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the Insane, Northern Hospital for the Insane, Acreago Prod. Bu. Value

Institution for the Feeble-minded, State Soldiers' 39,000 1,053,000 $811,000

Home, Washington Veterans' Home, School for

amewachine 1914 36,000 972,000 710,000 Wheat ....1915 2,030,000 60,394,000 41,324,000 the Deaf, School for the Blind, State Peniten

1914 1,780,000 41,840,005 41,840,000 tiary, State Training School, State School for
.1915 275,000 13,750,000 5,088,000
1914 297.000

Girls, and the State Reformatory.

18,959,000 5,863.000 Rye ...1915

8,000 146.000 110,000 POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT. A minimum

1914 8,000 158.000 134,000 wage law applying to women, boys, and girls Barley

...1915 175.000 7.263.000 4,067,000

1914 182'000 2098ooo 3.891'voo went into effect on February 20th. The schedPotatoes . .1915 61,000 8,235,000 4,365,000 ule is $10 a week for women and girls employed

1914 59,000 7,552,000 4,154,000 in offices at any kind of clerical work, $8 per Hay ......1915 812,000 a 1,868,000 20,174,000 1914 796,000 1,751,000

week for office boys and girls more than 16

19,261,000 a Tons.

years of age, but under 18, and $6 for both

sexes under 16. LIVE STOCK. The United States Department STATE GOVERNMENT. Governor, Ernest Lisof Agriculture estimated that on Jan. 1, 1918, ter; Lieutenant-Governor, Louis F. Hart; Secand Jan. 1, 1915, horses numbered 308.000 and retary of State, I. M. Howell; Treasurer, Ed311,000 valued at $28,952,000 and $29,856,000, ward Meath; Auditor, C. W. Clausen; Superinmules numbered 15.000 and 15.000 valued at tendent of Education, Mrs. Josephine Preston; $1,590,000 and $1,560,000, milch cows numbered Attorney-General, W. V. Tanner; Adjutant-Gen263,000 and 253,000 valued at $15,912,000 and eral, Maurice Thompson; Commissioner of Ag$18.722.000, other cattle numbered 221.000 and riculture, H. T. Graves; Commissioner of In215,000 valued at $6,696,000 and $7,504,000, surance, H. O. Fishback-all Republicans exsheep numbered 568,000 and 546,000 valued at

cept Governor, Adjutant-General, and Com$3,010,000 and $2,621,000, swine numbered 314,- missioner of Agriculture, who are Demo000 and 327,000 valued at $2,669,000 and $3, crats. 607,000. The production of wool in 1915 and

JUDICIARY. Supreme Court: Chief Justice, 1914 was 3,638,000 and 3,818,000 pounds respec

George E. Morris; Associate Justices, Frederick tively.

Bausman, O. G. Ellis, M. A. Fullerton, W. MINERAL PRODUCTION. The production of Mount, 0. R. Holcomb, 8. J. Chadwick, Emmett gold in the State in 1914 was $557,173, a de- N. Parker, and J. F. Main; Clerk, C. S. Reincrease of $139,102 from the value of 1913. The hart. production of silver was 264,861 fine ounces STATE LEGISLATURE: valued at $146,468, compared with 331,239 ounces valued at $200,068 in 1913. The total

Senate House Joint Ballot production of coal in the State in 1914, was Republicans ....

... 29


108 3,064,820 short tons valued at $6,751,511. With Democrats ....

Progressives. the exception of 1905 and 1908 the total output of coal in 1914 was the lowest since 1902. The Republican majority .. 16 production of coal in Washington has been con- siderably reduced in recent years by the output WASHINGTON, BOOKER T. American negro of petroleum in California and its use as a fuel educator, died Nov. 14, 1915. He was born, for manufacturing, railroads, and steamers. according to his best knowledge, near HalesOther causes contributing to the decrease were ford, Franklin County, Va., in either 1858 or the general industrial depression, particularly 1859. His mother was a slave, and he himself in the lumber business, and the exceptionally was born in slavery. The name Booker was mild weather during the winter months. The given him by his mother as a joking allusion value of the total mineral production in 1914 to his early fondness for books. The name was $13,830,739 compared with $17,579,743 in Washington he himself assumed later. The ini1913.

