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FORBES WATSON, HORATIO S. KRANS, PH.D.

CONTRIBUTOR TO THE NEW YORK "EVENING

POST" AND "THE NATION."
LITERATURE, FRENCH
ALBERT SCHINZ, PH.D.,

PHILOLOGY
PROFESSOR OF FRENCH LITERATURE, SMITH COL-

CHARLES KNAPP, PH.D., LEGE.

PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY, BARNARD LITERATURE, GERMAN

COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY; AND AMELIA VON ENDE,

JOHN LAWRENCE GERIG, A.M., PH.D., CONTRIBUTOR TO NEW YORK "EVENING POST" ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CELTIC, COLUMBIA AND "THE NATION.

UNIVERSITY. LITERATURE, ITALIAN

PHILOSOPHY ALBERT ARTHUR LIVINGSTON, PH.D.,

FRANK THILLY, A.M., PH.D., LL.D., ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF THE ROMANCE LAN

PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY, SAGE SCHOOL OF GUAGES AND LITERATURE, COLUMBIA UNIVER

PHILOSOPHY, CORNELL UNIVERSITY,
SITY.
LITERATURE, SCANDINAVIAN

PHYSICS
HARRY V. E. PALMBLAD, A.M.,

WILLIAM W. STIFLER, PH.D., INSTRUCTOR IN GERMANIC LANGUAGES AND LIT INSTRUCTOR IN PHYSICS, COLUMBIA UNIVERERATURES, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS.

SITY. LITERATURE, SPANISH

PSYCHOLOGY, PSYCHICAL REJOHN DRISCOLL FITZ-GERALD, PH.D.,

SEARCH MEMBER OF THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA, EDWARD BRADFORD TITCHENER. D.Sc., CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SPANISH ROYAL

PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., ACADEMY, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ROMANCE

SAGE PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY, GRADUATE LANGUAGES, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.

SCHOOL OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY. MANUFACTURES, CIVIL ENGINEER CHRISTIAN A. RUCKMICH, PH.D.,

ING, TECHNOLOGY, AËRONAUTICS, INSTRUCTOR IN PSYCHOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF AND FIRE PROTECTION

ILLINOIS. HERBERT TREADWELL WADE.

RAILWAYS MEDICINE

WILLIAM E. HOOPER, ALBERT WARREN FERRIS, A.M., M.D., ASSOCIATE EDITOR, "RAILWAY AGE GAZETTE." MEDICAL EXPERT TO STATE RESERVATION COM MISSIONERS AT SARATOGA SPRINGS; CONSULT RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS AND ING PHYSICIAN, ITALIAN HOSPITAL, NEW YORK ; SOCIETIES AND OF BINGHAMTON STATE HOSPITAL; FORMER JOHN W. RUSSELL, M.A. SENIOR RESIDENT PHYSICIAN, GLEN SPRINGS, WATKINS, N. Y.; FORMER PRESIDENT, N. Y. SANITARY ENGINEERING AND MUSTATE COMMISSION IN LUNACY; FORMER ASSIS

NICIPAL ACTIVITIES TANT IN NEUROLOGY, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY;

MOSES NELSON BAKER, PH.B., C.E., FORMER ASSISTANT IN MEDICINE, NEW YORK

EDITOR OF THE "ENGINEERING NEWS."
UNIVERSITY AND BELLEVUE HOSPITAL MEDICAL
COLLEGE; ASSISTED BY

SPORTS
DAVID GILBERT YATES, M.D.,
SURGEON, NEW YORK CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL;

CHARLES A. TAYLOR,
SURGEON, DEMILT DISPENSARY, NEW YORK CITY.

MEMBER OF THE STAFF OF THE NEW YORK

“TRIBUNE." MILITARY PROGRESS C. DEW. WILLCOX,

UNITED STATES AND THE WAR
LIEUTENANT-COLONEL, U. S. A., PROFESSOR OF NELSON P. MEAD, PH.D.,
MODERN LANGUAGES, U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY. ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, COLLEGE OF

THE CITY OF NEW YORK.
MILITARY STATISTICS FOREIGN
HERBERT TREADWELL WADE.

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES
MUSIC

MILO B. HILLEGAS, PH.D., ALFRED REMY, M.A.,

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ELEMENTARY EDUCAEXTENSION LECTURER, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY;

TION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVER

SITY.
FORMER PROFESSOR OF HARMONY AND COUNTER-
POINT, INTERNATIONAL CONSERVATORY, NEW

WAR OF THE NATIONS, AND SOCIAL-
YORK; LECTURER ON THE HISTORY OF MUSIC,
NEW YORK COLLEGE OF MUSIC.

