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UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP "OKLAHOMA”. On Trial Trip. Speed 21.47 knots. Built by New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden, N. J

year were likely to have much money spent on born in Baltimore in 1848; served in the Union their construction by the Teutonic allies, as League Company for three weeks in defense of all the funds they had at disposal could be the city of Baltimore in 1863; graduated from better devoted to army equipment and the com- the United States Naval Academy in 1868; pletion of vessels nearly ready. This does not joined the navy as an ensign in 1869, and was apply to destroyers or submarines, but neither subsequently promoted through various ranks of these could have a very great effect upon the until he became commodore in 1907. He served outcome of the war.

with the Atlantic and Pacific fleets on various BATTLE CRUISERS were under construction for tours until 1879 when he was at the Torpedo England, Russia, Germany, and Japan, and there Station. From 1885-89 he was at the office was reason to believe that the naval appropria of Naval Intelligence; was appointed Chief of tion bill for 1916 would contain a provision for Ocean Meteorology of the Navy Department several for the United States navy. If built, in 1892, serving until 1895; from 1899 to 1902 these vessels were likely to be superior to any was naval attaché successively at Berlin, Rome, so far planned. The tonnage would be well over and Vienna; commandant of the Naval Station 30,000—possibly nearer 40,000—and the maxi- at Key West from 1905-10; chairman of the mum sea speed about 35 knots. Apart from the World's Congress of Meteorology at the Chicago line-of-battle, such vessels would have an ex- Exposition in 1893; and took part in the Spantended use in warfare. They could sweep aside ish-American War, winning two medals for serthe cruisers, scouts, and destroyers of the enemy. vice. The year 1910 saw his retirement. He Their speed makes submarine attack impossible invented many scientific appliances, including the except under most favorable circumstances. And solarometer (1892), an instrument for deterthey should be able to bring any fleeing enemy to mining position and compass error at sea; and he terms by heading him off or driving in his flank. was the author of The Cruise of the Brooklyn The amount of armor proposed was not stated. (1884), and of The History of the Italian-TurkNo battle cruisers are heavily armored; but it ish War (1912). He also contributed to magamust not be forgotten that in every decisive zines, chiefly on naval subjects. battle of recent times the ships of the winning BEER. See LIQUORS. side have received few injuries; nor must we BEET SUGAR. See SUGAR. overlook Admiral Farragut's maxim that “a BELASCO, DAVID. See DRAMA, AMERICAN ship's best defense is a rapid and well-directed AND ENGLISH. fire from her own guns."

BELGIAN CONGO. See Congo, BELGIAN. BAUER, FRANCIS S. An Austrian Cardinal BELGIAN RELIEF. See RELIEF FOR WAR of the Roman Catholic Church, died Nov. 26, VICTIMS. 1915. He was born in 1841; became a priest in BELGIUM. A constitutional monarchy of 1863; was created Archbishop of Olmutz in 1904; western Europe, lying between France and the and became a cardinal on Dec. 2, 1912.

Netherlands and bordering on the North Sea. BAUXITE. See ALUMINUM AND BAUXITE. Capital, Brussels. During the German inva

BEAUX-ARTS ARCHITECTS, SOCIETY OF. sion the government was removed first to OsAn association formed in New York for the edu- tend, later to Le Havre, France. cation of students in architecture. The system AREA AND POPULATION. The area and populaincludes the establishment in different cities tion by provinces, according to the census taken of the United States of schools in which in- Dec. 31, 1910, and compared with the figures struction in architecture may be obtained. This for 1831, with the number of inhabitants (deninstruction is based upon the courses given in sity) per square kilometer in 1910, are as folthe Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The pro- lows: gramme of the society is used in many universities and colleges throughout the country. The

Sq. km. 1831 1910 D. schools are formed by groups of students who

2,832 349,942 968,677 348 wish to carry on the study of architecture, and Brabant

3,283 561,828 1,469,677 455 instruction is given by a master or patron, whose

West Flanders.... 3,234 608,226 874.135 272

East Flanders. 3,000 742,973 1.120.335 375 work is given free. The school is supported by

3,722 613,179 1,232,867 333 contributions of the students. The committee Liége ......... 2,895 375.030 888.341 308 on education issues each year a certain number Limburg ......... 2,408 160,090 275,691 116

Luxemburg ..