tial T. stood for Taliaferro, which he had heard TRANSPORTATION. The total mileage of the was the name of his father. The boy, in his railways in the State on July 30, 1915, was 8022, earliest youth, had aspirations for an educa. This includes mileage of all kinds. The in- tion. Soon after the close of the Civil War he crease of mileage during the year amounted to went to Malden, W. Va., where he worked in 425 miles. Railways having the longest mile the salt mills for nine months in the year, atage were the Great Northern 1196, Oregon and tending school for three months. The task of Washington 992, Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. gaining an education proved a difficult one. He Paul 583, and the Northern Pacific 1955. managed to find time to attend a night school,

EDUCATION. The total school population in and finally, by promising to begin work un1915 was 303,614. There were enrolled in the usually early in the morning and to keep at public schools 240,521, with an average daily it unusually late in the evening, he was able to attendance of 190,129. The teachers numbered attend day school with some regularity. After 7276 females, and 1792 males. The total ex- several years spent in this manner, accumulatpenditures for the support of the schools were ing what bits of knowledge he could and work$12,889,495.

ing hard in the meantime, Washington found FINANCE. The total receipts for the fiscal work in the house of a New England woman, year ending Dec. 30, 1915, amounted to $11, where he remained until 1861. He then heard 927,794. The disbursements amounted to $10,- of the school for negroes at Hampton, Va., and 945,613. There was a balance in the treasury resolved to go there. He took what little money on Oct. 1, 1914, of $3,850,284, and on Sept. 30, he had been able to save from his wages of $6 1915, of $4,842,465.

a month, and made his way to Hampton on CHARITIES AND CORRECTIONS. The charitable foot. He was warmly received by the principal and correctional institutions include Western of the institution, General Armstrong, for Hospital for the Insane, Eastern Hospital for whom he always retained the greatest affection

[graphic][merged small]

and loyalty. He remained at Hampton until ment only after he had achieved economic inhe had graduated from school with the honors dependence and stability. He held that time of his class, having worked his way through was better spent in demonstrating the capacity the entire course. After his graduation he re- of the black man in those callings that are now turned to his own home in Virginia, and taught open to him than in seeking opportunities in school for a time before he continued his studies fields where every factor was opposed to him. at Wayland Seminary, in Washington, D. C. This policy brought him into conflict with other While in that institution, he was invited to leaders of his race, whose demand was for become a teacher at Hampton, and remained higher education for the negro, and for other there for two years. In 1881 the citizens of opportunities such as white men enjoyed. Dr. Tuskegee, Ala., appealed to General Armstrong Washington's last public appearance was at the for an institution along the lines of the school National Council of Congregational Churches in at Hampton, which would develop negroes into New Haven, Conn., in October, 1915. It is said useful citizens, teaching them self-respect, giv- that he made there one of the best speeches of ing them the ability to support themselves, and his life. Shortly after this, he suffered with stirring them with proper ambition. Booker the nervous breakdown which ended in his death. Washington was chosen to found such an in- He wrote and spoke much on educational substitution. When he arrived at Tuskegee, there jects. His published writings include: Future were neither lands nor building. In fact, the of the American Negro (1899); Sowing and resources of the new institution were only a Reaping (1900); Up from Slavery (1901); Charpromise of $2000 annually from the State of acter Building (1902); The Story of My Life Alabama towards the expenses of the school. and Work (1903); Working with Hands Washington worked at the establishment of the (1904); Tuskegee and Its People (1905); Putinstitution with an energy and optimism which ting the Most into Life (1906); Life of Frednever flagged. He began his work in a small erick Douglass (1907); The Negro in Business shanty with one assistant, instructing 30 pupils. (1907); The Story of the Negro (1909); My From that time on the growth of the institu- Larger Education (1911); and The Man Far. tion was phenomenal. The graduates from Tus- thest Down (1912). He received honorary dekegee were found to be a new sort of negroes, grees from Harvard University and Dartmouth with competent minds and hands, who had self- College. respect, and who had been taught to make an WASHINGTON, UNIVERSITY OF. A State adequate living. The success of the institution institution for higher education, founded in 1861 inspired interest in the work throughout the at Seattle, Wash. The total enrollment in all country, and Washington became famous as the departments in the autumn of 1915 was 2851. most prominent educator of his race. New The faculty numbered 165. In June, 1915, Dr. buildings were constructed at Tuskegee chiefly Henry Suzzallo, of Columbia University, was by the students themselves. In 1915 there were elected president. Miss Isabella Austin, dean of 50 buildings worth $2,000,000 or more, and women, died in August, 1915; and Miss Ethel property of 2000 acres.