ISM

CARLTON H. HAYES, PH.D., NAVAL PROGRESS AND BATTLE

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF HISTORY, COLUMBIA SHIPS

UNIVERSITY.
LEWIS SAYRE VAN DUZER,
CAPTAIN IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY, RETIRED: ZOOLOGY
EX-SECRETARY OF THE UNITED STATES NAVAL AARON L. TREADWELL, PH.D.,
INSTITUTE.

PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY, VASSAR COLLEGE,

ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAGE

AËRONAUTICS: CURTISS FLYING BOAT AND CURTISS MILITARY TRACTOR . .

ARCHITECTURE: BUILDINGS AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION, SAN FRANCISCO

46

BATTLESHIPS: UNITED STATES BATTLESHIP "OKLAHOMA".

BELGIUM: GENERAL VON BISSING AND Miss EDITH CAVELL

DAMS: Two NOTABLE DAMS OF THE U. S. RECLAMATION SERVICE-ARROWROCK DAM

AND ELEPHANT BUTTE DAM . . . . .

174

DRAMA: EXAMPLES OF MODERN STAGECRAFT IN 1915.

184

DRAMA: REVIVAL OF GREEK TRAGEDY IN AMERICA ,

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS: ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE FOR CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST. PAUL

RAILWAY . . . . . . . .

198

. . ..

EXPOSITIONS: SCENES AT THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION, SAN DIEGO

FINANCE: FOUR FINANCIERS OF THE GREAT WAR-BARON READING, KARL HELFFERICH,

214

ALEXANDER RIBOT, REGINALD MCKENNA

FRANCE: FOUR FRENCH STATESMEN—THÉOPHILE DELCASSÉ, ARISTIDE BRIAND, GENERAL

GALLIÉNI, RENÉ VIVIANI .

234

GERMANY: GERMAN AND AUSTRIAN MINISTERS IN 1915—VON BETHMANN-HOLLWEG, AD-

MIRAL VON TIRPITZ, BARON BURIAN VON RAJECZ, VON Jagow ..

262

GREAT BRITAIN: FOUR FIGURES PROMINENT IN GREAT BRITAIN-KEIR HARDIE, ADMIRAL

SIR HENBY B. JACKSON, WINSTON CHURCHILL, EARL OF DERBY.

284

GREECE: FOUR BALKAN STATESMEN PROMINENT IN 1915—M. VENIZELOS, M. SKOULOU-

DIS, M. RADOSLAVOF, TAKE JONESCO .

292

ITALY: FOUR MEN PROMINENT IN ITALY IN 1915—ANTONIO SALANDRA, BARON SIDNEY

SONNINO, PRINCE BERNHARD VON BÜLOW, COUNT LUIGI CADORNA.

344

JAPAN: CORONATION OF THE MIKADO-COUNT OKUMA; SHINTO PRIESTS ,

350

LITERATURE: FOUR AUTHORS PROMINENT IN 1915—RUPERT BROOKE, EDGAR LEE MAST-

ERS, CANON JAMES OWEN HANNAY, F. HOPKINSON SMITH . .

378

MILITARY PROGRESS: BUSINESS MEN'S MILITARY TRAINING CAMP AT PLATTSBURG. . 410

MILITARY PROGRESS: FRENCH SOLDIER EQUIPPED TO WITHSTAND POISONOUS GASES; GER-

MAN SOLDIERS USING MACHINE GUN . . . . . . . .

412

TURKEY: MILITARY LEADERS-FIELD MARSHAL VON DER GOLTZ AND ENVER PASHA

656

UNITED STATES: FOUR UNITED STATES SENATORS ELECTED IN 1915—R. F. BROUSSARD, T.

W. HARDWICKE, P. O. HUSTING, CHARLES CURTIS . . . . .

662

UNITED STATES: Ex-SECRETARY OF STATE W. J. BRYAN, SECRETARY OF STATE ROBERT

LANSING . . .

668

UNITED STATES: FOUR REPRESENTATIVES PROMINENT IN 1915—CLAUDE KITCHIN, D. W.

SHACKLEFORD, FRANK W. MONDELL, F. H. GILLETT

UNITED STATES: FOUR MEN PROMINENT IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES

IN 1915—WILLIAM J. STONE, HENRY P. FLETCHER, COLONEL EDWARD M. HOUSE,

FRANK L. POLK . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNITED STATES AND THE WAR: REPRESENTATIVES OF THE TEUTONIC POWERS IN THE

UNITED STATES—DR. BERNHARD DERNBURG, DR. KONSTANTIN THEODOR DUMBA, CAP-

TAIN FRANZ VON PAPEN, CAPTAIN KARL BOY-ED . . .