. 4,418 160,762 231,215 52 of programmes which include problems to be Namur

Namur ..........

...... 3,660 213,784 362,846 99 worked out by the different schools. These constitute competitions designated as Class A and Total Belg. .....29,451* 3,785,814 7,423,784† 254 Class B. During the season 1914–15 there were * 11,371 square miles. † De jure population; de 978 registered students from 110 different ate facto population, 7,416,454. liers, located in over 80 different cities in the United States and Canada. During the year of the total population in 1910, 3,680,790 were 88 medals were awarded, of which 6 were first males and 3,742,994 were females. The census medals, 41 second medals, and 41 third medals. of 1900 returned 6,693,548 (3,324,834 males and The society awards regular prizes—the Warren 3,368,714 females); 1880, 5,520,009; 1850, 4,426,Prize for general excellence in planning a group 205. Since 1856 the population shows an aug. of buildings; the Pupin Prize for decorative mentation of 63.90 per cent, a development by treatment; the Goelet Prize for excellence in no means equal throughout the provinces, as planning a city block; the Bacon Prize for the shown by the following details: Antwerp, 122.95 greatest number of honors obtained in Class A; per cent; Brabant, 96.26; West Flanders, 39.88; the Municipal Arts Society Prize for the best East Flanders, 44.19; Hainaut, 60.31; Liége, solution of a city-planning problem; and the 76.38; Limburg, 43.81; Luxemburg, 19.33; Diplome Prize for added honors in Class A work. Namur, 26.79. In the table below will be seen

BEEHLER, WILLIAM HENRY. American naval the population of 1900, the population of 1910, officer and scientist, died June 23, 1915. He was the augmentation during the decade due to ex

Antwerp

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cess of births over deaths, and that due to excess of immigration over emigration for the kingdom,

Hectares

Quintal: by provinces (+ = excess of immigration, -=

1913-14 1912-18 1913-14 1912-13 excess of emigration):

Wheat ..159,494 161,817 4,019,505 3,802,699 25.2 . 66,000

528.000
Ex Ex. Immi. Barley .. 34,033 34 123918.083 921321 270
1900 1910 Birth8 gration

Oats .....271,694 277,694 6,960,945 7,220,044 25.6
Flax .... 23.133

98,2367

4.2

...... Antwerp .... 819,159 968,677 137,121 + 12,397

Beets* .. 52,419 52,588 13,919 175 ...... 265.5 Brabant ....1,263,535 1,469,677 122,357 + 83,785

Tobacco. 4,023 4,172 89,369

22.2 W. Flanders. 805,236 874,135 105,206 -36,307 E. Flanders.. 1.029.971 1,120.335 130.091 - 39,727 * Sugar beets. † Seed; fibre production, 178,884, Hainaut ....1.142,954 1.232.867 78,161 + 11.752 Liége ....... 826,175 888.341 60,537 + 1.629 Limburg ...240,796 275.691 43,027 8,132 Luxemburg .. 219,210 231.215 19,596 — 7,591 Estimated number of cattle Dec. 31, 1909, Namur ..... 346,512 362,846 21,467 — 5,133

1,856,833; horses, 255,229; swine, 1,116,500. In Belgium ..6,693,548 7,423,784 717,563 + 12,673 1913 there were 267,160 horses, 1,894,484 cattle,