Coldwell was appointed in her place. Arthur * Washington first became a national charac- Tegan Priest, who was formerly dean of the colter in 1894, when he spoke for the negro on the lege of liberal arts, was appointed professor of opening day of the Atlanta Exposition. He had debating. The productive funds of the univerpreviously acquired some local fame as an ora- sity in 1915 amounted approximately to $50,000, tor, but on this occasion he was held as the and the annual income to $25,000. The library successor of Frederick Douglass and the leader contained about 73,000 volumes. of the negro race. He was thereafter in great WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY. demand as a popular speaker and appeared be- An institution for higher education, founded in fore many of the best known organizations in 1749 at Lexington, Va. The total enrollment in the country. His powers as an orator were re- all departments in the autumn of 1915 was 501. markable. Mr. Washington's creed concerning The faculty numbered 32. G. G. Greever, Ph.D., his people was well explained in his own words: was appointed associate professor of English; “We must teach our young people to save their William D. Hoyt, Ph.D., was appointed assomoney. We must cease to have the reputation ciate professor of biology; and Robert A. Tucker, of a spending, shiftless, thriftless, and poverty. M.A., associate professor of commerce. The prostricken race. It is vitally necessary for the ductive funds on April 30, 1915, amounted to progress of the race that we become creators $864,902, and the annual income to $104,759. of enterprise, and not dependent on the good The library contained about 50,000 volumes. will and energy of other races.”

The president was Henry Louis Smith, Ph.D. Although Dr. Washington was by no means WASHINGTON SQUARE PLAYERS. See the first of his race to demonstrate the fact that DRAMA, AMERICAN and ENGLISH. colored people may be trained to become effi- WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY. An insticient and useful citizens, he was undoubtedly tution for higher education, founded at St. Louis, the greatest educator ever produced by his race. Mo., in 1853. The total enrollment in all deIt is probable that no negro was ever more hon- partments in the autumn of 1915 was 1841, ored by white men than he. This often led to which included 587 in Saturday courses for embarrassing situations. President Roosevelt teachers, and others in evening courses. The facat one time entertained him at dinner at the ulty numbered 218. There were no notable White House and thereby greatly scandalized changes in the membership of the faculty during many people in the South. He became intimate the year, and no noteworthy benefactions were with Andrew Carnegie, and the latter even received. The productive funds amounted in the tually gave $600,000 to the Tuskegee Institute. autumn of 1915 to $9,123,184, and the income to Dr. Washington's work among the members of $716,471. The library contained 153,323 bound his race was based upon the belief that the volumes and 58,008 pamphlets. The chancellor negro would win social and political advance was David F. Houston.

WASSERMAN, JACOB. See GERMAN LITER- works were combined with lighting plants in ATURE, Fiction.

969 cases. For Canada, 313 towns were listed, WASTE PRODUCTS, UTILIZATION OF. See 75 of which had combined water and lighting AGRICULTURE.

plants. The distribution of towns supplied by WATER POWER. See ELECTRIC POWER, States and provinces, as well as the number of TRANSMISSION OF.