678

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES: FOUR EDUCATORS PROMINENT IN 1915—R. L. WILBUR,

HENRY SUZALLO, REV. J. A. MULRY, S. J., EDWARD C. ELLIOTT

684

WAR OF THE NATIONS: FOUR RULERS OF BALKAN STATES: KING PETER OF SERBIA,

KING FERDINAND OF BULGARIA, KING CONSTANTINE OF GREECE, KING FERDINAND OF

RUMANIA . . .

700

WAR OF THE NATIONS: TRENCH SCENES ..

702

WAR OF THE NATIONS: GERMAN EMPEROR AND GENERAL VON MACKENSEN-FÓRTIFICA-

TIONS ON THE WEST BANK OF THE DVINA RIVER · ·

· · ·

710

WAR OF THE NATIONS: ITALIAN ALPINE TROOPS. .

718

WAR OF THE NATIONS: THREE BRITISH GENERALS PROMINENT IN 1915—SIR DOUGLAS

HAIG, SIR CHARLES C. MONRO, SIR IAN HAMILTON .

722

WASHINGTON, BOOKER T..

730

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MAPS
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY .
CHINESE REPUBLIC . .
ENGLAND AND WALES .
NORWAY AND SWEDEN .
RUSSIA
AFRICA . . . . . .
BALKAN STATES
EUROPE .
WAR OF THE NATIONS-SKETCH MAPS OF FIELD OPERATIONS: ALLIES' LINE IN FRANCE

AND BELGIUM, JANUARY 1, 1915
THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN .
SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES, APRIL-MAY, 1915
BATTLE OF ARTOIS, MAY-JUNE, 1915 .
RUSSIAN BATTLE LINE, OCTOBER 1, 1915
FRENCH ADVANCE IN CHAMPAGNE . . .
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN AGAINST GORITZ . .
MESOPOTAMIA AND ITS STRATEGIC POSITION .

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NOTE: Cross references in SMALL CAPITALS indicate that the allusion is to a separate article; cross references in italics denote that the reference is to a subdivision of a main article. A cross reference in italics, standing alone in an article, carries the reference to another subdivision of the same article. The letters q. v. (quod vide = Latin "which see”) in parentheses following a word, indicate that the subject is treated under its own name elsewhere in the volume.

NOTE: In certain tables in this work it will be found, by addition, that the totals do not correspond to the sum of the items. This is the result of the omission or inclusion of certain small items which are not mentioned in the table, but are included in the totals. This is a usage frequently employed in the compilation of government statistics, from which sources the greater number of the tables in the YEAR BOOK are taken.

Τ Η Ε Ν Ε W
INTERNATIONAL

YEAR BOOK

B. C. PEACE TREATY. See ARGEN- ras, a prince or feudal chief, under an emperor

TINA, section 80 entitled; BRAZIL, whose power is absolute. Lij Yasu, born 1896,
History, Relations with Other South succeeded to the throne upon the death of

American Countries; CHILE, His- Menelek II, Dec. 11, 1913. He is the son of

tory, Chilean Relations with For- Menelek's second daughter, Waizaro Shoa Rögga, eign Countries; and INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND and Ras Mikael, the chief of the Wollo Gallas. ARBITRATION.

Menelek II (born 1844) had been emperor from ABYSSINIA. An independent empire of 1889 until his death; but, owing to his incaeastern Africa. The area is estimated approxi- pacity, the government had been administered mately at 432,000 square miles. The popula- since 1910 by his grandson under the advice and tion consists of Semitic Abyssinians, Gallas and direction of regents. Somalis. negroes, Falashas, and non-natives— According to a statement made in December in all between 9 and 11 millions. Addis Abeba, by Pierre Alype, a member of the Colonial Comthe capital, has about 60,000 permanent inhabi- mittee of the French Chamber of Deputies, the tants and a floating population of about 30,000; Emperor of Abyssinia had offered to furnish the Harar, 40,000; Aksum, 5000; Diré Dawa, 5000. Entente Allies with 200,000 troops whenever The Coptic Christian is the national church, necessary. and education is in the hands of Coptic teachers. ACADEMY, FRENCH (ACADÉMIE FRANThe ruler is a Coptic Christian, but large num- ÇAISE). The first to be founded (1635) and the bers of his subjects are Mohammedans and pa- most noted of the five academies constituting gans. Cattle and sheep raising and a primitive the Institute of France, the other four being: the sort of agriculture are the main industries. Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres, the The forests yield rubber and valuable timber. Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Fine Arts, Gold-mining tracts extend along the banks of and the Academy of Moral and Political Scithe Baro River, and coal has been found. ence. The members of the French Academy,

