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THE NEW INTERNATIONAL

YEAR BOOK

A COMPENDIUM OF THE WORLD'S

PROGRESS

FOR THE YEAR

1915

EDITOR

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M.A.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
ALLEN LEON CHURCHILL
HORATIO S. KRANS, Ph.D.

NEW YORK
DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY

1916

COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY
DODD, MEAD & COMPANY, Inc.

VALL - BALLOU COMPANY
BINGHAMTON AND NEW YORK

PREFACE

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ITARY

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THE NEW INTERNATIONAL YEAR Book for 1915, the ninth in the new series which began with the 1907 volume, follows the same plan as its predecessors. That is to say, it is designed as an encyclopædia of the year, with the titles arranged in a single alphabet, and the text written anew each year. In the 1915 volume as in the one before, the effect of the war was to reduce the amount of available statistical information under certain heads. The space thus saved has been given to the comprehensive article on the WAR OF THE NATIONS, and to the many and diverse articles on subjects relating directly or indirectly to the war. The leading articles in this important group are: The WAR OF THE NATIONS, a clear and compact narrative by Professor Carlton Hayes, who wrote the corresponding article for the 1914 Year Book; UNITED STATES AND THE WAR, an impartial, explanatory record of the effects of the war on our foreign relations, by Professor Nelson P. Mead; supplementary articles on separate topics in the same field, such as LUSITANIA, PREPAREDNESS, INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND ARBITRATION (the last named by Mr. Clinton Rogers Woodruff); MILITARY PROGRESS, by Lieutenant Col. C. De Witt Will cox; NavAL PROGRESS, SUBMARINES, and BATTLESHIPS, by Captain Lewis Sayre Van Duzer; AËRONAUTICS, etc., and also the biographies of persons brought into prominence by the events of the war. To aid the reader in following the year's fighting, color maps of the general fields of operation and sketch maps of the chief campaigns and battles are included.

Among the subjects treated the following may be mentioned: The field of fine arts, including Music, the DRAMA, PAINTING AND SCULPTURE, ARCHITECTURE; LITERATURE, at home and abroad; the separate sciences and branches of learning, such as ASTRONOMY, CHEMISTRY, ZOOLOGY, MEDICINE, Physics, POLITICAL SCIENCE, POLITICAL ECONOMY, ENGINEERING, PHILOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY, etc.; articles on RELIGION, EXPLORATION, POLAR RESEARCH, Sports, Trade, Industry, and Business represented in such articles as BANKS AND BANKING, FINANCIAL REVIEW, INSURANCE, TRUSTS, LABOR, STRIKES, SHIPBUILDING, BUILDING OPERATIONS, etc.; gazetteer information under .each of the States of the United States and the foreign countries; a series of biographies of men who have died during the year or who have been brought into prominence through public events; an historical record of the year's events under each foreign country as well as under UNITED STATES.

FRANK MOORE COLBY. 301633

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EDITOR
FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A.

ASSOCIATE EDITORS
ALLEN LEON CHURCHILL
HORATIO S. KRANS, PH.D.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, EDUCATION

FOOD, IRRIGATION, BOTANY, FOR MILO B. HILLEGAS, PH.B.,
ESTRY, ETC.

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCAEDWIN WEST ALLEN, PH.D..

TION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERUNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE; SITY, ASSISTED BY EXPERTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AT WASHINGTON,

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND AND

PHOTOGRAPHY ALFRED CHARLES TRUE, PH.D.,

REGINALD GORDON. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

EUGENICS ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY

ALVAN A. TENNEY, PH.D., ROBERT H. LOWIE, PH.D.,

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF SOCIOLOGY, COLUMBIA AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, AND

UNIVERSITY. CLARK WISSLER, PH.D., AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. EXPLORATION AND POLAR RE

SEARCH ARCHÆOLOGY

A. W. GREELY, PH.D., OLIVER SAMUEL TONKS, PH.D.,

MAJOR-GENERAL, UNITED STATES ARMY. PROFESSOR OF ART, VASSAR COLLEGE.

FEMINISM: WOMAN MOVEMENT; ARCHITECTURE

WOMAN SUFFRAGE RICHARD F. BACH,

JULIET STUART POYNTZ, A.M., CURATOR, SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, COLUMBIA AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR LABOR LEGISLATION. UNIVERSITY.

FOREIGN GAZETTEER ASTRONOMY AND METEOROLOGY

EDWARD LATHROP ENGLE AND
T. W. EDMONDSON, PH.D.,

ALLAN EVA ENGLE.
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, NEW YORK UNI-
VERSITY.

FOREIGN HISTORY AND POLITICS

CARLTON H. HAYES, PH.D., CHEMISTRY, INDUSTRIAL, AND EX

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, COLUMBIA POSITIONS

UNIVERSITY. MARCUS BENJAMIN, PH.D., Sc.D., LL.D., PARKER T. MOON, EDITOR FOR THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL INSTRUCTOR IN HISTORY, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. MUSEUM.

GEOLOGY CHEMISTRY, GENERAL PROGRESS OF

DAVID HALE NEWLAND, A.B., HARRY ESSEX, PH.D., AND LEONARD M.

ASSISTANT STATE GEOLOGIST, NEW YORK. LIDDLE, PH.D., BESEARCH ASSOCIATES OF THE MELLON INSTI- INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION AND TUTE, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, WITH THE PEACE ASSISTANCE OF

CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF, LL.B., M. A. ROSANOFF, Sc.D.,

SECRETARY OF THE NATIONAL MUNICIPAL WILLIAM GIBBS PROFESSOR IN THE MELLON IN

LEAGUE AND OF THE MOHONK CONFERENCE, AND STITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH.

PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF PERSONAL REGISDRAMA

TRATION, PHILADELPHIA. CLAYTON HAMILTON, M.A.,

JEWS AND JUDAISM DRAMATIC CRITIC OF THE "BOOKMAN."

DAVID A. MODELL, A.M.
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SCIENCE LIBRARY PROGRESS

FRANK HAMILTON HANKINS, PH.D., WILLIAM W. BISHOP, A.M.,
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS AND SOCI SUPERINTENDENT OF THE READING ROOM, LI-
OLOGY, CLARK COLLEGE.

BRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C.

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