1,412,293 swine. The population of Antwerp as calculated Dec. MINING AND METALS, ETC. Number of quar31, 1911, was 308,618 (with suburbs, 407,773); ries in operation in 1910, 1522, with 35,711 emBrussels, 176,947 (737,432); Liége, 167,676 ployees; value of products, 66,418,720 francs. (243,865); Ghent, 166,715 (211,081); Schaer- In 1912, 1550, with 35,532 employees; value of beek, * 85,399; Ixelles, * 76,405; Molenbeek-St.- products, 69,758,300 francs. Coal mines, 1910, Jean,* 74,857; St.-Gilles, * 66,592; Anderlecht,* 133 (143,701 employees); 23,916,560 metric tons, 64,425; Malines, 59,191; Bruges, 53,484; Bor- valued at 348,877,000 francs (14.59 francs per gerhout, 50,583; Verviers, 46,485; Ostend, 42, ton). In 1911, 216 mines, of which 127 in opera638; Louvain, 42,307; Seraing, 41,389; Tournai, tion; output, 23,053,540 tons, valued at 340,37,198; Courtrai, 35,872; Laeken, 35,714; Alost, 279,000 francs. Value of iron ore 1910, 566,950 35,272; St.-Nicolas, 34,881; Etterbeek, 33,779; francs; blende, 139,600 francs; galena, 26,450 Namur, 32,444; St.-Josse-ten-Noode, 32,282; francs. Furnace products, 1,852,090 metric Berchem, 30,996; Charleroi, 28,891; Uccle, 28, tons, valued at 120,161,000 francs; manufac127; Jumet, 28,020; Mons, 27,904; Lierre, 25,- tured iron, 299,500 tons, 39,494,000 francs; cast 985; Forest, 25,671; Roulers, 25,488. The as- steel ingots, 1,892,160 tons, 161,606,000 francs; terisks mark faubourgs of Brussels. The four worked steel ingots, blooms, and billets, 1.074,cities of Antwerp, Brussels, Ghent, and Liége, 210 tons, 98,634,000 francs; finished steel, 1,534,with their environs, contain 21.16 per cent of 550 tons, 192,220,000 francs; zinc ingots, 181,the population of the kingdom; but the appear- 745 tons, 103,541,000 francs; pig lead, 40,715 ance of urbanization induced by these figures tons, 13,464,000 francs; silver from lead, 264,is offset by the fact that the dependent communes 655 kilos, 27,754,000 francs. Value of iron ore cover areas with boundaries widely separated 1911, 766,400 francs; blende, 14,250 francs; pig from the urban centres; within these con fines iron, 1912, 160,000,000 francs; manufactured are areas devoted to agriculture.

iron, 40,025,000 francs; steel ingots, 242,377,000 Of the total poulation in 1910, 2,833,334 spoke francs; steel rails, etc., 257,819,000 francs. French only, 3,220,662 Flemish only, 31,413 Ger- OTHER INDUSTRIES. Manufacturing industries man only, 871,288 French and Flemish, 74,993 according to the industrial census of 1896 numFrench and German, 8652 Flemish and German, bered 337,395 enterprises and branches. Of and 52,547 all three languages. In addition these, 236,000 were permanent establishments, there were 330,893 inhabitants, including chil. distributed as follows: 165,000 (70.08 per cent) dren over two years, speaking no one of the three home industries employing no work people; 54,languages. The number of marriages in 1912 500 (24.09) small enterprises employing one to was 61,278; births, 171,187; deaths, 112,378; four workers; 14,800 (5.12) establishments emstill births, 7789; immigrants, 42,980; emi- ploying 5 to 49 workers; 1500 (0.63) estabgrants, 35,775.

lishments employing 50 to 449 workers; 200 EDUCATION. In 1910 there were 7525 public (0.08) great industries employing 500 or more primary schools (21,313 teachers and 929,347 workers. The census returned 189,778 persons pupils), 54 primary normal schools (4725 stu- engaged in the textile industry, 137,966 in clothdents), 4722 schools for adults (240,019 schol. ing factories, 134,333 in metal works, 128,313 ars), 3112 infant schools (271,237 children). in mines, 93,577 in construction work, 90,443 in There were 7590 public primary schools in 1911, factories for the manufacture of foodstuffs, with 934,830 pupils; 3186 infant schools with 88,457 in timber and allied industries, and 57,702 275,911; 4940 adult primary schools, with 246,- in leather factories. There were in operation 292; 57 primary normal schools, with 4967. in 1911, 89 sugar works, output 234,764 tons of There are both state and private secondary raw sugar; 21 sugar refineries, output 121,226 schools, and special, technical, and fine arts tons; 125 distilleries, output 73,864 kilolitres institutions. University population: Ghent, of alcohol at 50° G.L.; output of the breweries 1178; Liége, 2790; Brussels, 1318; Louvain, 2600 was 1,703,159 kilolitres; of the tobacco manu-total, 7880.