Imports through Jibuti in 1909, about £811, elected for life, and known as the "Forty Im566: in 1910, £950,147. Exports by way of Ji- mortals,” take rank as the leading Frenchmen buti average £335,000. Imports through Zeila, of letters of their time; and collectively they are the Sudan, and Italian colonies, about £192,795 the last resort in all disputed literary matters. in 1909; exports average about £40,000. The Fifteen hundred francs are given as a yearly hontotal trade by way of Jibuti in 1911 was valued orarium to each member, and more than 12,000 at 8,722,531 francs imports, and 11,765,844 francs are distributed annually in prizes. Two francs exports; by way of Eritrea, 2,320,558 lire members, Alfred Jean François Mézières (q.v.) imports, and 3,072,100 lire exports; by way of and Paul Hervieu (q.v.), died during 1915, leavGambela in the Sudan, £E27,962 imports, and ing seven vacancies, which were not filled. £E37,751 exports. A British source gives the ACADEMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS, total' trade through Jibuti in 1912, imports and AMERICAN. A body of distinguished men, limexports, at £588,924; imports through the Sudan ited to 50, and selected from the membership of £34,280 and exports, £38,720. The imports the National Institute of Arts and Letters. The

(chiefly from Great Britain, France, India, Italy, Institute was organized at a meeting of the and the United States) are gray shirting, other American Social Science Association in 1898. cotton goods, arms and ammunition, foodstuffs, It was patterned in a general way after the beverages, railway material, and petroleum. French Academy. From its foundation in 1904, The exports are hides and skins, coffee, wax, its president has been William Dean Howells. ivory, civet, etc. A railway extends from Jibuti The Academy and the National Institute hold to Diré Dawa, a distance of 309 kilometers, of joint annual meetings, the last of which took which 219 kilometers are in Abyssinian terri- place in Boston on Nov. 18 and 19, 1915. The tory. An extension from Diré Dawa to Mehesso, gold medal of the academy was awarded to Dr. 152 kilometers, was opened in 1913; the exten- C. W. Eliot, ex-president of Harvard University, sion from Mehesso to Addis Abeba, 328 kilome. Since the last meeting in 1914 eight new memters, is under construction. Telegraph lines con- bers have been elected. On Nov. 24, 1915, the nect the capital with Harar, with Jibuti, and membership included: William Dean Howells, with Massaua in Eritrea.

Henry James, Henry Adams, Theodore RooseThe government is essentially feudal in char- velt, John Singer Sargent, Daniel Chester acter, each large province being governed by a French, John Burroughs, James Ford Rhodes,

Y. B.-1

Horatio William Parker, William Milligan about him. It was he who suggested that a
Sloane, Robert Underwood Johnson, George monument of General Lee be erected in Wash-
Washington Cable, Andrew Dickson White, ington. Mr. Adams's brothers, Brooks and
Henry van Dyke, William Crary Brownell, Basil Henry, are both well known historians. He
Danneau Gildersleeve, Woodrow Wilson, Arthur was a member of many learned societies. His
Twining Hadley, Henry Cabot Lodge, Edwin published writings include: Chapters on Erie
Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, and Other Essays (written with his brother,
Thomas Hastings, Hamilton Wright Mabie, Henry Adams, 1871); Railroads, their Origin
Brander Matthews, Thomas Nelson Page, Elihu and Problems (1878); Notes on Railway Acci-
Vedder, George Edward Woodberry, Kenyon Cox, dents (1879); Massachusetts, Its Historians
George Whitefield Chadwick, Abbott Handerson and Its History (1893); Life of Charles Fran-
Thayer, Henry Mills Alden, George de Forest cis Adams (1900); Richard Henry Dana, a Bi-
Brush, William Rutherford Mead, Bliss Perry, ography (1891); Lee at Appomattox and Other
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, James Whitcomb Riley, Papers (1902); and Studies Military and Dip-
Nicholas Murray Butler, Paul Wayland Bart- lomatic. He received the degree of LL.D. from
lett, Owen Wister, Herbert Adams, Augustus Princeton University in 1895.
Thomas, Timothy Cole, Cass Gilbert, William ADAMSON, ALFRED. A rear admiral re-
Roscoe Thayer, Robert Grant, Frederick Mac- tired of the United States navy, died Feb. 23,
Monnies, Julian Alden Weir, William Gillette, 1915. He was born in Brownville, New York,
Paul Elmer More, George Lockhart Rives. in 1836. In 1861 he was appointed third as-

