,000 and $29,856,000, ward Meath; Auditor, C. W. Clausen; Superinmules numbered 15,000 and 15,000 valued at tendent of Education, Mrs. Josephine Preston; $1,590,000 and $1,560,000, milch cows numbered Attorney-General, W. V. Tanner; Adjutant-Gen. 263,000 and 253,000 valued at $15,912,000 and eral, Maurice Thompson; Commissioner of Ag$18,722,000, other cattle numbered 221,000 and riculture, H. T. Graves; Commissioner of In215,000 valued at $6,696,000 and $7,504,000, surance, H. 0. Fishback-all Republicans exsheep numbered 568,000 and 546,000 valued at cept Governor, Adjutant-General, and Com $3,010,000 and $2,621,000, swine numbered 314, missioner of Agriculture, who Demo000 and 327,000 valued at $2,669,000 and $3, crats. 607,000. The production of wool in 1915 and JUDICIARY. Supreme Court: Chief Justice, 1914 was 3,638,000 and 3,818,000 pounds respec- George E. Morris; Associate Justices, Frederick tively.

Bausman, 0. G. Ellis, M. A. Fullerton, W. MINERAL PRODUCTION. The production of Mount, O. R. Holcomb, 8. J. Chadwick, Emmett gold in the State in 1914 was $557,173, a de- N. Parker, and J. F. Main; Clerk, c. S. Reincrease of $139,102 from the value of 1913. The hart. production of silver was 264,861 fine ounces STATE LEGISLATURE: valued at $146,468, compared with 331,239 ounces valued at $200,068 in 1913. The total

Senate House Joint Ballot production of coal in the State in 1914, was Republicans 3,064,820 short tons valued at $6,751,511. With Democrats

Progressives the exception of 1905 and 1908 the total output of coal in 1914 was the lowest since 1902. The Republican majority

77 production of coal in Washington has been considerably reduced in recent years by the output WASHINGTON, BOOKER T. American negro of petroleum in California and its use as a fuel educator, died Nov. 14, 1915. He was born, for manufacturing, railroads, and steamers. according to his best knowledge, near HalesOther causes contributing to the decrease were ford, Franklin County, Va., in either 1858 or the general industrial depression, particularly 1859. His mother was a slave, and he himself in the lumber business, and the exceptionally was born in slavery. The name Booker was mild weather during the winter months. The given him by his mother as a joking allusion value of the total mineral production in 1914 to his early fondness for books. The name was $13,830,739 compared with $17,579,743 in Washington he himself assumed later. The ini. 1913.

tial T. stood for Taliaferro, which he had heard TRANSPORTATION. The total mileage of the was the name of his father. The boy, in his railways in the State on July 30, 1915, was 8022. earliest youth, had aspirations for an educaThis includes mileage of all kinds. The in- tion. Soon after the close of the Civil War he crease of mileage during the year amounted to went to Malden, W. Va., where he worked in 425 miles. Railways having the longest mile- the salt mills for nine months in the year, at. age were the Great Northern 1196, Oregon and tending school for three months. The task of Washington 992, Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. gaining an education proved a difficult one. He Paul 583, and the Northern Pacific 1955. managed to find time to attend a night school,

EDUCATION. The total school population in and finally, by promising to begin work un1915 was 303,614. There were enrolled in the usually early in the morning and to keep at public schools 240,521, with an average daily it unusually late in the evening, he was able to attendance of 190,129. The teachers numbered attend day school with some regularity. After 7276 females, and 1792 males. The total ex- several years spent in this manner, accumulatpenditures for the support of the schools were ing what bits of knowledge he could and work. $12,889,495.

ing hard in the meantime, Washington found FINANCE. The total receipts for the fiscal work in the house of a New England woman, year ending Dec. 30, 1915, amounted to $11, where he remained until 1861. He then heard 927,794. The disbursements amounted to $10,- of the school for negroes at Hampton, Va., and 945,613. There was a balance in the treasury resolved to go there. He took what little money on Oct.

1914, of $3,850,284, and on Sept. 30, he had been able to save from his wages of $6 1915, of $4,842,465.

a month, and made his way to Hampton on CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS. The charitable foot. He was warmly received by the principal and correctional institutions include Western of the institution, General Armstrong, for Hospital for the Insane, Eastern Hospital for whom he always retained the greatest affection



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