towns supplied with water in England and WATER PURIFICATION. One after an Wales, may be found under MUNICIPAL OWNERother such of the public water-supplies of the SHIP. See also WATER PURIFICATION. For sumcountry as are from rivers, lakes, and other surmarized descriptions of the water-works of the face sources, and thereby liable to pollution, United States and Canada, see The McGraw are being subjected to purification-as have Water-Works Directory, 1915 (New York), and been surface supplies generally in England and for descriptions of the water-works of England in Germany for years. Not many years ago and Wales, see Return as to Water Undertakscarcely an American city of any size had a ings in England and Wales (London). water-purification plant of any kind. To-day WATSON, WILLIAM. American scientist and nearly all of them are drinking water that educator, died Sept. 30, 1915. He was born in has at least been chlorivated or disinfected for Nantucket, Mass., in 1834, and graduated from the elimination of possible disease germs, chiefly Harvard in 1857. In the same year he was typhoid fever. During 1915 large mechanical appointed instructor in differential and integral water-filtration plants were completed and put calculus at the Scientific School at Harvard, in operation by Baltimore and St. Louis, and a holding that position for two years, when he similar plant was well on towards completion by took postgraduate courses in Jena and Paris. Cleveland. Most of the recently constructed He was university lecturer at Harvard in 1863– filtration plants are of the rapid or mechanical 64. Information concerning technical educarather than the slow sand type. This is due in tion which he gathered in Europe was made large part to greater ease and less labor of op- the basis of the organization in 1864 of the erating the mechanical filters, which are cleaned Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in which by merely reversing the flow of water through from 1865 to 1873 he was professor of mechanthem, sometimes supplemented by compressed air ical engineering and descriptive geometry. In to aid in agitating the sand. Most of the slow 1884 he became secretary of the American sand filters are cleaned by means of a consider- Academy of Arts and Sciences, and continued able amount of labor. Chlorine disinfection is to hold this position until his death. He was now widely used as a finishing process with both a member of many scientific societies both in types of filters. It goes far towards removing the United States and abroad. His published whatever feeling some sanitarians held as to the writings include: Technical Education (1872); greater reliability of slow sand as compared with Descriptive Geometry (1873); On the Protecmechanical filters, and in addition it lessens the tion of Life from Casualties in the Use of Maamount and therefore the cost of the sulphate of chinery (1880); Courses in Shades and Shadalumina used as a coagulant in connection with ou8 (1889); and many technical papers. mechanical filtration. Liquid chlorine instead WEATHER. See METEOROLOGY. of hypochlorite of calcium is now being used for WEATHER BUREAU. See METEOROLOGY, most new disinfecting plants and is replacing the WEED CONTROL. See AGRICULTURE. hypochlorite where that was previously used. WEIDNER, REVERE FRANKLIN. An AmeriThe liquid chlorine is bought in heavy steel or can theologian, died Jan. 6, 1915. He was born iron cylinders. It turns to gas when it is re in Lehigh County, Pa., in 1851, and graduated leased from pressure. The hypochlorite is from Muhlenburg College in 1869. After studybought in sheet steel drums, is troublesome to ing at the Lutheran Theological Seminary, he handle, and requires double sets of solution and was ordained to the Lutheran ministry in 1873, dosing tanks. The apparatus for applying and in the same year became a pastor at Phil. liquid chlorine is much simpler and the rate of lipsburg, N. J. He remained there until 1878, dosing is more easily and accurately controlled. at the same time acting as professor of English European war conditions were held responsible history and logic at Muhlenburg College. for heavy increases in the price of both sulphate From 1878–82 he was pastor at Philadelphia, of alumina and hypochlorite during 1915, and and in the latter year was appointed professor for a relatively light increase in the price of of dogmatics and exegesis at the Augustana liquid chlorine. The increased price of sulphate Theological Seminary, remaining there until of alumina added materially to the cost of me. 1891, when he was made president and profeschanical filtration, but disinfection by either hy- sor of dogmatic theology and Hebrew exegesis pochlorite or liquid chlorine costs so little at at the Chicago Lutheran Theological Seminary. normal prices for the chemical that even a heavy He held this position until his death. He was rise is no great burden. The rapid increase in the author of many theological works. These filtration of one kind or the other and the gen- include: A Commentary on the Gospel of Mark eral use of disinfection of both filtered and un- (1881); Biblical Theology of the Old Testament filtered surface water supplies has doubtless con- (1886); Studies in the Book--New Testament tributed materially to the marked decline in the (3 vols., 1890); Old Testament, Volume 1, Gentyphoid death rate in recent years. In a fair esis (1892); Biblical Theology of the New Tes. number of American cities this rate is now tament (1891); Christian Ethics (1891); The closely approaching the very low European fig. Doctrine of the Ministry (1907); The Doctrine ure which has prevailed for many years past. of Man (1912); Christology, or the Doctrine of WATER SUPPLY. See AQUEDUCT.

the Person of Christ (1913). WATER-WORKS. Statistics published early WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. The tenth in 1915 show 4872 towns in the United States annual conference on the weights and measures having public water-supplies, of which 435 were of the United States, held as usual at the Busupplied from works in other towns. Water- reau of Standards, Washington, D. C., took

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