factories, 10,141 tons. The fisheries products AGRICULTURE. Under cultivation in the king- for 1911 were valued at 6,381,939 francs. The dom are 2,607,514 hectares (including 721,938 output of the glass factories (1900) was valued fallow, under brush, and otherwise irregularly at 65,912,000 francs. The number of strikes in productive), of which 1,818,156 under sown 1911 was 156, involving 54,947 strikers; 1906-10, crops and grasses, and 67,419 under orchards, 756, involving 121,416; 1901-05, 474, involving gardens, vineyards, etc. The following table 149,987. gives areas planted to main crops in hectares, COMMERCE. The table below gives a résumé the production in metric quintals, and the aver (in millions of francs) of the trade during the age yield per hectare in 1913–14:

last years of four decades;

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.........110.495

Beer

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Oil cake

........ 56.309

Corn

............

valued at 669.1 millions; Germany, 5761 and 1880 1890 1900 1910 881.4: Great Britain, 516.8 and 457.6; Russia, Imports, general... 2,710.4 3,189.2 3,594.4 6,551.7 ORAI

7 364.1 and 67.0; Netherlands, 293.1 and 327.9; Imports, special....1,680.

9 1.672.1 2.215.8 4.265.0 Exports, general... 2,225.2 2,948.1 3,297,5 5,694.6 Argentina, 278.1 and 128.6; United States, 231.2 Exports, special....1,216.7 1,437.0 1,922.9 3,407.4 and 117.1.

COMMUNICATIONS. Railway in operation, Dec. Imports for consumption and exports of do. 31, 1910, by the state, 4330 kilometers (of which mestic produce are shown in the table below, to- 4072 state owned); by companies, 349-a total gether with transit trade, for successive years, length of 4679 kilometers throughout the kingin thousands of francs.

dom. At the end of 1912 there were 4719 kilo

meters of railway in operation, of which 4369 1906 1910 1911 1912 were operated by the state. Local lines, 3855 Imports .....3,454,000 4,265,000 4,508,500 4,958,000 kilometers. The Belgian railway lines, as a reExports ....2,793,800 3,407,400 8,580,300 8,951,500 sult of the German invasion, came into the posTransit .....2,268,800 2,287,200 2,298,900 2,437,800

session of the German authorities and were oper

ated by them regularly after November, 1914. Imports and exports in the special trade are

Soon after the military occupation of Belgium given in part in the table below for 1913:

by the Germans the permanent way over a large

amount of Belgian railway was removed, and Imports 1913 Exports

1913 this led to a protest to the neutral states by the Wool ...410.198 Wool ..... .....350,497

97 Belgian government, which claimed that the Wheat .. .....393,186 Flax ...........132,823 Cotton .....210,420 Flax yarns ......114,402

proceeding would hamper the trade business of Lead ... 29,067 Zinc ..

.. 93.499 the kingdom and was a violation of the laws Raw hides ... ...189,156 Raw hides

......112.384

and customs of war. Furthermore, as an inciCoal ...161.957 Vehicles ... ... 94,884

dent of the military operations, a comprehensive Corn

.110,425 Rubber Rubber. ....145,235 Iron and steel ....251.315 network of light railways was constructed in Flax ....100.673 Wheat .......... 73,126

Belgium, as well as in the occupied district of .... 13.078 Coal .....

90.220 Barley, etc. ...... 73,018 Cotton

84,348 France, so as to relieve the pressure on the highCoffee ... 92,830 Vegetable oi

31,206 ways and release cars for service in the Eastern Seeds ...172,725 Copper .....