The first seven members were: William Dean sistant engineer, United States navy, and he Howells, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Edmund passed through successive steps of promotion Clarence Stedman, John La Farge, Samuel Lang- until he became chief engineer in 1879. He was horne Clemens, John Hay, and Edward Mac- retired on account of age in 1898. In 1906 he Dowell. William Milligan Sloane is chancellor was advanced to the rank of rear admiral reand treasurer, and Robert Underwood Johnson, tired in recognition of his Civil War services. 52 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York City, is perma. ADDAMS, JANE. See WOMAN MOVEMENT. nent secretary.

ADEN. A British possession in Southwestern ACCIDENT INSURANCE. See INSURANCE; Arabia, forming a part of the Bombay Presiand WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION.

dency of British India. It consists of a peninACCIDENTS. See RAILWAY ACCIDENTS; sula and a small strip of coast. Area, 75 SAFETY AT SEA; WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION; square miles, or with the Island of Perim 80 and COAL, Accidents.

square miles. Population in 1911, 46,165, as ACCUMULATOR. See ELECTRIC BATTER compared with 43,974 in 1901. A territory exIES.

tending inland from Aden, about 9000 square ADAMS, CHARLES FRANCIS. An American miles in area, is under British protection; eg. soldier, publicist, and historian, died March 20, timated population, about 100,000. The town 1915. He was born in Boston in 1835. His of Aden is strongly fortified and constitutes an father, Charles Francis Adams, was an American important coaling and transshipment station. minister to England, and was the son of John Except the small quantities of exports and imQuincy Adams, and the grandson of John ports to and from Arabia, the trade is almost Adams. The son, Charles Francis Adams, was wholly transit. In 1913-14 imports of prieducated in a private school, and at Harvard vate merchandise by sea were valued at £3,756,College, from which he graduated in 1856. He 964; by land, £170,213; imports of treasure, studied law and in 1858 was admitted to the £450,305. Private exports by sea in that year, Massachusetts bar. At the outbreak of the Civil £3,267,283; by land, £140,159; exports of treasWar he entered the service as a first lieutenant ure, £741,687. The leading imports by sea are in the first Massachusetts Cavalry. He was cotton goods, grain, hides and skins, and topromoted successively to be captain, lieutenant bacco. The exports by sea include these articolonel, and colonel of a regiment of colored cles together with coffee, gums, civet, and wax, cavalry, and was finally mustered out, and bre. In 1913–14 there were entered at the port of vetted as brigadier-general of volunteers. After Aden 1529 merchant vessels, of 3,925,044 tons. leaving the army, he entered the railway busi. Aden is subject to the government of Bombay ness, and gained a national reputation as an and is administered by a resident, who is also expert in traffic and administrative problems. commander of the troops in the garrison. AdHe was a member of the Board of Railroad ministratively attached to Aden, besides Perim, Commissioners of Massachusetts from 1869–79, are Socotra and the Kuria Muria islands. and from 1877-90 he was director of the Union In the course of the WAR OF THE NATIONS Pacific Railroad, and was president of the same (q.v.) an attack was made on Aden by the Turks. road from 1884-90. Mr. Adams was best known, Having occupied Lahej in July, the Turkish however, for his numerous important services troops advanced to Sheikh Othman in the near to the public. He was chairman of the Com- vicinity of Aden and menaced the fortress of mission which planned the Massachusetts Met- Aden. The British garrison successfully reropolitan Park System. From 1882-94 and pulsed the attack, according to the statement again from 1895–1907, he was overseer of Har- given out in December by the British India Ofvard University. He was one of the foremost fice, and only insignificant skirmishes occurred historical writers of the United States; had a thereafter. The operations around Aden were remarkable grasp of political and economic considered of great importance, inasmuch as problems; and was constantly in demand for the capture of the town by the Turks would imlectures on political, economical, and historical peril the main line of communication between subjects. Mr. Adams was bitterly opposed to England and her Asiatic colonies. the high tariff policy. Much of his historical ADICKES, FRANZ. German public official, work had to do with the Civil War. He died Feb. 4, 1915. He was born in 1846. For greatly admired General Lee, and wrote much many years he was mayor of Frankfort, and

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