32,771

campaigns. A uniform method of construction Wood

...124,505 Machinery ..... .. 77,112 Jute ... 14.673 Oil cloth ........ 2,854

2,854 was employed, involving light rails of high grade Pig iron ... ... 43.323 Window glass ..., 45,741 steel, laid on steel ties, and built up in sections Machinery .......107.036 Dyes and colors ..

127 so they could be laid very rapidly, four railway

24,880 Copper .... .. 42,032 Lead ...

34.712 battalions being able to lay 70 miles of track in Chem. prod.. . 141,696 Horses ....... 40,894 two weeks. Track laying on level ground was Petroleum .......

42,108 Wool yarns ... 65,092 Dyes .... 65,289 Chemical products. 93,601

in some cases carried forward at the rate of 10 Wine ........... 40,842 Paper ........... 37,288

miles a day, or the equivalent of the daily aver

- age advance of an army. These railways were A few of the important imports, with values narrow gauge, but the passenger cars seated five in thousands of francs in 1910, follow: cereals, people on a side. etc. (582,666); wool and woolens (442,139);

In the summer the construction of a new rail

In the summer the cor minerals (197,462); seeds (171,178): timber way line between Aix-la-Chapelle and Brussels, (150,494); cotton, etc. (148,489); flax, etc.

via Vise, was begun by the Germans and work(143,034); raw hides (139,296); coal (107,478); men were busy day and night. This involved rough diamonds (98,447); resins, etc. (96,301);

the building of a new bridge near Lische. The iron ore, etc. (92,520); machinery (80,458);

new railway through Belgium was to be an aldyes, etc. (68,213); coffee (63,699) ; live ani- most straight line, without regard to private mals (53,334). Exports: wool. yard, and manu- property or natural obstacles, as the German factures (436,450); iron and steel' (224,287); authorities considered such a railway of the machinery, etc. (180,762); cereals (163,170); raw flax (121.136): vegetable fibre. varn, and ice but for the future. It was also proposed to manufactures (113,439); seeds (111,509); cut

double track the line from Selzaete to Moerdiamonds (99,057); zinc (91,960); 'raw hides beke and probably also the Selzaete-Eecloo(91,441); coal (88,636); paints, etc. (85,087); Bruges line. glass and glassware (84,496); cotton manufac

There were 7975 kilometers of telegraph lines tures (78,478); resins, etc. (53,010); manures

and 43,547 of wires; in addition, there were 520 (50,277); sugar (45,151); live animals (42.. kilometers of wires installed at the expense of 647).

private railway companies. There were 1659 Some of the principal countries of origin and telegraph stations. Urban telephone wires, 233,destination are given below, with value of their

086 kilometers; interurban wires, 29,434. Post trade in thousands of francs for two years:

offices, 1708. The merchant marine included at the end of 1912, 97 steamers of 174,021 tons and

eight sailing vessels, of 7616 tons. Vessels en1912 1911 1912 1911

tered in the 1912 trade, 11,230, of 16,353,933 Imports

Exports

tons; cleared, 11,214, of 16,319,056 tons. France ...738,761 908.048 695.105 752,314 United States. .341,423 413,829

FINANCE. The franc (worth 19.295 cents) is

113,982 145,128 United King...436,220 505,646

594,625 the unit of value. The table of revenue and exNetherlands ...298,217 356,573 352,346 367.599 penditure below is in thousands of francs and Germany.....602,398 703,120 959,331 1,007,469 British India. .267,614 249,551 34,967

includes loans (1912 budget):

40.389 Russia ..... .318,136 272,327 66,904 83,496 Rumania .245,239 200,962 24,283 17,771

1835 1900 1909 1912

Rev. ordinary .....89,171 494,106 645,107 703,883* In 1910. France furnished imports to the value Rev. extraordinary .. 1,904 48,672 150,109 ... of 747.2 millions of francs and received exports Total .......... .91,075 542,778 795,216

servo

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